Vol.4, No.5B, 122-129 (2013) Agricultural Sciences
Application of resistant starch in bread: processing,
proximate composition and sensory quality of
functional bread products from wheat flour and
African locust bean (Parkia biglobosa) flour
Abdoulaye Sankhon1,2, Issoufou Amadou1, Wei-Rong Yao1*
1State Key Laboratory of School of Food Science and Technology/School of Food Science and Technology, Jiangnan University,
1800 Lihu, Wuxi 214122, Jiangsu Province, China; abdoulaye.sankhon@yahoo.fr, issoufsara@gmail.com
2Faculte des Sciences de la Nature, Departement de Chimie, Universite Julius Nyerere de Kankan, Guinea;
*Corresponding Author: yaoweirongcn@jiangnan.edu.cn
Received 2013
Application of resistant starch prepared from
parkia flour was produced by replacement of
wheat flour with 0, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 30% and
40% Parkia flour. Processing, proximate com-
position, digestibility of resistant starch in bread
and sensory quality were evaluated. Resistant
starch was significantly (p < 0.05) increased as
Parkia flour level increase in all breads. The
resistant starch prepared from Parkia flour was
47.21%. However, wheat bread was 1.47% and
Parkia bread 18.52% to 22.28% baked of (200℃
at 45 min) with 2.16% wheat bread an d 31.7 4% to
35.05% Parkia bread baked of (130 at 90 min).
Supplementation of wheat flour with Parkia flour
0 - 40% increased the crude protein content
significantly (p < 0.05) from (7.89% - 15.68%),
ash from (0.91% - 2.54%) and crude fiber (1.41% -
4.97%). Color of the bread treatments was
remarkably affected by addition of different
levels of Parkia flour. Therefore, Parkia flour
could be added to wheat flour up to 15% without
any observed detrimental effect on bread
sensory properties. Sensory evaluation results
indicated that bread with 5% to15% Parkia flour
w er e ra t ed th e mo s t acceptable and there w as no
significant difference in terms of acceptability
compared to the control. This could be used to
improve the nutritional quality of br ead espe cially
in developing countries were malnutrition is
Keyw ords: Parkia Flour; Resi stant Starch; Bread,
Proximate Composition; Sensory Evaluation
Derivatization of nutrients and formation of cross link-
ages during food processing, make the food inaccessible
to digestion or/and metabolism. Recently, the research on
starch has been focused on its peculiar form, which is
indigestible in vitro and in vivo [1]. Resistant starch (RS)
includes all starch and starch degradation products that
resist small intestinal digestion and enter the large bowel
in normal humans. RS in colon appears to play an im-
portant role in protection from colon cancer, diverticulitis
and hemorrhoids through production of short chain fatty
acids [2]. The other beneficial physiological effects of
RS include decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides
level, increased fecal bulk [3] and prebiotic effects [4].
During processing of starchy foods, the starch mole-
cules undergo several physical modifications depending
upon the type of starch and severity of the conditions
applied [5, 6] leading to the formation of RS. Attempts to
modify RS intake in a mixed diet should thus focus on
optimizing the RS content of bread. According to in vitro
determinations, common flour based breads contain lim-
ited quantities of RS, i.e. below 2% (starch basis) [7,8].
Similarly, the amount of RS (total starch basis) from
about 2% to 10% in the corresponding long-time/low-
temperature baked products [9]. Baljeet [10] also ob-
served that the RS content of bread baked for 45 min was
about 49% higher than that of bread baked for 15 min.
The product is basically made of hard wheat flour, yeast,
fat, sugar, salt and water [11]. It is a cereal product that is
naturally low in protein and nutritionally not a balanced
diet because it is low in lysine, an essential amino acid
[12]. Fortification of wheat flour with high protein mate-
rials from plant sources to increase protein and improve
the essential amino acid balance of the resultant braved
product such as bread has been recognized [12,13]. Al-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/as/
A. Sankhon et al. / Agricultural Sciences 4 (2013) 122-129 123
though qualitative determination of the chemical and
nutritional composition of P. biglobosa seeds revealed
that it is rich in starch, lipids, protein, carbohydrates,
soluble sugars, and ascorbic acid [14].
The demand for the application of resistant starch as a
functional ingredient is growing, thus, the analysis of its
structural, thermal and digestibility properties have great
importance. Moreover, the understanding of the relation-
ship between structural characteristics and functional as
well as nutritional properties of resistant starches can help
food producers in optimizing industrial applications. Fur-
thermore, no study has been yet to be conducted to applic-
ation of resistant starch in bread: processing, proximate
composition and sensory quality of functional bread pro-
ducts from wheat flour and Africa locust bean (P. biglobosa)
flour. The objectives of this study therefore, were to
formulate and develop functional breads from wheat flours
composited with different levels Parkia flour and to
evaluate the resistant starch content, nutritional, sensory
quality and consumer overall acceptability.
