Journal of Transportation Technologies, 2013, 3, 194-203 Published Online July 2013 (
Developing Large-Scale Dry Ports—The Case of Arriyadh
Rickard Bergqvist
Logistics and Transport Research Group, Department of Business Administration,
School of Business, Economics and Law, University of Gothenburg, Göteborg, Sweden
Received May 1, 2013; accepted June 2, 2013; accepted June 9, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Rickard Bergqvist. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The purpose of this paper is to explore the development process of a large scale dry port and to analyse what measures
and actions are needed in order to support the decision making process and ensure an effective and efficient dry port
that serves the City and the region’s current and future needs. The purpose is explored in the context of Saudi Arabia
and the city of Arriyadh. Key issues identified related to the dry port development are long term planning and cross-
sector collaboration. The interconnection between the dry port and the overall transport system and aspects, such as
location of business, city logistics, road and rail infrastructure, local, regional and national regulations, etc., is strong.
This puts challenge on the coordination and alignment of the different organizations, their strategies and objectives. In a
complex situation, such as developing a dry port with many stakeholders, it is crucial that the roles of all actors are
clearly defined. This is essential for utilizing the dry port as a regional tool for planning. In that regard, it is appropriate
that the site location decision is clearly connected with an overall city freight vision and strategy.
Keywords: Dry Ports; Arriyadh; Development Process; Infrastructure Development; Intermodal Terminal
1. Introduction
As urbanization grows and concentration in metropolitan
areas increases, the need for efficient and effective
transport systems increases as well. The capability of
transporting goods to the proximity of cities is thus cru-
cial. Large goods flow in combination with pressure to
use sustainable modes of transport results in an increased
demand for intermodal transport solutions. As demand
for intermodal transport solutions increases, intermodal
terminals often find themselves short of the capacity to
cope with increased populations and associated goods
flows. As a result, many cities now face the relocation
and redesign of their transport system in general and the
location and design of intermodal transport terminals in
particular. At the same time there are constraints on ex-
pansion, such as a terminal location that was judged to be
at the edge of the city when it was first established that
now find itself in a central location due to city expansion.
Combined with the demand for land in central areas,
there is a pressure to move and relocate large-scale in-
termodal terminals to less central city locations. This
paper examines such a situation: the city of Arriyadh in
Saudi Arabia finds itself short of capacity, while at the
same time the current intermodal terminal and dry port
occupies valuable land in the city center. This paper in-
vestigates the development process of identifying suit-
able locations for a new dry port that better fits the city’s
overall strategy while simultaneously serving the trans-
port system effectively and efficiently.
Arriyadh is a fast growing metropolitan area whose
current population of 5.7 million is expected to exceed
8.3 million by 2030. It is centrally located in Saudi Ara-
bia and represents a major hub for regional and national
transportation. Two major rail lines are currently under
development, the East-West land bridge connecting the
ports in Jeddah and Dammam, and the North-South-East
line connecting the minerals rich North with the indus-
trial areas in the East and the port in Dammam (see Fig-
ure 1). These two lines intersect in Arriyadh, turning the
City into an important intermodal hub and a central point
in the freight and logistics system of the country. In the
future, it might also be possible that the northern branch
is linked to an international railway connection up north
towards central and Western Europe.
Arriyadh faces a strong population growth. The
economy depends heavily on the public sector, and this
trend is likely to grow even more in the future. The plan-
ning authorities already face serious problems and chal-
lenges in the fields of energy supply, water and sewerage
ystems, waste management, urban planning of dwellings, s
opyright © 2013 SciRes. JTTs
Figure 1. Railway system of Saudi-Arabia [1].
economic development and job creation, and finally
transport. The transport system relies on the use of pri-
vate cars, resulting in increasing commuting to the city
centre, traffic congestion, and air pollution.
The authorities meet the challenges of the demo-
graphic changes, the transition, and the accompanying
problems with an integrated update of current urban
planning in the Metropolitan Development Strategy for
Arriyah—MEDSTAR. The strategy builds on a common
vision of a balanced city plan that could become an in-
ternational example for the modern urban development
of a national capital in the heart of the desert [2].
