Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 2013, 3, 278-284
doi:10.4236/ojapps.2013.33035 Published Online July 2013 (
Research of Water Response under the Action of the
Infrared Human Body Radiation by Water
Conductometric Sensors
Gennady G. Shishkin1, Igor M. Ageev1, Yury M. Rybin1, Alexei G. Shishkin2
1Moscow Aviation Institute, National Research University, Moscow, Russia
2Moscow State University, Moscow, Russia
Received April 26, 2013; revised May 26, 2013; accepted June 2, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Gennady G. Shishkin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Non-equilibrium thermal and biothermal radiation generated by heated solid materials and hematothermal living organ-
isms are studied by water conductometric sensors. Engineering aspects and physical features of developed water con-
ductometric sensors are given. Procedure and measuring technique are described. Our experiments show the anomalous
behavior of water conductivity and associated differential parameters under water heating by biological objects com-
pared with traditional heating sources. Water response to human action strongly depends on psychophysiological and
psychoemotional state of the person. Moreover the responses to the action by left and right human hands are substan-
tially different and as a rule are specific to the gender. The possible physicochemical mechanisms of such anomalous
water behavior are studied. It is suggested that the observed effects are associated with resonant excitation of vibra-
tion-rotation energy levels of water under the influence of bioradiation generated by human organism consisting of ap-
proximately 70% water. The results obtained have good perspectives for future applications in different fields of human
Keywords: Water Electrical Conductivity; Conductometric Sensors; Infrared Human Body Radiation; Bioradiation
1. Introduction
At present there is a certain amount of experimental data
demonstrating that many electrophysical properties of
matter are dependent not only on temperature magnitude
but on type of heating source as well [1-4]. This problem
is connected with emissivity of heated bodies [1] that can
vary within wide limits. It was shown [2] that day long
water exposure to copper radiation at room temperature
led to the changes of monochromatic coefficient of water
transmittance within 6% - 8% in the spectral range of
3000 - 3700 cm1. The changes in water electrical con-
ductivity under the heating by various metallic and di-
electric materials are of about the same order [2-4].
The human body is believed to have their own radia-
tion which emits into surrounding body space [5]. The
existence of human radiation is identified as electromag-
netic field generated by and contained within the bio-
logical system of a body [6]. The vibration of electro-
magnetic field generated by human body is referred as a
frequency radiation of human body, which emits their
radiation around the body due to its electromagnetic ac-
tivities. The radiation of the human body encircles the
physical body as a sphere of radiation and vibrates at
their own characteristic of frequencies [7].
The experiments in [5] have shown that the character-
istic of human body radiation frequency can be even used
to classify the gender.
The data presented in [8] indicate that there are
marked variations in the thermal properties of human
skin as reported by various investigators and that the op-
tical properties of the skin are functionally related to the
water content of the skin and vary as the site of interest is
Spectral radiative properties of the human body were
studied experimentally in [9] in the region from the ul-
traviolet to the far-infrared to analyze the thermal re-
sponse of the human body exposed to solar radiation and
infrared radiation. Fairly large values for hemispherical
reflectances are observed in the visible and near-infrared
regions but very small values for hemispherical reflec-
tances are observed in the infrared region. The absorption
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJAppS
coefficient is very close to that of water and large in the
infrared region [9].
Many biologists have promulgated biologic field theo-
ries to explain both biologic development and the integ-
rity of organisms [10-12]. They suggested that an under-
standing of a wide variety of bio-electric phenomena in
the living organism can best be reached by the assump-
tion of an electro-dynamic field in the organism [10].
In this paper the sensors (receivers) with distillated
water as a working fluid were used while investigating
the biothermal and nonorganic radiation [13,14]. Due to
the high water content of living organisms, the receiver
and radiating element are highly correlated in frequencies.
This can improve their sensitivity. Water reaction on
various actions is of great importance for the control of
vital processes including human physiological state of
the operators of sophisticated equipment (aerospace, ra-
dioelectronic control systems, air traffic control services,
transport etc.).