Materials. Africa locust bean (P. biglobosa) seeds were
purchased from Madinah local market (Conakry, Guinea)
in April 2012. The sample was shipped down to Wuxi,
China through TNT® mailing company (No. GD92358-
0841WW). Wheat flour and ingredients as salt (NaCl),
sugar, yeast, and shortening butter were purchased from
supermarket (Wuxi, China). Water was prepared in a
sterilization equipment chamber pot (YXQ-LS-SII shang-
hai Boxun, industry and trade Co. Ltd., medical equip-
ment factory). Porcine (pancreatic α-amylase, amyloglu-
cosidase) were purchased from Sigma Aldrich Co. Ltd
(Shanghai, China) and glucose oxidase-peroxidase assay
kit (cat. No. K-GLUC) was purchase from magazine in-
ternational Ltd. (Bray, Ireland). All other reagents used
were of analytical grade.
Processing Techniques of Preparation Resistant
Starch from Parkia Seeds. First visible dirt and con-
taminants were removed parkia seeds which were then
steeped in distilled water at room temperature 28℃ for
3 h removed yellow-colored in seeds. Second soaking at
room temperature 28℃ for 12 h in distilled water (pH =
5.3), citric acid solution (0.1% pH = 2.6) and sodium
bicarbonate solution (0.07%, pH = 8.4) and then cooking
temperature (90) for 3 h in a sterilization equipment
chamber pot (YXQ-LS-SII shanghai equipment Boxun,
industry and trade CO, Ltd, medical equipment factory).
The soaking liquid was drained and the seeds were im-
mersed in water and left overnight at ambient temperature.
Finally, the seeds were thoroughly washed, manually de-
hulled, and the cotyledon was washed repeatedly until
the wash pH was neutral and then placed in a refrigerator
4℃ for 72 h. The seeds were dried in oven at 60℃ for
24 h, then dry milled to a fine powder, ground to pass
through a 60 mesh sieve and flour was kept into poly-
ethylene bags before being stored in desiccators until
further analysis.
Production of Wheat Flour and Parka Flour Bread.
The preparation of the bread involves the replacement of
part of the wheat flour with 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%,
30% and 40% Parkia flour. The 0% Parkia flour served
as control. For the preparation of bread, all the ingredients
(wheat flour, yeast, sugar, shortening and salt) were
purchased from local market (Wuxi, China). The
substitution of 30% wheat flour with Parkia flour was
prepared firstly by making the water-sugar suspension.
Then, flour, yeast and salt were mixed with the sugar
solution in a mixing bowl and followed with addition of
shortening. The dough was optimally mixed using the
mixer SINMAG, model: 50, Wuxi Xinmai machinery
CO. Ltd ( Wuxi, China) for about 10 to 15 min until the
dough became soft and elastic. After mixing, 130 g of
the samples was weighed individually and molded into a
shape manually, then the fermentation of 30 min at 32 -
35℃. The molded dough was placed on a greased tray
for further proofing in a proofer (SINMAG, model: 325,
Wuxi xinmai machinery CO. Ltd) at 30℃. After 30 min,
the dough was placed on a tray and baking (BOD, model:
102, Shanghai Zaomiao Electric plant) for (45 min, 200
and 90 min, 130℃). The formation and baking
conditions are given in (Table 1). The amount of water
needed to make the dough was variable. The baking
breads were cooled before further testing. The baking
test was replicated at least twice.
Composition Analysis. The proximate composition
(moisture, crude protein, total fat, ash and crude fiber) of
Table 1. Baking formulation* and conditions of wheat flour- -
Parkia flour bread.
Ingredients [%] Amount ingredients
Wheat flour [* %] 100
Dry yeast [%] 2
Salt [%] 1.5
Sugar [%] 8
Shortening butter [%] 4
Water (sterilized) [%] 59 - 60
Fermentation 1½ hours at 32 - 35
Proofing 1½ hours at 32 - 35
Baking 200at 45 min and 130 at 90 min
*The wheat flour was replaced by 0, 5, 10,15,20,30 and 40% Parkia flour
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A. Sankhon et al. / Agricultural Sciences 4 (2013) 122-129
the wheat flour, Parkia powder, the blends and bread were
determined by standard method of [15]. The carbohydrate
was obtained by difference (100- moisture, crude protein,
total fat, ash and total fiber) with the caloric values of crude
protein, total fat and carbohydrate by their physiological
fuel values of 4, 9 and 4 respectively and taking the sum
of the products. All the experiment was carried out in
Evaluation of the Physical Properties of Bread
Samples. Weight and volume were measured 2 h after
removal of bread loaves from the oven. Loaf volume was
determined by the rapeseed displacement method and
specific volume was calculated by dividing volume by
loaf weight (cm3/g). At least triplicate measurements
were taken.
