American Journal of Molecular Biology, 2013, 3, 158-164 AJMB Published Online July 2013 (
Determination and inheritance of phytic acid as marker in
diverse genetic group of bread wheat*
Ijaz Ahmad1#, Fida Mohammad1, Aurang Zeb2, Ijaz Rasool Noorka3, Farhatullah1,
Sultan Akber Jadoon4
1Department of Plant Breeding and Genetics, The University of Agriculture, Peshawar, Pakistan
2Nuclear Institute for Food and Agriculture, Tarnab, Pakistan
3University College of Agriculture, University of Sargodha, Sargodha, Pakistan
4University of Swabi, Swabi, Pakistan,
Received 13 April 2013; revised 19 May 2013; accepted 20 June 2013
Copyright © 2013 Ijaz Ahmad et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Phytic acid (Myo-inositol 1,2,3,4,5,6 hexa-kisphophate)
is a storage form of phosphorus and can accumulate
to the levels as high as 35% in the wheat kernel.
Phytic acid acts as an inhibitor for macronutrients as
well as micronutrients and located in the bran of
wheat kernel. Due to its inhibitory role, a high con-
centration of phytic acid is undesirable as it hinders
the bio-availability of some essential nutrients such as
Fe, Mg, Ca, Zn and Cu, etc. In order to check the in-
heritance of phytic acid in wheat kernels, phytic acid
concentration was initially determined in kernels of
10 wheat genotypes to identify two contrasting genetic
groups for diallel analysis. Based on pre-screening
results of 10 wheat genotypes, five wheat genotypes (3
with high and 2 with low phytic acid concentration)
were crossed in all possible combinations during
2007-2008 by 5 × 5 full diallel mating fashion to in-
sight the inheritance of phytic acid and other yield
contributing traits. All 20 F1 hybrids and five paren-
tal genotypes revealed significant differences statisti-
cally, except plant maturity. The narrow and broad
sense heritability estimates varied widely among traits
for spike length (0.17, 0.62), spikelets spike1 (0.35,
0.74), tillers plant1 (0.05, 0.52) and phytic acid con-
centration (0.01, 0.86). The values for phytic acid con-
centration ranged from 0.56% to 3.43% among F1
hybrids and 1.06 to 3.67% for parental genotypes. F1
hybrids, Ps-2005 × Ghaznavi (0.56%), AUP-4006 ×
Ps-2004 (0.74%), Janbaz × Ps-2004 (0.89%) and Jan-
baz × Ps-2005 (1.01%), had the lowest concentration
of phytic acid. The study concluded that F1 hybrids
with low phytic acid concentration could yield desir-
able segregants.
Keywords: Phytic Acid; Diallel Analysis; Inheritance;
Heritability; Yield; Traits
Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) belongs to family Poaceae
(Gramineae) of monocots and is one of the most impor-
tant food crops covering two-thirds of the acreage of
cereals in the world and had represents a primary food in
Pakistan [1,2]. It ranks first in terms of production and
consumption in Pakistan and is one of the most abundant
sources of carbohydrates [3]. Wheat acts as an important
food crop for the people of Pakistan and serves as a real
backbone in the economy of the country. Although the
total production of wheat in Pakistan has increased many
folds over the past few decades and we have touched the
level of self sufficiency in the recent past, yet we need to
produce more wheat for export to earn foreign exchange.
For export, we need to concentrate on nutritional quality
of wheat grain in order to compete in the international
market. Phytic acid is believed to inhibit the bioavail-
ability of micronutrients having a structure as can be
predicted from its structural formula given below (see
Figure 1).
Phytic acid is a storage form of phosphorus and be-
lieved to affect adversely the bio-availability of some
essential micronutrients like Fe, Ca, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu, etc.
Therefore, we need to concentrate on improving the nu-
tritional value of our wheat grains. Phytic acid is always
present in vegetal matrices composed of fiber, minerals,
trace elements and other phyto-micronutrients [4]. Phytic-
*The authors are thankful to Higher Education Commission (HEC) o
Pakistan for financial support to conduct the study.
#Corresponding author.