The paper is organized as follows. In Section 2 the
experimental methods and measuring technique are de-
scribed. In Section 3 the experimental results are pre-
sented and finally in Section 4 obtained results are ana-
lysed and some conclusions are drawn in Section 5.
2. Experimental Methods and Technique
Our experiments are based on the measurements of water
electrical conductivity and some parameters connected
with temperature coefficient of electrical conductivity as
well. The main experimental procedure includes the next
steps: water preparation; rinse, cell training and water
pouring; stationary water heating by electric heater and
electrical conductivity measurements in both cells; action
on one of the cells with simultaneous thermal heating;
data approximation and determination of parameters.
The water electrical conductivity was determined by
conductometric method where dielectric rectangular
bodies of sensors with built-in stainless steel or platinum
electrodes and thermistors for water temperature control
were used as measuring cells (Figures 1 and 2). The
typical dimensions of receiving window were 2 4 cm;
the sensor body height was ~0.5 - 1 cm. AC voltage with
frequency of about 1 kHz and amplitude of 1 V was
applied as a power supply to electrodes.
Figure 1. Conductometric sensor setup.
The signals from the circuit of electrodes and thermis-
tor were processed by electronic module and data acqui-
sition card. The special software ASTRA to process and
visualize experimental data was developed (Figure 3).
The distillated water with initial conductivity of 2 - 4
μS/cm was used. The impact on water by infrared and
THz electromagnetic radiation was made by heaters from
various materials and by biological objects as well. The
copper carbonized plate heated by nichrome wire up to
40˚C was used as a solid irradiator (heater).
To determine the water reaction on emission from dif-
ferent mediums the thin foils made from various materi-
als and fixed alternately at the surface of the plate were
used. The foils were heated for 10 min. and then were
placed at the distance of about 2 mm above the water
surface. Two identical sensors one of which was a con-
trol sensor were used. One can define two different cases
in experimental procedure of determination of irradiation
action of solid-state foils:
1) Water heating in control sensor by a standard thermal
heater close to the black body irradiator and;
2) Water heating in measuring sensor by various heated
Figure 2. Measuring and control sensors along with elec-
tronic module.
Figure 3. Experimental setup.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJAppS
The effect was determined by the difference of these
two sensor readings.
Besides above mentioned experimental technique for
determining the level of action of heated water on water
in conductometer we used sensors and elements with
somewhat different technical specifications [3].
The electrical conductivity was measured in the tem-
perature range of 23˚C - 28˚C. In the first case the elec-
tric heater 1 served as a heat source for water in volume
V1 (Figure 4(a)). In the second case the water vapors,
water thermal emission and vessel walls served as a heat
source (Figure 4(b)). Water in the volume 2 in its turn
was heated by electric heater 1. When using water vapors
as a heat source the stronger dependence of electrical
conductivity on temperature at all examined ranges was
observed in comparison with the heating by electrical
heater. This is in a close agreement with results obtained
in [4].
To measure quantitatively the observed deviation two
parameters were used in addition to the direct measure-
ment of electrical conductivity. The first one is deter-
mined as
1 (1)
where is an electric conductivity and T is a temperature.
The parameter is a relative temperature coefficient of
electrical conductivity and it describes the water proper-
ties. The difference due to heating methods can be de-
scribed by the following parameter
where B
is an electrical conductivity increment dur-
ing the action of a biological object (bioaction),
an electrical conductivity increment during the usual
heating, is a period of bioaction/heating and
an initial value of electric conductivity.
Nominally parameter B can be viewed as a bioaction
power (a relative excess of an electrical conductivity
Figure 4. Experimental setup for water electrical conduc-
tivity measurements. Here 1—electric heater, 2—water
volume, 3—thermometer, 4—conductometer, 5—examined
increment du
water vessel.
ring bioaction over an electrical conductiv-
3. Results
esented in Figure 5 are the generalization
ity increment during traditional heating). The use of these
two parameters allows to increase the sensitivity and
accuracy of results obtained. In our experiments the rate
of temperature increase was about 1˚C/min. As a rule, the
impact of biological object on water was made by water
irradiation by central part of experimenter’s palm located
2 mm above the water surface.
