Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2013, 5, 669-680 Published Online July 2013 (
Removal of Zn (II) from Aqueous Solution onto
Kaolin by Batch Design
Bahia Meroufel1,2,3*, Omar Benali4, Mohamed Benyahia2, Mohamed Amine Zenasni1,3,
André Merlin3, Béatrice George3
1Laboratory of Valorisation of Vegetal Resources and Food Security (VRVSA), Bechar University, Bechar, Algeria
2Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Djillali Liabes University, Sidi Bel Abbes, Algeria
3Laboratory of Studies and Research on Material Wood (LERMAB), University of Lorraine, Nancy, France
4Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, Tahar Moulay University, Saida, Algeria
Email: *
Received April 26, 2013; revised May 28, 2013; accepted June 18, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Bahia Meroufel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License,
which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
The Algerian kaolin clay was investigated to remove Zn(II) heavy metal ion from aqueous solution. The effect of con-
tact time, initial metal ion concentration, pH and temperature was experimentally studied in batch mode to evaluate the
adsorption capacity, kinetic, thermodynamic and equilibrium. The extent of zinc adsorption increased with increasing
initial concentration of adsorbat, pH and temperature. The linear Langmuir and Freundlich models were applied to de-
scribe equilibrium isotherms and both models fitted well. The monolayer adsorption capacity for Zn(II) ions was 12.23
mg per g of kaolin clay at pH 6.1 and 25˚C. Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm model was also applied to the equi-
librium data. Thermodynamic parameters showed that the adsorption of Zn(II) onto kaolin clay was spontaneous and
endothermic process in nature. Furthermore, the Lagergren-first-order and pseudo-second-order models were used to
describe the kinetic data. The experimental data fitted well the pseudo-second-order kinetic. As a result, the kaolin clay
may be used for removal of zinc from aqueous media.
Keywords: Zn(II); Kaolin; Adsorption Isotherm; Thermodynamic; Kinetic
1. Introduction
Heavy metal contamination has become an environmen-
tal problem today in both developing and developed
countries throughout the world [1,2]. Heavy metals are of
considerable environmental concern due to their toxicity,
wide sources, non-biodegradable properties and accumu-
lative behaviours [3].
Zinc is considered as an essential element for life and
acts as a micronutrient when presented in trace amounts.
But too much zinc can be harmful to health. Zn(II) is
reported to be toxic beyond permissible limits. Symptoms
of zinc toxicity include irritability, muscular stiffness,
loss of appetite and nausea [4]. WHO [5] recommended
level of zinc in drinking water is 5 mg/L. The metal is
further reported to be bioaccumulated into flora and
fauna creating ecological problems. In developing coun-
tries, metal mining and metallurgy industrial departments
produce large quantities of wastewater containing high
concentration of Zn(II) [6,7]. It is also present in high
concentration in wastewater of pharmaceuticals, galva-
nizing, paints, pigments, insecticides, cosmetics, etc. that
causes serious problem to the environment [8]. Therefore,
the heavy metal levels in wastewater, drinking water, and
water used for agriculture should be reduced to the maxi-
mum permissible concentration. Many methods such as
ion exchange, precipitation, membrane processes and
reverse osmosis have been used for the removal of toxic
metal ions [9-15]. However, these methods have several
disadvantages such as incomplete metal ion removal,
high reagent and energy requirements, generation of
toxic sludge or other waste products, and long desorp-
tion time. Adsorption is recognized as an effective and
economic method for removal of pollutants from waste-
waters. In recent years, many studies have focused on
seeking cheap, locally available and effective adsorb-
ents, such as waste biopolymers, clays and clay minerals
Clay minerals are low-cost and readily available mate-
rials functioning as excellent cation exchangers, which
have often been used to adsorb metallic contaminants.