I. Ahmad et al. / American Journal of Molecular Biology 3 (2013) 158-164 159
Figure 1. (1r,2R,3S,4s,5R,
hexayl hexakis [dihydrogen
(phosphate)] name (IUPAC)
International Union of Pure
and Applied Chemistry.
acid is an anti-nutrient that hinders the bio-availability of
nutrients and the lowest quantity desirable in wheat.
Phytic acid contents can be decreased by fortification
which changes oxidation state of Fe [5]. Phytic acid
concentration is negatively correlated with Ca, Mg, Zn,
Mn and Fe concentrations [6]. Phytic acid is the main
source of phosphorus in cereal grains and in bakery pro-
ducts [7]. Phosphorus mainly stores in the form of phytic
acid in seed and has a profound effect on the seed used as
a food commodity. Phytic acid is a potent inhibitor of
mineral and trace element absorption occurs in all cereal
grains and legume seeds. Reducing phytic acid content
by soaking and germination was studied in a wide range
of grains and seeds. Germination increased phytase ac-
tivity 3 to 5-fold in some cereal grains and legume seeds,
while the influence on phytic acid content was insignifi-
cant in most materials tested. Highly apparent phytase
activity was found in untreated whole grain rye, wheat,
triticale, buckwheat, and barley [8]. Identification of
wheat with relatively low phytic acid would be a step
towards development of wheat cultivars with low phytic
acid. Keeping in view the importance of phytic acid as a
potent inhibitor for the bioavailability of micronutrients
viz. Fe, Ca, Mn, Zn, Mg, Cu, etc., a study was conducted.
This study was initiated by crossing two contrasting
groups of wheat genotypes (2 with low and 3 with high
phytic acid concentrations), selected on the basis of 10
wheat genotypes preliminary screening for phytic acid
concentration in bread wheat. Therefore, it is the need of
hour to ensure the nutritional quality of bread wheat [9].
Five wheat genotypes were crossed in 5 × 5 full diallel
with the objective of developing low phytic acid segre-
gants of wheat, decreasing the inhibitory effect of phytic
acid and enhancing the bioavailability of micronutrients
and macronutrients to humans. The specific objectives of
the present project were to determine the phytic acid pro-
file and other agronomic traits of different bread wheat
genotypes and to estimate of their heritability.
The experiment was conducted in the department of
plant breeding and genetics, The University of Agricul-
ture Peshawar, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Pakistan during the
year 2007-09. Ten wheat genotypes, Uqab, Tatara, AUP-
5006, Ghaznavi, Saleem-2000, Pirsabak-2004, Fakhre
Sarhad, Pirsabak-2005, Janbaz and AUP-4006 were scre-
ened for phytic acid concentration in 2007 at the Nuclear
Institute for Food and Agriculture (NIFA) Peshawar ac-
cording to [10]. Based on the results of preliminary study
of ten bread wheat genotypes, two contrasting groups
(one group with high phytic acid genotypes i.e. Pirsa-
bak-2005 (2.89%), Janbaz (3.67%) and AUP-4006 (2.83%)
and the other group with low phytic acid genotypes i.e.
Pirsabak-2004 (1.77%) and Ghaznavi (1.06%) were iden-
tified. These five genotypes were crossed in all possible
combinations in 2007 using 5 × 5 full diallel mating de-
Fifteen spikes of each genotype was manually emas-
culated and bagged in order to prevent contamination by
foreign pollens. After two days, emasculated female
spikes were pollinated by applying fresh pollen from the
desirable male spike. By this method 20 F1 hybrids (both
direct and reciprocal) were made to get enough seed for
further planting experiment in 2008-2009. All F1 hybrids
along with parental genotypes were planted with a dis-
tance of plant to plant and row to row 25 cm investigate
phytic acid and other agronomic traits. The experiment
was laid down in randomized complete block design
with three replicates. Each replication was assigned with
20 F1s and 5 parental genotypes. Each entry consisted of
one row with a row length of 3.75 m. Plant to plant and
row to space of 25 cm was maintained. Urea and DAP
fertilizers were applied at 120 and 60 kg ha1, respec-
tively, to crop for maintaining normal nutrients status of
the soil. Half dose of urea and full dose of DAP were
applied at the time of seed bed preparation while re-
maining half dose of urea was applied at the time of first
irrigation. Standard practices including hoeing, weeding,
irrigation etc were carried out for the experiment to re-
duce experimental error. Data were recorded on five
randomly selected plants from each population for spike
length, total tillers plant1, days to maturity, spikelets
spike1, and phytic acid. The grain samples were prop-
erly threshed and drawn from each entry of the study of
phytic acid determination at Nuclear Institute of Food
and Agriculture (NIFA) Peshawar, human nutrition lab.