The results pr
of a great number of experiments. In the obtained de-
pendencies of electrical conductivity on radiation
one can single out 4 curve classes. In the first
class the
is approximately linear
in the temperature rangC - 28˚C and the rate of
change is ~ 2.2% - 3%/˚C. This is close to standard ref-
erence data. This class consists of the irradiators made of
copper, lavsan, fiberglass and cellulose triacetate. In the
second class (lead, magnesium, cellophane) the change
e of 22˚
is mainly focused around 3.5% - 4%/˚C.
The expo of water in a measuring sensor to radiation
of water heated in glass vessel [3], transparent to the ra-
diation of wavelength less than 4 m
(determined by
pass band of water vessel) and of thater films on the
surface of various materials including 50 - 60 m
in w
ter films on operator hand can be put into the th class
where the change of conductivity was ~6% - 8%/˚C. The
fourth class is formed by curves of electrical conductivity
22 24 26 28 30
e (
(arbitrary units)
Figure 5. Water electrical conductivity versus temperature
for various materials: 1—black body, 2—copper, 3—lavsan,
4—fiberglass, 5—cellulose triacetate, 6—lead, 7—magne-
sium, 8—cellophane, 9—water in glass vessel, 10—water 50
- 60 m
film on the surface of operator palm, 11—op-
erator, 12—operator palm dried by talc.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJAppS
and conductivity temperature coefficient
enter’s palm
studies of bioaction propagation
onic change of absorption for the in-
rence about higher nervous activity influence
obtained during water heating by experim
when the rate of change was about 20% - 50%/˚C.
The intensity of bioaction on water from operator
illustrated by Figure 6 where the dependence of spe-
cific conductivity s on temperature is shown. It can be
seen that the change of specific electrical conductivity
for water heating up to 24.7˚C by electrical heater is the
same for control and measuring sensors. At that tem-
perature the operator action on the water in measuring
sensors starts and the rate of change of conductivity in-
creases abruptly (curve 1). In the control sensor for con-
tinued heating by electrical heater the curve slope is not
changed (curve 2).
The experimental
rough various materials have shown that most of me-
tallic, dielectric and polymer foils strongly attenuate this
radiation. However a number of materials have special
The nonmonot
ease in the thickness of absorption material (Al) is ob-
served as well. In these measurements the Al foil with
thickness of 0.005 mm was used. When the number of
foil layers was changed the periodical radiation intensity
differences (similar to interference distribution of light
intensity) 2.3 - 8 times larger were observed (Figure 7).
The intensity of suprathermal radiation B is an indi-
dual parameter specific for each human. But this is true
only for an average value of this parameter. Its current
value is subject to variation over wide range (±50%). As
was determined, the changes of intensity of suprathermal
radiation depend on psycho-emotional human state con-
The infe
parameters of palm radiation was made when the fol-
lowing facts had been elicited. Parameter B measured by
Figure 6. The depende nce
T for the water heating
l heater (
by palm (1) and by electrica2).
Figure 7. Dependence of bioradiation on different number
ater sensor decreased monotonous so far as the test
ental study, the asymmetry in the
are ap-
of Al foil layers.
person experienced growing up fatigue. Besides, the sub-
stantial variations of B are observed for changes of mood
of test persons. The measurements performed for test
persons in normal states allowed to obtain statistical dis-
tribution of B values.
As a part of experim
stribution of radiation intensity for water heating by the
left and the right palms was checked out. The results ob-
tained are shown in Figure 8. It can be seen that the bio-
radiation is not symmetrical relative to the left and the
right part of human body. It should be noted that the ac-
tions of left and right hand on the water in the sensor
differ in magnitude. As a rule for men the parameter
value for the right hand is larger than for the left hand.
The reverse holds true for women. However the current
values depend on the test person state and following the
changes of the latter the inversion can be observed.