Texture Profile Analysis. Texture profile analysis was
performed using a texture analyzer Model TA-XT2i,
Stable Micro systems Ltd, (Godalming, UK) with a measure
force in compression test selected. The instruments
included P1.51 1.5 inches DIA aluminum cylinder probe
and grain gage sensitive plat. These instruments were
connected to the Texture Expert computer program to
analyze the data. The parameters determined were hard-
ness, cohesiveness, elasticity, chewiness, adhesiveness
and gumminess.
Color Value Measurement. Each loaf of bread was
cut into slices, each 2.5 cm in thickness. The Lightness
(L), (Redness (a), and (Yellowness (b) values of the crust
and the crumb were measured utilizing color flex
spectrocolorimeter Minolta CM-2600D, Minolta camera
Co. Ltd (Osaka, Japan).
Determination of Resistant Starch (RS). The RS was
determined using enzymatic method of [5] with some
modifications as follow: The samples were deproteinized
with pepsin (0.2 ml, 1 g pepsin/10 ml of KCl-HCl buffer,
pH 1.5) and the starch was hydrolyzed with pancreatic
alpha amylase (1 ml, 40 mg/ml of Tris maleate buffer, 37
for 16 h). The pellet (containing RS) obtained after
centrifugation (15 min, 3000 x g) was washed with
distilled water and dispersed with 4M KOH followed by
stirring for 30 min at room temperature. The contents
(containing alkali solublized starch equivalent to amount
of RS) were treated with 80 µl of amyloglucosidase (5
mg/ml of acetate buffer pH 4.75) and kept in a water bath
at 60℃for 45 min with constant shaking. The contents
were centrifuged (15 min, 3000 x g) and supernatant
(containing glucose obtained from hydrolysis of alkali
solublized RS) collected in a 500 ml volumetric flask.
The amount of glucose was determined using glucose
oxidase-peroxidase reagent and content of RS was
Sensory Evaluation. The sensory panel consisted of
students of the school of science and technology, Jiang-
nan University, Wuxi, China were used to evaluate
sensory characteristics of the 7 formulated resistant
starch content P. biglobosa seeds samples. The 5 point
hedonic scale was used to evaluate appearance, taste,
texture, aroma and overall acceptability, where one (1)
was “dislike extremely”, two (2) was “dislike”, three (3)
was “neither like nor dislike”, four (4) was “ like” and
five (5) was “like extremely”.
Statistical Analysis. The test results were processed
using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA). Differences
at p < 0.05 were considered to be significant. SAS
software (version 8.1) was used for the analysis.
Proceccing of Resistant Starch from Parkia Seeds.
Process conditions (soaking at room temperature for 12 h
in distilled water pH = 5.3, citric acid solution 0.1% pH
= 2.6 and sodium bicarbonate solution 0.07%, pH = 8.4)
and then cooking temperature (90℃) for 3 h and then
placed in a refrigerator 4 for 72 h affected the RS
formation of Parkia seeds. The result of RS for soaking
procedure was 47.21%. Similar phenomenon was observed
in the work of Siddhuraju and Becker [16] where soaked
and boiled legumes had significant (p < 0.05) increase in
digestibility. This result was comparable than those re-
ported by Ptitchkina et al. [17] the RS contents of banana
flour was 56.17% and Tribess et al. [18] report that the
resistant starch content of the flour produced varied from
(40.9 ± 0.4) g/100 g to (58.5 ± 5.4) g/100 g, on dry basis
(db). Soaking affect the starch digestibility, involves
entry of water into the legume kernels, wetting and
dissolving soluble nutrients. The observed formation in
RS may be explained by the relatively slow cooling after
gelatinization, starch molecules became less energy active
and starch molecules of appropriate sizes rearranged to
form orderly crystalline precipitation, which made starch
paste retrograde into a gel, as soaking time prolonged,
the bundle structure formed between starch chains by
hydrogen bonding may dissociate, which is not conducive
for the formation of RS but rather favors the formation of
slow digestible starch (SDS).