The sensitive method of [10] was adopted for the deter-
mination of phytic acid in the whole wheat flour samples.
2.1. Determination of Phytic Acid
The sample was extracted with 0.2 N HCl and heated
with an acidic iron-III solution of known iron content.
The decrease in the iron content was the measure of free
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
I. Ahmad et al. / American Journal of Molecular Biology 3 (2013) 158-164
phytic acid in supernatant [10]. The reagents are as follows.
2.1.1. Phytic Acid Reference Solution
Sodium salt of phytic acid (C6H6O24P6Na12) was used for
reference. Stock solution was prepared by dissolving
0.15 g sodium phytate in 100 ml distilled water. The ref-
erence solution was prepared by diluting the stock solu-
tion with HCl in a range from 3 to 30 micro-grams (ug
ml1) phytic acid phosphorus.
2.1.2. Ferric Solution
Ammonium Iron-III Sulphate. 12H2O. Ferric solution
was prepared by dissolving 0.2 g of Ammonium Iron-III
sulphate. 12H2O in 100 ml of 2 N HCl and the volume
was made up to 1000 ml with distilled water.
2.1.3. 2,2-Bipyridine Solution
Ten grams of 2,2-bipyridine and 10 ml of Thioglycolic
acid was dissolved in distilled water and the volume was
made upto 1000 ml.
2.1.4. Protocol
Grain sample (10 g) of each genotype was finely grinded
by grinder and a fine grade of dried flour was obtained.
The defatted and finely ground wheat flour sample (0.06
g) was weighed and added in dry and clean screw cap
test tube (15 ml). Sample was extracted with 10 ml of 0.1
N HCl for 1 hour shaking in shaker. From this extract 0.5
ml in duplicate was taken into dry and clean screw cap
test tubes. A quantity of 1 ml Ferric solution (concentra-
tion = 23 μg ml1 or 23 ppm solution) was added to these
test tubes and closed by screw caps. These tubes were
heated (105˚C) in boiling water bath for 30 minutes and
were allowed to cool at room temperature. Reaction
mixture was provided by 2 ml of 2,2-biphyridine solution
(concentration = 1% 2,2 bipyridine solution) and mixed
thoroughly by shaking. Reaction mixture was transferred
to cuvet of spectrophotometer (UV-1800, Made in Japan)
and optical density (OD 510 nm) was recorded. The ab-
sorbance was measured within 4 minutes according to
the method delineated by [10].
2.2. Statistical Analysis
2.2.1. Analysis of Variance
For analysis of variance data were subjected to Stateview
software version 5, developed by SAS Institute Inc. USA
which is based on the statistical model of [11].
2.2.2. Diallel Analysis
Diallel analysis for 5 × 5 diallel cross was conducted by
using Diallel-98 soft ware developed by Tokyo Univer-
sity of Japan. Soft ware yielded Griffing, s Anova, Esti-
mates of genetic parameters.
Data of phytic acid and important yield traits for five
parental genotypes and all possible crosses (20 F1) were
subjected to biometrical analysis for getting genetic in-
formation about various aspects. The null hypothesis for
equality of means was tested through F-distribution of
[11] in analysis of variance. In case of rejection of null
hypothesis further evaluation of means and diallel analy-
sis [12] was studied. The results of analysis of variance
and diallel analysis are presented and discussed.
3.1. Mean Performance of F1 and Parental
Analysis of variance revealed that genotypes had sig-
nificant differences for all traits (Table 1). Means of the
genotypes (parents + crosses) for the traits studied are
presented (Table 2). Data regarding spike length re-
vealed that parental genotype Janbaz appeared with long
spike followed by Ghaznavi while Ps-2005 and Ps-2004
yielded short spikes. Long spikes were produced by cross
Ghaznavi × Janbaz while short spikes by Ps-2005 ×
AUP-4006 among the F1 hybrids. Some F1 crosses like
AUP-4006 × Ps-2004, Ps-2004 × Ps-2005, AUP-4006 ×
Janbaz and Janbaz × Ps-2004 were at par for the said trait.