Moreover the results are individually specific.
It can be noted that the curves in Figure 8
oxi-mation of the distribution histograms of B for the
right and left hands of test persons. The points on X-axis
correspond to values of B and the points of Y-axis corre-
spond to the ratio of test person number with given value
of B to the total number of test persons. A total of 53
students were examined. While analyzing the results the
total range of B values was divided into 5 - 20 segments
with varying length. This led to the changes in the look
of the curve but in all cases there were two maxima. It is
the evidence that there are either two groups of people
distinguished by the power of bioaction or two stable
human states with different bioaction powers. Distribu-
tion curve spreading-out relative to its maximum values
can be connected with the dependence of bioaction
power on test person state, on his response to changes in
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJAppS
Figure 8. Distribution of radiation intensity for water heat-
utward conditions and on other factors of random nature.
ed out to ob-
ing by the right (a) and the left (b) palms.
However the range of such changes is not that substantial
to smooth the double-peaked distribution curve.
The mentioned earlier tendency towards the
parameter B values for fatigue states was scrutinized
for the group consisting of 39 students while they were
fulfilling the task by PC with duration of 3 - 4 hours. The
measurements were carried out before and immediately
after the task fulfillment. The results obtained are pre-
sented in Figure 9. For illustration purposes the histo-
grams of above mentioned experiment (fatigue-solid line,
arousal-dashed line) are smoothed by splines. It can be
seen that the fatigue and emotional arousal lead to oppo-
site results relative to parameter B changes.
Another series of measurements was carri
in and analyze the data for emotional arousal different
from reported above. Each test person had to carefully
watch the purely decorative picture on PC display. From
time to time unpleasant image unexpectedly appeared on
the display accompanied by a harsh sound. It led to a
Figure 9. The dependencies of ratio B2/B1. B1 are values
artle response of a person. The biometric parameters of
4. Discussion
ed so far do not allow determining
nature of anomalous radiation acting
ains to suggest that electromagnetic waves
before emotional influence, B2 are values after influence.
Fatigue-solid line, arousal - dashed line.
test persons were measured before and after this response.
The distributions similar to those in Figure 9 were ob-
tained. Besides, such distributions were obtained while
analyzing the experimental data corresponding to the
measurements performed before and after student’s ex-
ams and in some other cases.
Experiments perform
unambiguously the physical nature of discovered su-
prathermal radiation of humans. As a hypothesis one can
suggest that besides the usual changes in electrical con-
ductivity of water during its heating there is some
mechanism connected with the resonant absorption of
radiation in the infrared or submillimeter spectrum range
(Figures 5 and 7).
To determine the
the water, the experiments measuring the spatial dis-
tribution of radiation intensity were carried out. The
sensor was moved through the dielectric or metal wave-
guide and the operator palm acted upon the open end of
the waveguide. It led to the changes in sensor readings
relative to the distance h between the operator palm and
water level.
It only rem
rming a constituent part of bioradiation lie in the
shorter length range where the geometrical optics ap-
proximation can be applied for the description of their
propagation. Assuming the isotropy of biological object
radiation and neglecting for the sake of simplicity the
reflection from waveguide walls, one can obtain the ex-
pression describing the dependence of power W of emis-
sion falling to the sensor on its distance from the radiator
h (experimenter’s palm located at the waveguide cut off
in this case):
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJAppS
 (3)
where a and b are dimensions of wide and narrow
e dependence of (normalized to its ini-
5. There the ex-
anged mostly due to two
waveguide walls.
In Figure 10 th
l value) parameter characterizing the intensity of su-
prathermal radiation on the distance h for metal
waveguide (crosses) and dielectric waveguide (circles) is
shown as well. The close agreement of experimental and
theoretical data give evidence to the suggestion that su-
prathermal radiation is electromagnetic one with wave
length much less than 15 mm that is determined by the
sizes of waveguide. The difference in the locations of
experimental points corresponding to metal and dielectric
waveguides is explained by the difference in reflection
coefficients of radiation for metal and dielectric walls not
accounted in deriving the Equation (3).