Chemical Composition of Wheat Flour (WF), Parkia
Flour (PF) and their Blends (% db). The chemical
compositions of the wheat flour, Parkia flour and their
blends are shown in (Table 2). The chemical com-
position of wheat flour and Parkia flour and their blends
showed that there were significant (p < 0.05) differences
between the wheat flour, Parkia flour and their blends in
crude protein, crude ash, crude fiber and carbohydrate
contents. It can be observed that the moisture content of
flour decreased (11.91% to 10.68%) when the level of
Parkia flour in the flour increased 5% to 40%). Low-
moisture content is important in the shelf life of food
products. Since the protein content of wheat flour was
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A. Sankhon et al. / Agricultural Sciences 4 (2013) 122-129
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12.42%, while it was 22.56% in Parkia flour, so Parkia
flour was chosen to supplement the wheat flour and
produce bread with a high content of protein. The high
protein content of Parkia flour used in the fortification of
the wheat flour reflected in the high content of protein in
the blends. It was observed that wheat flour with 40%
Parkia flour inclusion had relatively high protein content
(16.79%), 30% Parkia inclusion (15.52%), 20% Parkia
inclusion (14.63%), 15% Parkia inclusion (13.12%), 10%
Parkia inclusion (12.91%) while 5% Parkia inclusion had
the lowest value of protein (11.89%). Also wheat flour
had more carbohydrates than Parkia flour, but wheat
flour had less amounts of fat, ash and fiber than Parkia
flour. Parkia flour contained 1.72% ash and this was the
limiting factor for substitution, since the higher content
of ash produces a lower grade of flour and a poorer
colour of the flour, and that affect the quality of the bread.
Similar trends were observed by Noor Aziah et al. [19]
with the crude protein, total ash, crude fiber and
carbohydrate contents.
Chemical Composition of Bread Supplemented
with Parkia Flour. The chemical composition of bread
supplemented with Africa locust been flour is presented
in (Table 3). The moisture content of all the bread samples
did no differ significantly (p > 0.05) and were in the
range (32.56% - 31.89%). The fat content the bread
samples did no differ significantly as well and ranged
between (1.84%-1.79%). However, there were significant
difference (p < 0.05) among the bread samples in crude
protein content, the bread with 40% Parkia inclusion was
observed to have the highest crude protein content
(15.68%), this was followed by 30% Parkia bread
(14.47%), while the bread without Parkia inclusion had
the lowest protein content (7.89%). Equally, there were
significant differences (p < 0.05) among the bread in
carbohydrate content. Bread without Parkia inclusion had
the highest content of carbohydrate (55.44%) followed by
the one with 5% Parkia (52.39%), while the bread 40%
Parkia had the lowest carbohydrate content (42.66%).
Changes in proximate composition of bread supplemented
with grated levels of Parkia flour indicated that addition
of Parkia flour to wheat flour increased the crude protein
content significantly (p < 0.05) with about 15.68%
increase in bread with 40% Parkia addition. Similarly,
crude ash and crude fiber contents increased significantly
too in the Parkia flour supplemented. The increase in these
proximate parameters could be probably due to their
quantities in Parkia flour.
Table 2. Chemical composition of wheat flour (WF), Parkia flour (PF) and their blends [% db].
Samples moisture protein Fat Ash Fiber *CHO **Energy
WF 11.53 ± 0.23b 12.42 ± 0.31g 1.35 ± 0.23h 0.83 ± 0.24h 0.89 ± 0.53h 72.98 ± 0.54a 353.75
PF 11.93 ± 0.22a 22.56 ± 0.25a 1.87 ± 1.12b 1.72 ± 0.21c 4.86 ± 0.24a 57.06 ± 0.47h 335.31
(95:5) 11.91 ± 1.09c 11.89 ± 0.21h 1.51 ± 0.23g 1.13 ± 1.12g 2.69 ± 0.32g 70.87 ± 0.32b 344.63
(90:10) 11.87 ± 0.31d 12.91 ± 0.22f 1.58 ± 0.18f 1.35 ± 1.18f 3.08 ± 0.41f 69.21 ± 1.12c 342.27
(85:15) 11.75 ± 0.42e 13.12 ± 0.31e 1.64 ± 0.52e 1.46 ± 0.21e 3.48 ± 1.23e 68.55 ± 0.65d 341.44
(80:20) 10.93 ± 0.25f 14.63 ± 1.09d 1.73 ± 0.17d 1.62 ± 1.15d 3.73 ± 1.19d 67.36 ± 0.42e 343.53
(70:30) 10.81 ± 0.46g 15.52 ± 1.14c 1.84 ± 0.12c 1.83 ± 1.09b 4.03 ± 0.22c 65.97 ± 0.56f 342.52
(60:40) 10.68 ± 1.13h 16.79 ± 0.44b 1.92 ± 0.16a 1.88 ± 0.27a 4.56 ± 0.41b 64.17 ± 1.14g 341.12
WF: Wheat flour; PF: Parkia flour; *CHO: carbohydrate; **Energy [kcal/100 g]. Different letters on same column represent statistically significant (p < 0.05)
difference between means.