Data concerning total tillers plant1 showed that among
parental genotypes Ps-2004 produced more total tillers
plant1 while less total tillers plant1 was recorded for
parental genotype AUP-4006. Ghaznavi × Janbaz ap-
peared with maximum total tillers plant μ1 while cross
Ps-2005 × Janbaz with minimum total tillers plant1 among
the F1 crosses. Among F1 crosses Ps-2004 × Ghaznavi,
AUP-4006 × Ps-2005, Janbaz × Ps-2004, Ghaznavi ×
Ps-2005 and Ghaznavi × Ps-2004 were at par for total
tillers plant1. Data regarding plant maturity is presented
in Table 2: which indicated that among the parental
genotype, AUP-4006 took maximum number of days for
maturity while Ps-2005 minimum number of days for the
said trait. Among the F1 hybrids, AUP-4006 × Ps-2004
and Ps-2005 × Janbaz showed late maturity by taking
more number of days for maturity whereas Ps-2004 ×
Ghaznavi showed early maturity by taking less number
Table 1. Mean squares for phytic acid and other agronomic
traits in bread wheat.
Genotypes Replications
Traits df MS Rep df MS
Total tillers plant124 7.43** 2 0.36 NS
Spike length 24 3.72** 2 15.34 NS
Days to maturity24 10.99** 2 3.41 NS
Spikelets spike1 24 6.41** 2 2.09*
Phytic acid 24 1.651** 2 0.32NS
*,**Indicates significance at 0.05 and 0.01, respectively; NS shows non-
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I. Ahmad et al. / American Journal of Molecular Biology 3 (2013) 158-164 161
Table 2. Means of Parents and F1s for spike length, (SL), total
tillers plant1 (TTP-1) days to maturity (DM), spikelets spike1
(SSP-1) and phytic acid in 5 × 5 diallel cross of bread wheat.
S.No Genotypes DMTTP1 SL (cm) SSP1PA%
1 AUP-4006 170.677.87 9.00 23.673.42
2 Janbaz 170.6611.57 11.67 24.671.61
3 Ghaznavi 169.6610.06 11.13 24.671.25
4 Ps-2004 169.0011.92 9.00 24.001.66
5 Ps-2005 167.3310.80 9.00 23.002.48
6 AUP-4006 × Ps-2004 170.338.33 12.40 22.330.74
7 Ps-2004 × AUP-4006 167.009.00 11.30 22.002.60
8 Ps-2004 × Ghaznavi 164.0011.73 11.13 23.332.48
9 Ps-2004 × Ps-2005 167.009.67 12.60 22.001.46
10 AUP-4006 × Janbaz 165.009.13 12.20 26.332.83
11 AUP-4006 × Ghaznavi 167.007.93 11.80 25.002.81
12 AUP-4006 × Ps-2005 170.0011.67 11.73 26.002.55
13 Janbaz × AUP-4006 170.0010.57 11.00 23.002.65
14 Janbaz × Ghaznavi 164.6610.40 11.33 26.001.63
15 Janbaz × Ps-2004 165.6611.67 12.60 25.330.89
16 Janbaz × Ps-2005 170.668.20 11.60 26.331.01
17 Ghaznavi × AUP-4006 170.339.06 11.00 25.003.43
18 Ghaznavi × Janbaz 165.6613.60 13.40 25.001.52
19 Ghaznavi × Ps-2005 166.3311.13 11.93 24.002.81
20 Ghaznavi × Ps-2004 166.0011.93 10.73 25.002.32
21 Ps-2004 × Janbaz 167.668.77 12.27 23.002.53
22 Ps-2005 × AUP-4006 167.3310.76 10.53 24.002.83
23 Ps-2005 × Janbaz 171.007.66 11.56 23.662.77
24 Ps-2005 × Ghaznavi 170.0010.60 11.80 23.330.56
25 Ps-2005 × Ps-2004 168.0011.37 10.47 21.661.58
of days for completing life span. Main purpose in many
plant breeding programs is to develop wheat cultivars
with optimum days to maturity which can reduce fertil-
izer and irrigation application cost [13]. Data pertaining
to spikelets spike1 showed highly significant differences.