*Corresponding author.
opyright © 2013 SciRes. JWARP
They have different adsorption capacities for metal ions,
such as mesoporous silica [17] and montmorillonite clay
[18,19]. Kaolinite clay is a 1:1 clay mineral including a
tight interlayer structure with the ideal formula of
Al2Si2O5(OH)4 [20,21]. The sorption properties of this
clay are solely determined by the nature of its surface
and edges. Kaolinite clay possesses a variable charge that
can be related to the reactions between ionisable surface
groups located at the edges and the ions present in aque-
ous solution [20,22]. It has been used as adsorbent mate-
rial for the adsorption process of various heavy metals
The objective of the present work is to study the ad-
sorption characteristics of Zn(II) ions from aqueous solu-
tion using Algerian kaolin clay. The influences of adsorp-
tion conditions such as contact time, pH changes, initial
concentration of Zn(II) ions and temperature effect were
investigated. In addition, the evidence for physico-
chemical characteristics of Algerian kaolin clay obtained
from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron mi-
croscope (SEM) was investigated to understand the ad-
sorption mechanism. Finally, kaolin clay potentially used
to remove Zn(II) metal ion in wastewater was demon-
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Adsorbent
The kaolin sample used in this investigation was col-
lected from a natural deposit, located in Tabelbala in pro-
vince Bechar (Algeria). The surface area and CEC of
kaolin were measured using methylene blue technique
[27]. The sample of kaolin powder was characterized by
using infrared (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and
scanning electron microscopic (SEM) techniques.
2.2. Reagents
All chemicals used were of analytical grade. Stock stan-
dard solution of Zn2+ has been prepared by dissolving the
appropriate amount of ZnSO4·7H2O in deionized water.
This stock solution was then diluted to specified concen-
trations. The pH of the system was adjusted using reagent
grade NaOH and HCl respectively. All plastic sample
bottles and glassware were cleaned, then rinsed with de-
ionized water and dried at 60˚C in a temperature con-
trolled oven.
2.3. Instrumentation
The pH of all solution was measured by a TitraLab In-
strument TIM800 Model pH meter. The adsorption ex-
periments have been studied by batch technique using a
thermostated shaker bath GFL-1083 Model. A Eppendorf
5702 Model digital centrifuge was used to centrifuge the
samples. Zn(II) concentrations of solutions before and
after adsorption were measured by using flame atomic
absorption spectrophometer (Varian, SpectrAA-100,
The Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) absorption
spectra was recorded on KBr pressed pellets of the pow-
dered sample in the range 4000 - 400 cm1, using a
Perkine-Elmer FTIR 2000 spectrophotometer.
The X-ray diffraction pattern of powder was recorded
on a Phillips-1730 (PAN analytical) X-ray diffractometer
using Cu Kα radiation (λ = 1.54Å).
Nanomorphology was characterized by scanning elec-
tron microscopy (SEM) witch was carried out using Hi-
tachi S-4800 equipped with energy dispersive spectro-
metry for chemical analysis (EDS) and operating at 15
kV acceleration voltage.
2.4. Adsorption Procedure
Adsorption measurements were determined by batch
experiments. The effect of contact time on the adsorption
capacity of Kaolin was studied in the range 1 - 360 min
at an initial concentration of 100 mg/L. Adsorption ki-
netics was studied using an initial concentration of 100
mg/L with the adsorbent dosage of 0.2 g/20 mL at pH 6.1.
Adsorption isotherms were studied at various initial con-
centrations of Zn(II) ion in the range of 10 - 120 mg/L
and the experiments were conducted at different constant
temperatures in the range 25˚C - 60˚C. The amount of Zn
(II) adsorbed per unit mass of kaolin was calculated by
using the mass balance equation given in Equation (1)
where qe is the maximum adsorption capacity in mg/g, Co
is the initial concentration and Ce is the concentration at
equilibrium of Zn(II) solution in mg/L, V is the volume
of the Zn(II) solution in mL and m is the mass of the kao-
lin in grams.
The percent adsorption of metal ion was calculated as
follows Equation (2) [24]:
Sorption% %
The sorption capacity at time t, qt (mg/g) was obtained
as Equation (3) [24]:
where Co and Ct (mg/L) are the liquid phase concentra-
tions of Zn (II) at initial and a given time t, V is the solu-
tion volume and m the mass kaolin (g).
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JWARP
3. Results and Discussion
3.1. Characterisation of Adsorbent
SEM micrograph of the untreated clay sample suggests a
very cohesive material (Figure 1). The micrograph con-
firms that the material is forming micron-size agglomer-
ates. A higher magnification micrograph of the same
structure shows that the micro-size particles are com-
posed of individual platelets, which conglomerate into
larger size particles.