The MEDSTAR strategy relates also to the develop-
ment of the transport system. The general strategy is to
move the economic activities from the center/south and
to create decentralized suburban centers with their own
public facilities and economic development zones. The
transport strategy is to try to reduce daily commuting by
car by building up a system of light rail connections be-
tween the suburban centers and city center. The transport
strategy is to reduce heavy lorry traffic in congested cen-
tral areas. This paper addresses part of that strategy by
assessing the relocation and developing of a large scale
dry port in the city of Arriyadh with the aim of ensuring
long term effectiveness and efficiency of goods flows to
and from the city of Arriyadh to main connecting sea-
2. Purpose
The purpose of this paper is to explore the development
process of a large scale dry port and to recommend
which measures and actions are needed in order to sup-
port the decision making process and ensure an effective
and efficient dry port that serves the city and the region’s
current and future needs. The purpose is explored in the
context of Saudi Arabia and the development process of
the relocation of the dry port in the city of Arriyadh.
Any intervention in a complex logistics system must
include the current rail terminal (old dry port), the indus-
trial and logistics site to be developed according to the
strategic plan, and the new dry port options. It must also
include the system of local and regional distribution and
warehousing centres in the metropolitan area and its re-
gional hinterland. The purpose has been broken down
into three main research questions:
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JTTs
1) What key location factors can be identified in pre-
vious research related to dry port development?
2) How would the dry port function as part of the
overall logistics system of the region?
3) What planning and port development and design
guidelines can be put in place to ensure that the devel-
opment of the new dry port is consistent with the City’s
strategic plan?
3. The Logistics System and Dry Ports
The importance of logistics increases as the economy
becomes more and more specialised and globalised.
Changes in the business environment like globalisation,
production patterns [3-6], urbanisation [7], and environ-
mental awareness [8-10] further support this trend. Since
production and logistics arrive at the consensus of pro-
ducing every individual product or module in regions
where the comparative advantages are the greatest, there
is an increased focus on regions and logistics. The
changes in production patterns are supported by the de-
velopment of cost-efficient transport of goods over long
distances [11,12].
The pursuit of higher efficiency and lower costs forces
businesses to continuously evaluate locations for produc-
tion, distribution facilities, competence, etc., in order to
establish the optimal locations for their operations.
Firms’ desire for market expansion and the contempla-
tion of the external forces present in geographical areas
steadily increase the importance of regions’ attractive-
ness and competitiveness [11,13-15]. Several researchers
[16,17] state that this constitutes a challenge concerning
regional business activities. As a consequence, the im-
portance of logistics efficiency and competitiveness of
firms and regions increases [18-23]. This development
emphasises the connection between the intra-regional
transport system, and the larger inter-regional transport
The connection between the intra-regional and in-
ter-regional transport systems is the main point of depar-
ture since this is often where consolidation and move-
ment between modes of transport are conducted. Conse-
quently, in order to attract and maintain business, a re-
gion needs a logistics cost-structure that is competitive.
As a result, developing the regional transport system by
improving the connection between the intra-regional and
inter-regional transport systems is crucial. The perform-
ance and the status of the transport system are based
upon a set of goal variables. Cost-efficiency, environ-
mental efficiency, and service quality are defined here as
the main goal variables and the main performance vari-
ables of a transport system. Transport system develop-
ment characterised by measures of increased consolida-
tion and coordination is related to activities performed at
a central node, i.e. a terminal/dry port, and involves the
associated actors. Since a central node is also a connec-
tion of goods flows, transport resources, and infrastruc-
ture, development requires collaboration between actors
from different sectors, industries, and businesses. Thus
all the actors in the system, separately or jointly, have a
responsibility for the status of the system.
The distinction between intermodal/multimodal ter-
minals on the one hand and dry ports on the other hand is
essential in the analysis of the goods freight handling
options in Arriyadh. The first group of terminals handles
goods for a local and regional market, manages different
transport modes, and does warehousing and distribution.