Maximum spikelets sipke1 was observed for parental
genotypes (Table 2), Janbaz and Ghaznavi whereas less
spikelets spike1 was recorded for parental genotype
Ps-2005. Among the F1 progenies two crosses i.e. AUP-
4006 × Janbaz and Janbaz × Ps-2005 yielded maximum
spikelets spike1 whereas minimum spikelets spike1 was
shown by cross Ps-2005 × Ps-2004. Some F1 crosses like
AUP-4006 × Ghaznavi, Janbaz × Ps-2004, Ghaznavi ×
AUP-4006, Ghaznavi × Janbaz and Ghaznavi × Ps-2004
were at par for spikelets spike1. Phytic acid concentra-
tion was determined by the sensitive method of [10].
Analysis of variance showed highly significant differ-
ences (Table 1). Maximum phytic acid concentration
was found in AUP-4006 while minimum in Ghaznavi
among the parental genotype (Table 2). F1 hybrids showed
a wider range for phytic acid. Highest phytic acid con-
centration was observed in cross combination Ghaznavi
× AUP-4006, followed by AUP-4006 × Janbaz whereas
lower concentration was recorded for Ps-2005 × Ghaz-
navi and AUP-4006 × Ps-2004 among the F1 hybrids.
Many genotypes among the F1 hybrids were at par for
phytic acid concentration.
3.2. Diallel Analysis
Data collected for phytic acid and all agronomic traits
were subjected to analysis of variance following [11],
before conducting diallel analysis by using State view
software version 5, developed by SAS Institute Inc. USA.
Significant genotypic differences were found for all the
traits except plant maturity which provided justification
for diallel analysis. Diallel analysis (5 × 5 diallel analysis)
was carried using a software Dial-98. Genetic parameters
were also calculated by the same software.
3.2.1. Spike Length
Complete analysis of variance for 5 × 5 diallel cross was
carried out for spike length which indicated (Table 3)
that item a, which was the measure of additive gene ef-
fect appeared with significant differences and thus con-
sidered as a major contributing factor towards the total
variation due to additive gene effect. Genetic component
b which was used for the measurement of overall domi-
nance also yielded significant variation, showed the im-
portant role of dominance. Highly significant differences
in the value of b1 indicated the presence of directional
genes for spike length. Asymmetrical genes distribution
among the parents was supported by the non-significant
value of b
2. Specific gene effect was lacking due to
non-significant value of b3. The values of c (maternal
effect) and reciprocal effect (d) were non-significant.
Regression analysis and t2 tests of adequacy showed
that the data was adequate for diallel analysis for the trait
of spike length (Table 4). For spike length, genetic
component, H2, F, h2 and E revealed significant differ-
Table 3. Mean squares and degree of freedom for the analysis
of variance of 5 × 5 diallel for spike length, tillers plant1,
spikelets spike1 and phytic acid.
Spike lengthTotal tillers
spike1 Phytic acid
dfMs dfMs df Ms df Ms
a4 5.33*44.88
NS 4 11.21** 4 0.39NS
** 10 8.30** 10 5.68** 10 2.92**
b11 34.54** 15.94
NS 1 1.47NS 1 3.85**
NS 49.01
* 4 6.25** 4 3.39**
b3 51.92
NS 58.20
* 5 6.06** 5 2.36**
c4 2.68NS 48.61
* 4 6.38** 4 4.29**
d61.12NS 63.87
NS 6 4.44** 6 1.65**
*P: 0.05; **P: 0.01; a = additive gene effect, b = dominance gene effect, b1 =
directional dominance deviation, b2 = genes distribution among parents, b3 =
effect of specific gene, c = maternal effect, d = reciprocal effect.