The X-ray diffraction spectrograph of the kaolin clay
is shown in Figure 2. Kaolin show three intense diffrac-
tion peaks at 2θ value of 12.4˚, 24.8˚ and 26.6˚, less in-
tense peaks at 2θ of 36.7˚, 39.6˚, 48.0˚, 50.1˚ and 60.1˚
and humps at 2θ = 19.8˚ - 21.9˚, 37.8˚ - 39.2˚ and 44.8˚ -
46.9˚, which are all associated with kaolinite (K). Dif-
fraction peaks of quartz (Q) could be found at 2θ values
of 20.9˚, 26.4˚, 50.9˚, 62.3˚ and 68.1˚. Illite (I) was also
detected at 2θ = 17.9˚, 30.2˚, 35.1˚, 42.4˚ and 55˚.
The FTIR Spectra of the kaolin, in the range of 400 -
4000 cm1 was taken to confirm the presence of func-
tional groups that might be responsible for the adsorption
process and presented in Figure 3. As may be seen, clay
display a number of adsorption peaks, reflecting the
complex nature the kaolin clay. The main bonds observed
Figure 1. SEM of kaolin clay.
0 1020304050607
Angle (2)
K : Kaolinite
Q : Quartz
I : Illite
Figure 2. XRD pattern of kaolin.
were OH stretching, hydroxyl sheet at 3698 cm1 and
3620 cm1. H2O stretching was also found at 1636 cm1.
Bands at 1033 cm1 and 984 cm1 were assigned to Si-O
bonds in the SiO4 molecules [29]. The other band at 913
cm1 was attributed to AlIV-OH vibrations [30]. The
bands at 798 cm1, 750 cm1 and 694 cm1 were Si-O
symmetric stretching [31]. Absorption at 535 cm1 was
assigned as Si-O-AlVI, where the Al is in octahedral co-
ordination [30,31].
The average surface area and CEC (Cation Exchange
Capacity) of kaolin which were measured using methyl-
ene blue technique [27] were 10.60 m2/g and 8.01 meq/
100 g, respectively.
3.2. Effect of Contact Time
The effect of contact time on the adsorption of Zn(II) ion
onto kaolin clay at 25˚C and pH 6.1 is shown in Figure 4.
It can be seen that the adsorption of Zn(II) occurred very
quickly from the beginning of the experiment to the first
12 min. where the maximum adsorption of Zn(II) onto
clay was observed; it can be said that beyond this there
Figure 3. IR spectra of kaolin.
050100 150 200 250 300 350 40
Sorption (%)
Figure 4. Effect of contact tie on adsorption capacity of
Kaolin. m
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JWARP
was almost no further increase in the adsorption. This
was due to the decrease of adsorption sites on the clay
which gradually interacted with the metal ion [32].
Therefore, 12 min was selected as the optimum contact
time for all further experiments.
In this study, 94.4% of Zn(II), were adsorbed on the
Kaolin clay when the equilibrium was reached in just 12
min. On the basis of this result, it can be observed that
natural kaolin clay can be used to remove this metal ion.
3.3. Effect of Initial Concentration of Zn (II)
Effect of initial concentration of Zn(II) on adsorption
n the adsorption capacity of kaolin
capacity of kaolin was investigated by varying initial
concentration of Zn(II) from 10 to 120 mg/L. For this
study, pH, temperature, adsorbent dosage and contact
time have been fixed as 25˚C, 0.2 g/20 mL and 12 min.
The results are presented in Figure 5. An increase of
Zn(II) concentration accelerates the diffusion of Zn(II)
ions from solution to the adsorbent surface due to the
increase in driving force of concentration gradient.
Hence, the amount of adsorbed Zn(II) at equilibrium in-
creased from 0.98 to 10.44 mg/g as the Zn(II) concentra-
tion is increased from 10 to 120 mg/L.
3.4. Effect of pH
Effect of initial pH o
for Zn(II) was studied by varying solution pH from 1.5 to
11 at the adsorbent dosage of 0.2 g/20 mL using an initial
concentration of Zn(II) as 100 mg/L. The pH range of 1.5
- 6.1 was chosen, as the precipitation of Zn(II) is found to
occur at pH 7 [16]. Variation of adsorption capacity of
kaolin for Zn(II) ions with pH is shown in Figure 6. It is
evident that the adsorption of Zn(II) ions on kaolin is
strongly dependant on the pH of the solution. The ad-
sorption of Zn(II) ions increases steadily with increase in
0 20406080
qe (mg/g)
C0 (mg/L)
Figure 5. Effect of initial concentration of Zn(II) on adsorp
tion capacity of Kaolin. -
qe (mg/g)
Figure 6. Effect of pH on adsorption capacity of Kaolin.