Typical for a dry port is the integration with sea port
systems and its import/export freight flows; it is directly
connected to the sea port with rail or inland waterways.
Joint IT systems for both ends of the link are fundamen-
tal in order to achieve an efficient flow of goods/con-
tainers, to see in real time where, when, and how goods/
containers are registered, handled, and transported. A dry
port takes over the functions of a sea port, allowing ca-
pacity growth in the sea port. The modal shift from road
to rail is a basic principle in the dry port concept as the
major transport between a sea port and the dry port
mainly should be high capacity means of transport, such
as rail or inland waterways.
4. Arriyadh Dry Port
Arriyadh, 400 km inland from the nearest port, is cur-
rently served by rail from King Abdul-Aziz Portin
Dammam (henceforth called Port of Dammam). The
terminus of that line, located in the central part of the
City, currently serves as its dry port.
The total area of the current dry port is 918,639 m2;
this includes (6) warehouses, and the area of each one is
6480 m2 [24]. Currently the dry port handles about
400.000 TEU (twenty foot equivalent units) per year,
averaging about 5 trains per day with about 110 contain-
ers on each one [24]. This means that it is operating at—
or close to—its maximum capacity since the dominating
container size is 40 feet.
The traffic to and from the dry port consist of shuttle
trains to and from the Port of Dammam. As Table 1 il-
lustrates, the Port of Dammam has had strong develop-
ment in recent years:
Taking into consideration the possibility of traffic to
and from the Jeddah Islamic Port (henceforth called Port
of Jeddah) and the volumes handled there (see Table 2),
there are substantial opportunities for future growth at
the Arriyadh dry port.
The growth of the volumes handled at the dry port will
continue to follow primarily economic growth but will
also get additional support from transport policy reforms
and promotion. From GDP growth over the last 10 years
(see Table 3), one could expect an annual growth of
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containers of at least 4 - 6 percent for the coming years.
Container volumes also tend to grow more than the un-
derlying economic growth since the increase in trade
usually is more than the corresponding economic growth.
At the same time there is a clear trend of containerization,
where more and more types of cargo are put into con-
Translated into dry port volumes, the dry port’s activi-
ties (handled containers) are likely to double within 5 -
10 years, boosted by economic growth, more efficient
rail and terminal operations, transport policies, and infra-
structure investments.
The following utilities are available in the current Dry
port [24]:
A cold warehouse, with an area of 2700 m2, divided
into separate sections where different temperatures
are maintained according to the requirements.
A stand-by electricity generator for the dry port and
for refrigeration purposes.
Office premises for the staff of the dry port, the cus-
toms department, as well as shipping and customs
Rail transport for unloading containers from trains to
Shops for repair and maintenance.
Lifting cranes and gear devices for handling different
weights and volumes of goods.
A fleet of trucks for the local movement of goods
from the dry port to the warehouses of merchants.
Table 1. Container volumes at Port of Dammam, 2009-2011
(TEU) 2011 2010 2009
Discharged 809,871 721,018 629,873
Loaded 682,444 612,076 597,519
Total 1,492,315 1,333,094 1,227,392
Table 2. Container volumes at Port of Jeddah, 2009-2011
(TEU) 2011 2010 2009
Discharged 2,070,791 1,941,623 1,578,515
Loaded 1,939,657 1,889,234 1,512,797
Total 4,010,448 3,830,857 3,091,312
Table 3. GDP growth [26].
2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 20072008
0.5% 0.1% 7.7% 5.3% 5.6% 3.2% 2.0% 4.2%
2009 2010 2011 2012
0.1% 4.6% 6.8% 6.0%
An integrated security system.
84 residential units for staff, including a mosque, a
restaurant, and a clinic.
Services at the dry port:
Receipt of consignments, which include containers,
vehicles, equipment, and general merchandise con-
signed directly from the Port of Dammam, and cus-
toms clearance thereof at the Arriyadh dry port to be
delivered to their respective owners.