Table 3. Chemical composition of bread supplemented with Parkia flour.
F:PF Moisture Protein Fat Ash Fiber *COH **Energy
(100:00) 32.56 ± 0.63a 7.89 ± 1.32h 1.79 ± 0.92d 0.91 ± 0.63g 1.4 ± 0.48g 55.44 ± 1.34a 269.43
(95:5) 32.34 ± 0.32b 9.23 ± 0.56f 1.80 ± 0.54c 1.35 ± 0.51f 2.89 ± 0.29f 52.39 ± 0.54b 262.59
(90:10) 31.95 ± 1.23d 11.06 ± 0.36e 1.79 ± 0.61d 1.59 ± 0.73e 3.36 ± 1.24e 50.25 ± 0.94c 261.35
(85:15) 32.28 ± 0.42c 12.23 ± 0.21d 1.82 ± 1.08b 1.78 ± 0.61d 3.38 ± 0.83d 48.51 ± 1.08d 259.34
(80:20) 31.89 ± 0.86e 13.02 ± 0.43c 1.84 ± 0.41a 1.97 ± 0.47c 4.09 ± 0.62c 47.19 ± 1.23e 257.40
(70:30) 31.98 ± 0.65d 14.47 ± 0.67b 1.81 ± 0.59b 2.23 ± 0.81b 4.56 ± 0.49b 44.95 ± 0.87f 253.97
(60:40) 32.35 ± 0.87b 15.68 ± 0.58a 1.80 ± 0.62c 2.54 ± 0.55a 4.97 ± 0.63a 42.66 ± 0.56g 249.56
WF: Wheat flour; PF: Parkia flour; WF:PF = Ratio; *CHO: carbohydrate; **Energy [kcal/100g]. Different letters on same column represent statistically signifi-
cant (p < 0.05) difference between means.
A. Sankhon et al. / Agricultural Sciences 4 (2013) 122-129
According to Okaka [20] cereals such as wheat flour
are lower in protein and lysine deficient but rich in
sulphur containing amino acid , Parkia on the other hand
is rich in lysine with about 22.56% crude protein and
good balance of other essential amino acid, hence the
consumption of Parkia flour supplemented bread will mean
eating bread with higher protein content and improved
protein quality, invariably, a more balanced diet with en-
hanced nutritional value that help reduce protein-energy
malnutrition. A slight difference in total fat content was
observed between the 100% wheat flour bread and 5% -
40% Parkia flour supplemented samples. The fat content
also shows a slight change with the addition of Parkia
flour, but the ash content increased when the Parkia flour
amount in the bread increased. The ash content depends
on the quality of the flour and thus corresponds to the
higher mineral content, especially potassium [21,22]. On
the other hand, carbohydrate content was reduced as a
result of Parkia flour addition. The results were in agree-
ment with the report of [23,12,13].
Volume Measurement and Resistant Starch Content
of Wheat and Parkia Bread. Increasing levels of Parkia
flour (0 - 40%) significantly (p < 0.05) increased the
weight of loaf among samples (Table 4). This might be
attributed to the higher fiber content which increased the
weight of loaf of the Parkia flour. The 5%, 10% and 15%
Parkia flour bread had the highest loaf volume and specific
volume as compared to the other samples. A similar
observation was reported by Ptitchkina [24] where the
addition of 0.5 - 1.0% pumpkin powder showed a massive
increase in loaf volume which decreased with further
level of pumpkin flour. The moisture content of the breads
was a major factor affecting loaf volume. Incorporation
of 5%, 10% and 15% Parkia flour in this study resulted
in higher specific volume (5.98, 5.64 and 5.53 cm3),
similar observation was reported by Ptitchkina [24] 0.5 -
1.0% Pumpkin powder with values (5.60 and 5.54 cm3).
Resistant starch content of wheat and Parkia bread are
presented in (Table 4). The bread baked at 200°C for 45
min and 130℃ for 90 min showed significantly higher
RS content of 1.47% to 2.16% wheat bread and 18.52 %
to 22.28 % with 31.74 to 35.05% Parkia bread respectively.