In an alkaline medium (pH > 7), the s
clay becom
+ HSiO+ HO (5)
2+ 2
itial pH from 1.5 to 6.1 and the maximum adsorption
apacity of 9.4 mg/g is observed at pH 6.1 (natural pH of
The effect of pH can be explained considering the sur-
face charge on the adsorbent material. At low pH values
(pH 2 - 6), the low adsorption observation was explained
due to increase in positive charge (protons) density on
the surface sites and thus, electrostatic repulsion occurred
between the metal ions (M2+: Zn2+) and the edge groups
with positive charge (Si-OH2+) on the surface as follows:
 (4)
urface of kaolin
- es negatively charged and electrostatic repul
sion decreases with raising pH due to reduction of posi-
tive charge density on the sorption edges thus resulting in
an increase metal adsorption. This mechanism can be
shown as follows:
A similar theory was proposed by
dsorption Isotherm Models
selected in this
lied to establish the
several earlier
, rkers for metal adsorption on different adsorbents [6
3.5. A
Three important isotherm models were
study, which are namely the Langmuir, Freundlich and
Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) isotherm models.
3.5.1. Langmuir Isotherm Model
Langmuir isotherm model was app
relationship between the amount of Zn(II) adsorbed onto
kaolin clay and its equilibrium concentration in aqueous
solution. Langmuir adsorption isotherm [34] is applied to
equilibrium adsorption assuming monolayer adsorption
onto a surface with a finite number of identical sites and
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JWARP
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JWARP
where KF and n are Freundlich constants related to ad-
sorption capacity and adsorption intensity, respectively.
When lnq e is plotted against l Ce, a straight line with
slope n and intercept KF is obtained (see Figure 9).
is represented in linear form
em Lm
where Ce is equilibrium concentration of the metal (mg/L)
and q is the amount of the metal adsorbed (mg) by per
le 1).
or ad-
The intercept of the line, KF, is roughly an indicator of
the adsorption capacity and the slope, n, is an indication
of adsorption intensity. The values obtained for the
Freundlich variables for the adsorption of Zn ions are
given in Table 1.
unit of the adsorbent (g). qm and KL are Langmuir con-
stant relating adsorption capacity (mg/g) and the energy
of adsorption (L/g), respectively. These constants are
evaluated from slope and intercept of the linear plots of
Ce/qe versus Ce, respectively (Figur e 7).
The Langmuir monolayer adsorption capacity of kao-
lin clay was estimated as 12.23 mg/g (Tab
A relatively slight slope n < 1 indicates that adsorption
intensity is good (or favorable) over the entire range of
concentrations studied, while a steep slope (n > 1) means
that adsorption intensity is good (or favorable) at high
concentrations but much less at lower concentrations
Based on the further analysis of Langmuir equation,
the dimensionless parameter of the equilibrium
rption intensity (RL) can be expressed by
0 2 4 6 81012141618
where C0 (mg/L) is the initial d
(L/mg) is the Langmuir constant related to the energy o
The equilibrium data was also applied to the Freundlich
the earliest relation-
ye concentration and KL
adsorption. The value of RL indicates the shape of the
isotherms to be either unfavourable (RL > 1), linear (RL =
1), favourable (0 < RL <1) or irreversible (RL = 0). The
influence of isotherm shape on whether adsorption is
favourable or unfavourable has been considered [35].
For a Langmuir type adsorption process, the isotherm
shape can be classified by a dimension less const
Ce/qe (g/L)
Ce (mg/L)
paration factor (RL), given by Equation (8). The calcu-
lated RL values as different initial Zn(II) concentrations
are shown in Figure 8. It was observed that the value of
RL in the range 0 - 1 confirmed the favourable uptake of
the Zn(II) process. Also lower RL values at higher initial
Zn(II) concentrations showed that adsorption was more
favourable at higher concentration. The degree of fa-
vourability is generally related to the irreversibility of the
system, giving a qualitative assessment of the kaolin-
Zn(II) interactions. The degrees tended toward zero (the
completely ideal irreversible case) rather than unity
(which represents a completely reversible case).