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I. Ahmad et al. / American Journal of Molecular Biology 3 (2013) 158-164
Table 4. Scaling tests of additive–dominance model for phytic
acid and other agronomic traits in bread wheat for 5 × 5 diallel
Regression analysis
(t value of b)
Parameters t2
B = 0 B = 1
Spike length 0.002NS 3.60* 0.02NS Model was adequate
Total tillers
plant1 0.012NS 3.59* 0.71NS Model was adequate
Spikelets spike1 0.052NS 1.64NS 1.54NS Model was partially
Phytic acid 0.065NS 0.98* 1.64NS Model was adequate
ences whereas additive effect and dominance effect were
non-significant (Table 5). Additive effect (D) was little
bit smaller than H1 and H2 which showed the crucial role
of additive genes of partial nature. Genetic component F
was positive and significant for spike length and indi-
cated the presence of more dominant genes. Positive and
significant value of h2 accounted for the presence of
overall dominance effect due to heterozygous loci af-
fecting the expression of spike length. Genetic item E
was significant and showed a vital role of the environ-
ment in controlling spike length. Average degree of
dominance (H1/D)1/2 was less than unity and supported
partial dominance with additive gene effect for spike
length. Estimated values for narrow sense and broad
sense heritability were 0.17 and 0.62, respectively, for
spike length (Table 5). These results are in line with
those of [14,15] who reported recessive genes for spike
length. [16] reported additive gene action for spike leng-
th. [17] on the other hand reported contradictory findings
that spike length was under the control of over dominan-
ce type of gene action.
3.2.2. Total Tillers Plant1
Analysis of variance for 5 × 5 diallel cross for total tillers
plant1 revealed (Table 3) non-significant differences for
genetic constituent a, which accounted for the measure-
ment of additive gene effect. Genetic component b, which
was considered as a direct measure of overall dominance
was highly significant and thus the said dominance effect
was preponderant for total tillers plant1. Genetic com-
ponent b1 appeared with non-significant value which
showed the presence of directional genes for the con-
cerned trait among parents. Highly significant value of
genetic component b2 was responsible for the prepon-
derance distribution of asymmetrical genes among par-
ents whereas specific gene effect (b3) yielded significant
value for total tillers plant1. Maternal effect (c) showed
significant differences. Reciprocal effect (d) appeared
with significant. When data was subjected to scaling tests
for adequacy for the trait it was found adequate for total
tillers plant1 (Table 4). Estimates of genetic components
of variations D, F, H1, H2, h2 and E are presented in
Table 5. Estimates of genetic components of variation for,
spike length, tillers plant1, spikelets spike1 and phytic acid.
Components Phytic
Total tillers
D 0.89*±0.26 1.26NS ±1.00 1.43NS ±0.98 0.33NS ±1.28
H1 2.43*±0.46 2.40NS ±1.36 2.90 * ±1.26 3.73NS ±2.24
H2 1.80*±0.332.41* ±1.20 1.09NS ±1.29 1.30 NS±2.12
F 1.50*±0.39 0.79* ±1.15 3.84* ±1.74 4.89NS ±3.06
h2 0.777*±0.40 7. 8* ±3.09 0.05NS ±0.72 0.72 NS±1.89
E 0.07*±0.01 0.49* ±0.10 0.45* ±0.09 0.93** ±0.18
(H1/D)1/2 1.65 1.37 1.69 3.80
(4DH1)1/2 + F/
(4DH1)1/2 F0.75 0.25 0.18 0.19
Heritability (ns)0.01 0.61 0.61 0.75
Heritability (bs)0.86 0.17 0.35 0.05
* = value is significant when it exceeds 1.96 after dividing by its standard
Table 5. Non-significant differences were found for D.
Both H1, H2 genetic components showed non-significant
differences; however, their values were greater than D
which showed that the total tillers plant1 was under the
control of dominant genes. Genetic component F was
positive and non-significant which indicated the occur-
rence of dominant genes and it was also confirmed by the
ratio of dominant to recessive genes (0.75) which was less
than unity. Average degree of dominance (H1/D)1/2 was
greater than unity which supported over dominance type
of gene action for the said trait. Environmental compo-
nent was significant which played greater role in the ex-
pression of total tillers plant1. Estimated values of nar-
row sense heritability were 0.05 and broad sense herita-
bility 0.52, respectively for total tillers plant1 (Table 5).
Our results are supported by [18,19] who reported domi-
nance type of gene effect for total tillers plant1.