This corroborate the work reported by Schoenlechner et
al. [12] observed an increase from 17.98 to 45.6 percent
in wheat breads bakes for 15 to 35 min. [10] also observed
that the RS content of bread baked for 45 min was about
49% higher than that of bread baked for 15 min. This
explained that long-time/low-temperature baking conditions
might also allow endogenous enzymes to remain active
over a longer period, compared with conventional baking
conditions resulting in possible debranching of amylopectin
producing short chains, which may add to the high yield
of RS in the long-time/low-temperature baked breads. In
high moisture containing starch gels (bread is also a high
moisture bakery product), the crytallization of amylose
leading to generation of RS, can occur between glass
transition temperature (Tg), and melting temperature
(Tm of about 150℃). Therefore, During long time/low
temperature baking (130℃, 90 min), it is expected that
the crumb temperature reaches around 100℃ (well below
150℃) and remains for such a long time, which might
favor propagation and crytallinity leading to generation
of more RS in bread baked under these conditions.
Processing conditions and ingredients may also influence
the formation of RS in bread [12,10] present that the
longer baking time; however, the lower baking temperature
can increase RS formation in breads. However, it is also
true that the amylose, that is leaching out of starch
granules during gelatinisation could quickly retrograde in
the first hours after baking [25,26] which may cause
lower digestibility of high amylose containing products.
Color Value Measurement. The colour for the bread
was significantly affected (p < 0.05) by the addition of
Parkia flour (Table 5). The colour of the crust showed a
significant decrease (p < 0.05) in L value of Parkia flour
supplemented bread the colour change occurred from
light-brown (control) to darker brown (40% Parkia flour
bread). This may be due to additional glucose in the loaves
Table 4 . Weight average, volume, specific volume of bread incorporated with different levels of Parkia flour and resistant starch
content of wheat and Parkia bread of (200℃at 45 min and 130℃ at 90 min).
Samples Loaf weigh [g] Loaf volume [cm3] Specific loaf volume [cm3/g] *RS [%] ** RS [%]
100% WF (control) 151.45 ± 0.23g 913.16 ± 0.18b 5.95 ± 0.16b 1.47 ± 1.23f 2.16 ± 1.09g
95%WF+5%PF 153.28 ± 0.42f 916.83 ± 0.31a 5.98 ± 0.19a 18.52 ± 0.41e 31.74 ± 0.64f
90%WF+10% PF 155.31 ± 0.46e 877.43 ± 0.34c 5.64 ± 0.21c 18.95 ± 0.54e 32.12 ± 0.59e
85% WF+15% PF 157.45 ± 0.58d 871.18 ± 0.42d 5.53 ± 0.27d 19.76 ± 0.65d 32.58 ± 0.71d
80% WF+20% PF 161.23 ± 0.21c 747.13 ± 0.39e 4.63 ± 0.18e 21.39 ± 0.67c 33.37 ± 0.59c
70% WF+30% PF 169.45 ± 0.32b 693.27 ± 0.36f 4.09 ± 1.12f 21.86 ± 0.51b 34.86 ± 0.65b
60% WF+40% PF 173.13 ± 0.41a 529.50 ± 0.25g 3.06 ± 0.26g 22.28 ± 0.63a 35.05 ± 0.42a
WF: Wheat flour; PF: Parkia flour; RS: resistant starch content; *RS [%] content in bread at 200°C for 45 min; **RS [%] content in bread at 130°C for 90 min.
Different letters on same column represent statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference between means.
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A. Sankhon et al. / Agricultural Sciences 4 (2013) 122-129 127
containing a darker crust this condition is attributed to
maillard browning caused by the reaction between wheat
proteins and the added sugar [27] and caramelization
which are influenced by the distribution of water and the
reaction of added sugars and amino acids [12]. Colour
appeared to be a very important criterion for the initial
acceptability of the baked product by the consumer. More-
over, as the development of colour occurs classically
during the later stages of baking, it can be used to judge
completion of the baking process. Surface colour depends
both on the physico-chemical characteristics of the raw
dough (i.e. water content, pH, reducing sugars and amino
acid content) and on the operating conditions applied
during baking (i.e. temperature, air speed, relative
humidity, modes of heat transfer) [12]. It was observed
that the colour of the crumb sample significantly (p <
0.05) increased in redness (a* value) and yellowness (b*
value) but decreased in L* value with higher percentage
of Parkia flour (Tab l e 5 ). This might be attributed from
the yellow colour imparted by the Parkia flour.