Preparation of all documents pertaining to receipt,
storage, and inspection by the customs of all goods
entering the dry port area, as well as documentation
concerning receipt of such goods by the importers.
Return of the empty containers to the shipping agents
in Dammam after the goods consigned under the
containers were inspected by the customs officials
and such goods were finally received by their owners.
Receipt and handling of containers destined for ex-
port from Arriyadh until they are finally placed on the
vessels at the Port of Dammam.
Maintenance and repair of all kinds of equipment,
cranes, and lifting gear devices required for the effi-
cient operation of the dry port.
Receipt of refrigerated containers for perishables and
the maintenance of temperatures required for the
goods, whether inside the container or during storage
in the cold storage warehouses at the dry port.
Receipt and handling of non-container cargos such as
steel, timber, pipes, etc. from the Port of Dammam.
Notification to the shipping agents about the arrival of
imported goods, so that they could inform their prin-
cipals to receive their goods within the allowed period
of time.
Handling, loading, and discharge of automobiles im-
ported through the Port of Dammam.
Today, a lot of the break-bulk activities are carried out
within the dry port itself; in the future, it is likely that a
larger part of these activities will be carried out by actors
and companies outside the dry port that specializes in
specific type of freight, technologies, or customers.
In sum, the facility is dated, overloaded, and cannot
sustain the current demands of Arriyadh’s booming
economy, much less the growth anticipated in the coming
5. The Proposed Sites for the New Dry Port
As part of its metropolitan strategic planning, the Arri-
yadh Development Authority prepared and the Govern-
ment approved a Metropolitan Strategic Plan for Arri-
yadh (MEDSTAR). The plan provides a vision and a
structure for Arriyadh to 2030. It envisions the develop-
ment of growth spines, sub-centers, and suburbs all
aimed at guiding the growth of the city in a manner that
meets its socioeconomic and environmental goals. An
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6. Dry Port Assessment
element of this structure creates an economic develop-
ment zone in the Eastern suburb of the city. This zone is
designed to be adjacent to the rail line and would include
the site of a new dry port to serve the city’s current and
future needs. Associated with that location, the plan also
envisages the development of related sectors of industry
and logistics as well as supporting economic activities.
From previous studies and international experience, the
following key factors in location and development of dry
ports have been identified: connectivity, location, system
thinking and area for expansion, market, long-term plan-
ning and cross-sector/organizational collaboration, clear
roles of public and private sector, and dry port as a re-
gional tool for traffic planning.
Since the adoption of the MEDSTAR plan, the railroad
network plan has changed, and the option of connecting
the east logistic site has disappeared in favour for a new
northern railway branch closer to the central city. These
results in a configuration whereby the two main rail lines
intersect at a location in the southern sector of the city,
creating an opportunity for a dry port location, see Fig-
ure 2. This represents a major departure from the struc-
ture plan of the city and requires a review of the implica-
tions of this new siting on the integrity of the plan and of
the measures necessary, if any, to ensure that the dry port
would be integrated with the rest of the urban and re-
gional system it serves.
6.1. Connectivity
The city of Arriyadh overall has well-functioning and
efficient services to Dammam. Several upgrading pro-
jects are ongoing, related to infrastructure development
of the new lines east-west and north-south. The south
location is located in direct connection to the two lines.
Upgrade projects, such as the increased axle weight on
the link Dammam-Arriyadh, will significantly improve
throughput. Both locations have good road connections
(regional roads) and are close to future ring roads. The
Figure 2. Map of Arriyadh and the proposed dry port locations [27].
future third ring road is slightly closer to the southern
location. The northeastern location seems to be located
closer to planned areas for housing and related functions
compared to that of the southern location. The southern
location has less conflict between freight and passenger
A marshaling yard is probably needed in the future,
creating high demand for available land. There are great
synergies with colocation between the marshaling yards
and the dry port; this further emphasizes the advantage of
the southern location, given land availability and connec-
tivity to the two main rail lines. This emphasizes the im-
portance of high integration and planning between rail-
way operator/operations and dry port operator/operations.
