The substantial portions of the text came from Dr. Thomas Sowers and Dr. James Nelson research, “The Economic Impact of Presidential Scandals” presented at the Southern Political Science Association’s Annual Meeting in 2004.

This article has been retracted to straighten the academic record. In making this decision the Editorial Board follows COPE's Retraction Guidelines. Aim is to promote the circulation of scientific research by offering an ideal research publication platform with due consideration of internationally accepted standards on publication ethics. The Editorial Board would like to extend its sincere apologies for any inconvenience this retraction may have caused.

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