Texture Profile of Breads. Hardness the bread
incorporated with 5%, 10% and 15% of Parkia flour 2.71,
2.78 and 2.93) showed no significantly differences (p >
0.05) (Table 6). High amount of protein and fiber content
in Parkia flour (20%, 30% and 40%) bread increased the
hardness value of the bread (3.14,3.63 and 3.86) as
compared to both 5%, 10% and 15%, which might
attributed to the high water absorption of flour. Sangnark
et al. [27] reported that high fiber ingredients added into
bread formulation increases the hardness of bread.
Similar trend was also observed in the adhesiveness
where 20%, 30% and 40% (0.07, 0.08 and 0.09) had
Table 5. Bread color analysis of the control and the blends.
Samples crust L* a* b*
100 WF 67.63 ± 0.31a 12.74 ± 0.22g 37.46 ± 0.32a
95% WF + 5% PF 58.95 ± 1.21b 16.53 ± 0.34f 28.86 ± 0.42b
90% WF + 10% PF 53.48 ± 0.18c 17.44 ± 0.51e 23.19 ± 0.34d
85% WF + 15% PF 49.63 ± 0.23d 18.53 ± 0.31d 18.73 ± 0.21e
80% WF + 20% PF 46.87 ± 0.22e 19.73 ± 1.18c 14.03 ± 0.34f
70% WF + 30% PF 43.98 ± 1.15f 20.75 ± 1.16b 10.23 ± 1.13g
60% WF + 40% PF 41.87 ± 0.35g 21.31 ± 0.31a 9.78 ± 1.31h
Samples Crumb
100% WF 73.06 ± 0.32a -0.83 ± 0.18g 11.73 ± 1.19g
95% WF + 5% PF 68.49 ± 1.19b 1.49 ± 0.51f 36.65 ± 0.42f
90% WF + 10% PF 65.93 ± 0.23c 2.16 ± 1.15e 37.63 ± 0.25e
85% WF + 15% PF 59.29 ± 0.21d 3.22 ± 1.19d 38.83 ± 0.32d
80% WF + 20% PF 55.63 ± 0.32e 3.68 ± 0.22c 40.05 ± 0.47c
70% WF + 30% PF 54.95 ± 0.32f 3.81 ± 1.17b 43.87 ± 0.24b
60% WF + 40% PF 51.93 ± 1.18g 4.08 ± 0.42a 44.26 ± 0.23a
WF: Wheat flour; PF: Parkia flour; L*: lightness, higher values indicate lighter colour, a*: redness, b*: yellowness; higher colour intensity is indicated by
higher values. Different letters on same column represent statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference between means.
Table 6. Texture profile analysis of breads.
Samples Hardness Cohesiveness Elasticity Chewiness Adheviness
100% WF 2.18 ± 0.12g 0.57 ± 0.27a 0.82 ± 0.16a 1.89 ± 0.13a 0.03 ± 0.35f
95% WF + 5% PF 2.71 ± 1.14f 0.42 ± 1.12f 0.73 ± 1.11d 0.95 ± 1.12d 0.04 ± 1.18d
90% WF + 10% PF 2.78 ± 1.16e 0.46 ± 0.21e 0.63 ± 0.28e 0.88 ± 0.14f 0.07 ± 0.22d
85% WF+15% PF 2.93 ± 0.61d 0.41 ± 0.15f 0.74 ± 0.35d 1.01 ± 0.24b 0.04 ± 1.16e
80% WF + 20% PF 3.14 ± 1.15c 0.51 ± 0.23c 0.76 ± 1.14c 0.97 ± 0.26ca 0.07 ± 0.13c
70% WF + 30% PF 3.63 ± 0.32b 0.53 ± 1.11b 0.81 ± 0.17a 0.93 ± 0.14e 0.08 ± 1.16b
60% WF + 40% PF 3.86 ± 1.18a 0.49 ± 0.24d 0.79 ± 0.53b 0.96 ± 0.26cd 0.09 ± 0.54a
WF: Wheat flour; PF: Parkia flour; Different letters on same column represent statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference between means.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. Openly accessi ble at http://www.scirp.org/journal/as/
A. Sankhon et al. / Agricultural Sciences 4 (2013) 122-129
Table 7. Sensory score of bread enriched with wheat flour in bread at various amounts.