Joint development and coordination with the Port of
Dammam in order to improve infrastructural interchange
between the port and dry port is important.
6.2. Location, System Thinking and Area for
It is important to have areas for expansion in order to
ensure that the site is sustainable for future growth. A site
that can contain future growth will avoid a future neces-
sary reallocation. The southern location fulfills this crite-
rion; at the same time, there is little competition with
areas for residence. Area for expansion also provides
flexibility in enabling further expansion of rail infra-
structure and rail connected plots and businesses.
The southern alternative is closer to existing and
planned areas for warehousing and manufacturing. This
gives capacity to lower cost and improved LCL delivery
and on time efficiencies. At the same time, the southern
location is not adjacent to major suburban areas, meaning
less amenity impact. A location outside the city bounda-
ries is regarded as unfavorable since it would be too far
from the major industrial area in the south.
Both sites have generous areas for expansion; however,
the southern location seems to have greater possibilities
since it is bigger, but there are also large areas for devel-
opment assigned to warehouse and industry purposes
adjacent to the site. The southern site has larger available
space, enabling connecting activities such as empty con-
tainer deports.
6.3. Long Term Planning and
Cross-Sector/Organizational Collaboration
It is necessary and desirable for all involved actors and
organizations to remain committed to and informed of
the project. It is important that the actors and organiza-
tions keep collaborating and maintaining communication.
There are three main components of collaboration for the
purpose of planning, regulation and institutional structure.
Fragmentation of these elements may dissolve efficien-
cies. Clarity around project objectives would support the
required collaboration. It would be beneficial if one
dedicated body took an overall coordinating function.
6.4. Clear Roles of Public and Private Sector
In order to ensure long term planning effectiveness and
an overall efficient transportation system, it is important
to clarify the role and responsibility of different private
and public actors/sectors in the development process.
6.5. Dry Port as a Regional Tool for Traffic
The dry port can be used as a powerful tool for regional
planning since the dry port will act as a magnet for busi-
ness allocations and establishments. From the perspective
of available and dedicated land for industry use, it seems
as the southern location has an advantage compared to
the northeast location. This is especially important when
looking at the historical and forecasted congestion situa-
tion for the city of Arriyadh, as illustrated in Figure 3.
Table 4 illustrates the assessment of the possible site
location based on key location determinants and factors.
From the assessment it is evident that Option 2 is fa-
vorable. This site is superior in all major criteria, espe-
Table 4. Assessment of the two location alternatives (Option
1: Designated area in the east. Option 2: South location).
Key factor s Option 1 Option 2
Connsectivity ++
Rail +
Road (regional/ring roads) + ++
Closeness to housing/passenger +
Airport N/A N/A
Market (existing and new business) + ++
Location, system thinking and area
for expansion + ++
Marshaling yard ++
Figure 3. Congestion forecast [2].
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JTTs
cially closeness to the market (existing and new areas for
industry) and connectivity to road and rail since Option 2
is located close to existing industry areas. The majority of
freight transported to the dry port in Arriyadh has its des-
tination in the industrial area in the south, further empha-
sizing the superiority of Option 2 and its closeness to the
market. The location becomes even more evident now
when the Port of Dammam is determined to strengthen
the rail freight to/from the port with investments in rail
facilities in the port. While a decision in the south is
logical in operational terms, it is likely to be the lowest
cost in the sense of rail operations and is going to provide
good road linkages. Therefore it will not likely be any
worse than alternatives in road distribution costs, hence
further consideration of distribution costs are not neces-
sary before a decision is made.
7. Logistics System Interaction
The new dry port location has some main interactions
with the overall logistics system. Firstly, the dry port
function is central and will act as a center of gravity for
business locations and development. This creates great
demand for available land for development, which is
present for Option 2. The magnitude of the flows and the
related road traffic also creates high demand for good
connections to the supra-infrastructure (e.g. ring roads).