3.2.3. Spikelets Spike1
Formal diallel analysis for spikelets spike1 was con-
ducted by using Dial-98 software which revealed sig-
nificant differences for item a, which was the measure of
additive gene effect and accounted for high proportion of
the total variation (Table 3). Genetic component b which
was used for the direct measurement of overall domi-
nance was also highly significant, expressing the funda-
mental contribution for dominance. Non-significant value
of b1 genetic component showed the lack of directional
genes for spikelets spike1. Highly significant value of
component b2 was held accountable for the allocation of
asymmetrical genes among parents whereas significant
value of b3 accounted for the existence of specific gene
effect. The value of c (maternal effect) was highly sig-
nificant. Reciprocal effect (d) was also significant. Data
of spikelets spike1 was found partially adequate after sub-
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I. Ahmad et al. / American Journal of Molecular Biology 3 (2013) 158-164 163
jecting to adequacy tests of additive dominance model
(Table 3). Estimates of genetic components of variations
(Table 5) for spikelets spike1 in F1 hybrids revealed
non-significant value for D component which showed
that spikelets spike1 was not controlled by additive gene
effect. Significant value of H1 was responsible for domi-
nance due to dominant genes. Positive and significant
value of genetic component F indicated presence of do-
minant genes for the said trait. The average degree of
dominance (H1/D)1/2 value was 1.69 indicating over do-
minance type of gene action for spikelets spike1. Herita-
bility estimates in narrow sense were 0.35 and that of
broad sense were 0.74 and for spikelets spike1 (Table 5).
These results are in line with [17,20], who had reported
over dominance type of gene action for spikelets spike1.
[21] had reported additive type of gene action for spi-
kelets spike1.
3.3. Phytic Acid
Diallel analysis for 5 × 5 diallel cross was carried out by
using Dial-98 statistical package for phytic acid which
revealed (Table 3) non-significant variation for genetic
component a which is the of measure of additive gene
effect. Genetic component b, for over all dominance was
highly significant, indicating the importance of domi-
nance Genetic component b1 accounted for directional
genes distribution among parent was also found signifi-
cant for the said trait. Distribution of asymmetrical genes
(b2) among parents and existence of specific gene effect
(b3) for phytic acid were also recorded with significant
differences. Maternal effect (c) and reciprocal effect (d)
score was also significant for phytic acid. Additive do-
minance model was adequate for phytic acid due to non-
significant values of t2 test and regression analysis (Table
4). Estimation for genetic components of variations, D,
H1, H2, F, h2 and E revealed significant differences (Ta-
ble 5). Variance of additive gene effect was significant,
but its value was less than both H1 and H2 indicating a
lesser role of additive genes than dominance for phytic
acid. Value of H1 was a little bit greater than H2 indicat-
ing more contribution of dominant genes. Value of F
genetic item was significant and positive showing the
existence of dominant genes for controlling phytic acid.
Mean degree of dominance (H1/D)1/2 was equal to 1.65
which was clear confirmation that phytic acid concentra-
tion in wheat kernels was under the control of over
dominant type of gene action. Significant score of h2
indicated existence of overall dominance effect due to
heterozygous loci supporting that phytic acid was under
the control of dominant genes. Narrow sense 0.01 and
broad sense 0.86 heritability estimates were found for
phytic acid (Table 5). These results are in close agree-
ment with the findings of [22] who had reported varia-
tion in phytic acid concentrations levels in different cul-
tivars of bread wheat and same cultivar of bread wheat at
different locations. [23] also depicted similar findings
and suggested that the comprehensive evaluation of
wheat germplasm for phytic acid content should be con-
ducted in multi-environments. It is therefore suggested
that phytic acid contents in wheat should be controlled as
much influenced by environments to save an increasing
number of breast cancer patients. The United States Food
and Drug Administration have listed phytic acid among
the 187 fake cancer “cures” consumers should avoid [24,
It was concluded from the present study that some of the
F1 hybrids like Ps-2005 × Ghaznavi (0.56%), AUP-4006
× Ps-2004 (0.74%), Janbaz × Ps-2004 (0.89%) and
Janbaz × Ps-2005 (1.01%), had the lowest concentration
of phytic acid. This research confirms that F1 hybrids
with low phytic acid concentration could yield desirable
segr egants.
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