Let us turn to the analysis of Figure
rimental data (curves 2 - 8) refer to the water exposure
to the heating by nonbiological materials. Curves 9 - 12
refer to water heating by water and/or biological objects.
The differences in water reaction to the heating by vari-
ous nonbiological materials are coming probably from
their emissivity peculiarities and emission spectrum [1].
Сurves 9 - 12 refer to the case where the irradiator (water,
water films, operator hands containing large amount of
water) and receiver (water) have a common inherent
element viz. water. Since the spectral features of receiver
and irradiator agree to a large extent, their interaction can
be of resonant nature.
The conductivity in sensors ch
ctors: radiation as a physical factor and influence of
chemical substances excreted by experimenter’s tissue
Figure 10. Dependence of normalized to its initial value
water level for metal and dielectric waveguides.
parameter characterizing the intensity of suprathermal
radiation on the distance between the human palm and
and skin, for example, CO2 and sweat. The special ex-
periments carried out with the purpose of revealing the
role of these factors in
dependence showed
that their ratio can change substanally. Some results of
these experiments are illustrated in Figure 5 by curve 10
that refers to the case when the part of the hand irradiat-
ing the receiving section of the sensor was covered by 50
- 60 m
water layer. The hand surface was carefully
dried and deoiled beforehand. The water layer covered
sweat pores completely thereby preventing perspiration
and CO2 excretion. Infrared, THz and microwave radia-
tion partly passed, partly was absorbed by water layer
and heated it as well. As a result the water in sensor was
under the influence of both direct hand emission and re-
emission of water layer on hand surface. In this case the
changes in electrical conductivity are greater than for the
irradiation by water in glass vessel (curve 9) when the
biological object component is absent.
The absorbed radiation energy is expended not on the
temperature increase but directly influences on water
transport properties, e.g. it changes the water structure
and the structures of hydration shell of impurities. Such
radiation can be generated by the luminescence at the one
of numerous chemical reactions in cells of living organ-
ism. Just as well one can assume that human body radia-
tion is of equilibrium nature and its spectrum coincides
with the spectrum of black (or grey) body with tempera-
ture 36˚C - 37˚C. However, passing through the skin it is
weakened in the wide spectral range except for some
narrow pass band close to the band of water resonant
absorption [15]. In any of these cases the excess of val-
ues of water electrical conductivity over its equilibrium
value for given temperature will be observed.
Completely different results are obtained when the
hand is carefully dried by talc. As a matter of fact the talc
blocks up the pores preventing sweet excretion and re-
moves the water film on the skin surface as well. Ac-
cordingly the thermal emission and CO2 reaches the sen-
sor and that leads to the substantial changes in water
conductivity (curve 12). This is confirmed by curve 11
obtained for hand radiation in usual conditions.
Thus analysis done has shown that the phenomena
mechanisms could be connected with the excitation of
vibration-rotation levels of water molecules under the
influence of radiation where intensive absorption lines
exist. The molecule excitation leads to the change in dis-
sociation energy and in water polarization (due to the
increase in molecule sizes during the excitation of vibra-
tion-rotation levels [16]). As a result water electrical
conductivity becomes larger due to the increase both in
charged particle concentration (owing to the decrease in
dissociation energy for the excitation to the vibration-
rotation levels) and in the polarization leading to the wa-
ter structuring and hence to the gain in particle mobility-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJAppS
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJAppS
ude that
ites. This is also confirmed by NMR investigations
showing that the water molecular structure is greatly
changed under the influence of long wave infrared emis-
sion. This leads to the substantial increase in molecular
mobility [13] and, hence to the electrical conductivity
changes. Besides as is shown in [4], the decrease of wa-
ter entropy and the increase of its conductivity are ob-
served during water heating by biological object.
5. Conclusions
Thus one can concl
tion comp
rate of change is
al radiaared with the ther-
s and is
analysis done have shown that the
edical diagnostics and especially in
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