However, closeness to the airport is judged to be of sub-
ordinate importance.
Regarding the old dry port location, it could have im-
portant alternative uses. It may have a great value for
future development of public transportation and public
space in the city center. It is a great area for expanding
the central station and related public transport such as
bus routes, etc. During a transition period from the point
of moving the Dry port to the new location, the area of
the old dry port could be used as a node/center for con-
struction work being carried out in the city center, e.g.
public transport infrastructure projects. The site could be
used for bringing in construction material by rail to the
city center. Other possible uses could be as a cross-
docking function. Primary goods could then be groceries,
perishables, reefers, etc. Other possible uses could be the
transport and storage of imported cars.
The designated site in the eastern parts of the city as
decided upon in the MEDSTAR planning exhibits the
following characteristics. It is situated at the road con-
nection from the Port of Dammam, which stands for 60%
of the currently incoming goods flows from the port [25].
This road transport now continues through high-traffic
central roads to the existing dry port. Congestion prob-
lems have led to restrictions for heavy lorry transport at
certain times, and the expectation is that a dry port site
development would reduce heavy traffic in the city cen-
tre. More decisive in the decision to plan a dry port to the
east seems to be a wish to decentralize the economic ar-
eas and to create new job opportunities in the sub-urban
residential areas, partly with the expected effect of de-
creasing commuting to central parts for the people work-
ing at the site. However, experiences show us that logis-
tics facilities such as dry ports do not create a lot of di-
rect employment in relation to the land used. This means
that the impact on employment would not be that influ-
ential when choosing another site for the dry port. The
number of direct jobs in the dry port is estimated at a
maximum 100 - 200 people, many of them living in
houses in the dry port today.
The proposed location in the eastern parts could have a
number of alternatives uses, e.g. light industry, service
(car service and maintenance, petrol stations, etc.),
wholesaling (shops, wholesalers, supermarkets, etc.), and
warehousing. One of the advantages of this location is
the closeness to the airport, and for that purpose the site
is still very attractive for logistics activities such as
warehouses related to air transportation. There is no or
very little competition between the proposed eastern lo-
cation with that in the south since there is very little in-
teraction between the dry port and the airport. There is a
large traffic flow of heavy trucks to and from Damman
that would exist even if the new dry port is constructed.
Thus the proposed area in the east would be an attractive
and suitable area for this traffic and activities since it is
close to the highway and not to close to the city, which
means that the presence of heavy trucks in the center of
the city would be decreased. There are possibilities to
create a logistic platform in the east that takes care of the
incoming road bound goods flows from the Portof
Dammam. It would allow a restriction policy for the city
centre as heavy lorries can reach the outskirts of the city.
It would require smart city logistic solutions with
light-weight, smaller lorries, that can provide the inner
city with goods. If such a city logistics is chosen it could
be considered for a type of city transport that uses alter-
native fuels with more environmentally friendly charac-
teristics. Better road access should be developed to con-
nect the logistic platform in the east with the planned
ring road. It is important that the planning guidelines/
provisions for this site/area ensure that no heavy industry
is developed in this area. Overall, strong road volumes to
and from Dammam and possible connections to the air-
port provide opportunities for logistics activities and ser-
vices. This area would facilitate transport planning ob-
jectives by being a major platform/split hub for truck
movements related to the city. Consideration could be
given to forbid heavy trucks to go inside the third ring
road. They could then use the third ring road to connect
the distribution center with the dry port in the south. Ring
road connection from the center could also be considered
as a specific dedicated freight road using specific tech-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JTTs
nology and a user pays model. The option of a logistics
platform also opens up the possibility for a smart city
logistics system.
From international experience, most major cities have
with development of their ring roads and freeway sys-
tems seen development of supporting logistics centers for
receiving deliveries by road. The logistics centers have
shifted from the inner city, given the increasing size of
vehicles and the value of land, which then allows proper
inventory management in a mix of vehicle size with a
dramatic increase of light commercial vehicles. This
would occur here in the east.