Samples Appearance Taste Texture Aroma Overall acceptability
100% WF
95%WF + 5% PF
90%WF + 10% PF
85%WF + 15%PF
80%WF + 20%PF
70%WF + 30%PF
60%WF + 40%PF
4.25 ± 0.21a
3.56 ± 0.13d
3.65 ± 0.51c
4.00 ± 0.15b
3.20 ± 0.25e
3.00 ± 0.18f
2.75 ± 0.25g
4.13 ± 0.13a
3.93 ± 0.20d
3.99 ± 0.35c
4.04 ± 0.26b
3.15 ± 0.23e
3.10 ± 0.11f
2.50 ± 0.17g
4.00 ± 0.22a
3.85 ± 0.31d
3.92 ± 0.23c
3.93 ± 0.23b
3.25 ± 0.15e
3.20 ± 0.25f
2.87 ± 0.21g
4.69 ± 0.20a
3.78 ± 0.17d
3.80 ± 0.27c
3.82 ± 0.19b
3.35 ± 0.18e
3.30 ± 0.21f
2.40 ± 0.33g
4.85 ± 0.13a
3.93 ± 0.21d
3.98 ± 0.14c
4.04 ± 0.32b
3.25 ± 0.44e
3.15 ± 0.18f
2.55 ± 0.21g
WF: Wheat flour; PF: Parkia flour; Different letters on same column represent statistically significant (p < 0.05) difference between means.
significantly higher (p < 0.05) adhesiveness than 5%,
10% and 15% (0.03, 0.06 and 0.06). The elasticity of ratio
(95:5 to 60:40) 0.63 to 0.98 were significantly higher (p
< 0.05) than control wheat flour (0.46). The highest value
of the elasticity of bread among the samples can be
attributed to the reduction of wheat flour resulting from
dilution of Parkia flour structure formation in the ratio.
This reduction in Parkia flour structure contributes to the
reduction in elasticity. Addition of 5%, 10% and 15%
Parkia flour into the bread did not have any effect on the
elasticity of bread that 20%, 30% and 40%. It can be
concluded that lowest ratio affects the bread and results
low elasticity and expansion of the dough. In this study,
the cohesiveness and chewiness decreased with substitution
of Parkia flour in wheat bread, control (0.57), 5% to 40%
(0.42 to 0.53) and control (1.89), 5% to 40% (0.93 to
1.03) respectively. Parkia flour content was also reduced
by other components, such as non-wheat flour and dietary
fiber, protein which cause an adverse effect on the bread
Sensory Evaluation. Organoleptic properties of the
Parkia supplemented bread are present in (Ta b l e 7 ). No
Significant difference (p < 0.05) was observed between
the 0% Parkia bread and those fortified with 5% - 15%
Parkia flour in all the quality attributes analyzed. How-
ever, very low sensory mean scores was observed in the
bread samples with 20%, 30% and 40% Parkia flour, with
appearance, taste, texture, aroma and overall acceptability.
The result of the sensory evaluation indicated significant
(p < 0.05) difference between 100% wheat flour bread
(control) and those fortified with 20%, 30% and 40%
Parkia flour in all the quality attributes analyzed. Bread
5%, 10%, and 15% Parkia flour did not differ significantly
from 100% wheat flour bread in appearance, taste, aroma
and overall acceptability, it compared favorably well
with the control (100%) bread in all these qualities.
Bread with 40% Parkia flour addition had significantly
poor appearance, texture and pronounced Parkia taste
and aroma. Although, the 5% to 15% Parkia flour
fortified bread had low rating in most of the quality
attributes, they were however, acceptable to the panelist.
Generally, the Parkia flour gave the bread a unique taste
and texture that make them taste and feel like cake-bread
particularly the 20%, 30% and 40% Parkia flour
formulation. Data of sensory evaluation (Table 7 )
indicated that the consumer preferred the crust color of
the 5% to 15% Parkia flour bread and the control
samples were not significantly different (p > 0.05).
The investigation shows that there was significant
improvement in the bread resistant starch content and
nutritional quality on addition of Parkia flour. This was
evident in the significant increase of 18.52 - 22.28 (200
at 45 min) with 31.74 - 35.05 (130℃ at 90 min) in the
resistant starch content of fortified bread samples. The
addition of 5%, 10% and 15% Parkia flour resulted in
bread with high loaf volume and good overall
acceptability. The sensory evaluation also indicated that
5%, 10% and 15% Parkia flour bread was the most
acceptable bread. A functional food that combines many
nutritional benefits of wheat flour supplemented with
Parika flour may be proposed to cater for a set of
consumers whose health has been compromised such as
those suffering from malnutrition, diabetes and obesity.
This article is supported by 111 project-B07029 and PCSIRT062,
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