8. Conclusions
This paper offers an overview of relevant factors related
to the development of a large-scale dry port in a metro-
politan context. The focus of this paper is to explore the
issue of the implications of the siting of the dry port and
to analyze what measures, actions, or policies are needed
in order to ensure that the dry port will function effec-
tively and efficiently and serve the city and the region’s
current and future needs. The conclusions are structured
in accordance with the defined research questions.
8.1. Long term Planning and
Cross-Sector/Organizational Collaboration
The interconnection between the dry port and the overall
transport system, such as location of business, city logis-
tics, road and rail infrastructure, local, regional and na-
tional regulations, etc., is intimate. This means that the
development process creates challenges for the coordina-
tion and alignment of the different organizations and
their strategies and objectives. It is important in a com-
plex situation, such as when developing a dry port with
many stakeholders involved, that the roles of all actors
are clearly defined. This is essential for utilizing the full
opportunity of using the dry port as a regional tool for
planning. It would be beneficial if one dedicated body
took an overall coordinating function. However, once a
site is chosen, project objectives need to be agreed upon
until the supporting institutional structures are put in
8.2. Dry Port Function as Part of the Overall
Logistics System
The former dry port location may have great value for
future development and long term plans for public trans-
portation in the city center since the rail infrastructure is
already in place. There might also be an interesting pos-
sibility during a transition period where the site would be
possible to use for other purposes. It could work as a
center for LCL cargo, reefers, or similar cargo with spe-
cial demands. It could also function as a center for con-
struction work activities related to public transport such
as storage of material and bringing in material by rail.
Either way, the area is of such value that it should be
used even if the transition period is just a few years.
8.3. Planning, Development, and Design
From a city perspective, a number of available measures
exist related to the operating and design framework of
the dry port. An example of possible and commonly used
measure that is used to support the overall project objec-
tives of dry ports is to give priority for establishments
heavily dependent on transport in general but especially
rail. Another measure and requirement related to the
housing of workers might be to require the dry port to
provide housing for a certain share of the employees. It
should also reflect over the public transport facilities for
its workers in order to get to/from the dry port conven-
iently. Another issue that must be considered in order to
limit the effects of the dry port operations on surrounding
areas is to ensure that the site design enables all trucks to
be parked inside the premises of the dry port and the op-
erating hours. In order to facilitate transport efficiency
and limit pre- and post-haulage to and from the dry port,
surrounding areas can be designated for businesses that
focus on logistics and warehousing. Such establishments
may even have a certain modal share targets set by the
city. The aim is a good mixture of guidelines and policy
requirements that facilitate the development process.
When it comes to the design of the dry port there are
several important considerations. The success of a new
dry port is highly dependent on its effectiveness, effi-
ciency, and service quality. This is a principal concern
for the design of the dry port. Figure 4 illustrates the
general principles of the design and layout. For future
needs, the design of the Arriyadh Dry port should also
open up a possible functional extension of a marshaling
The case of the Arriyadh dry port illustrates a situation
many metropolitan areas are facing today with an out-
dated and congested dry port situation. Relocating and
redesigning the dry port creates great opportunities for
improving the effectiveness and efficiency of the trans-
portation system. At the same time it creates the chal-
lenge of how to combine it with the overall objectives
and strategies of the city. This, in combination with the
vast number of stakeholders involved, makes the devel-
opment process extremely challenging and difficult to
To sum up, the interconnection between the dry port
and the overall transportation system and aspects such as
location of business, city logistics, road and rail infra-
structure, local, regional and national regulations, etc. is
strong. This puts challenge on the coordination and
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Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JTTs
Figure 4. Functional layout of a large-scale intermodal terminal [28].
alignment of the different organizations, their strategies
and objectives. In a complex situation, such as develop-
ing a dry port with many stakeholders involved, it is cru-
cial that the roles of all actors are clearly defined. This is
essential for utilizing the dry port as a regional tool for
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