3.5.2. F re u ndlich Isotherm Model
Figure 7. Langmuir isotherm plot for adsorption of Zn(II)
on the Kaolin.
adsorption isotherm [36], which is
ship known describing the adsorption equilibrium and is
expressed in linear form by the following equation:
eF e
lnqlnKln C
 (9)
020406080100 120
Co (mg/L)
Figure 8. Plot of separation factor versus initial Zn(II) con-
Table 1. Langmuir, Freundlich anrameters for the adsorption of Zn(II) onto Kaolin clay.
d D-R isotherm pa
Langmuir isotherm constants Freundlich isotherm constants D-R isotherm constants
qm (mg/g)R2 n 2 qm (mg/g)R2 KL (L/g) KF R E(kJ/mol)
12.23 0.32 0.988 1.82 2.7 0.981 2.51 2.14 0.80
ln qe (mg/g)
ln Ce
Figure 9. Freundlich isotherm plot for adsorption of Zn(II)
on the Kaolin.
indicating that the adsorption process is
vourable. The K value of the Freundlich equation also
dsorption data was also modeled by D-R isotherm
to determinate the adsorption type (physical or chemical).
[37]. In the present study, the value of n (n = 1.82) is
greater than 1,
fa F
indicates that kaolin has a high adsorption capacity for
zinc ions in aqueous solutions.
The value of correlation coefficient (R2 = 0.981) is
also good. It can be said that Freundlich model fitted
3.5.3. Dubinin-Radushkevich (D-R) Model
The a
The linear form of this model is expressed by [
ln qln q
 (10)
where qe is the amount of the metal adsorbed onto per
unit dosage of the adsorbent (mol/L
adsorption capacity (mol/g); ε, the activ
); qm, the monolayer
ity coefficient
related to mean sorption energy (mol2/J2) and ε is the
Polanyi potential.
1RT ln
A plot of ln qe against ε2 is given in Figure 10. D-R
isotherm constant, qm, for Kaoli
2.51 mg/g (Ta ble 1 ). The difference of q derived from
n clay was found to be
e Langmuir and D-R models is large. The difference
may be attributed to the different definition of qm in the
two models. In Langmuir model, qm represents the
maximum adsorption of metal ions at monolayer cover-
age, whereas it represents the maximum adsorption of
metal ions at the total specific micropore volume of the
adsorbent in D-R model. Thereby, the value of qm derived
from Langmuir model is higher than that derived from
D-R model. The differences are also reported in previous
studies [19,38,40].
0,0 5,0x1061,0 x10 71,5x1 072,0x107
qe (mg/g) ln
J2/mo l 2)
Figure 10. D-R isotherm plot for adsorption of Zn(II) on
The mean sorption energy E (kJ/mol), can be calcu-
lated using the following equation (Equation (12)):
The adsorption is basically a surface adsorption asso-
the mechanism is physical adsorption [38-42]. The cal-
culated value of E is 2.14 kJ/m
the range of values for physical adsorption reactions. The
-order equation and second-
e most popular ki-
ated with ion exchange when |E| is between 8 and 16 kJ
mol1. Otherwise, for |E| ranging from 1.0 to 8.0 kJ
ol for Kaolin, and it is in
milar results for the adsorption of Zn(II) was reported
by earlier worker [42-44].
3.6. Adsorption Kinetic Models
In an attempt to present the kinetic equation representing
adsorption of Zn(II) onto kaolin clay, two kinds of ki-
netic models were used to test the experimental data.
These are Lagergren-first
order equation.
Lagergren-first-order equation is th
netics equation. The form is
qkq q
After definite integration by applying the conditions qt
= 0 at t = 0 and qt = qt at t = t, Equation (13) becomes
the following [45,46]:
k t
where q(mg/g) is the amount of adsorption time t (min);
determined experimentally by
plotting of ln (qe qt) versus t (see Figur
The second-order equation is in the fo
1, the rate constant of the equation (min1) and qe is the
amount of adsorption equilibrium (mg/g). The adsorption
rate constant k1, can be e 11).
llowing form:
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JWARP
0510 15 20
)ln (qt-qe
t (min)
Figure 11. Lagergren pseudo first-order plots for Zn(II)
adsorbed on kaolin.
kq q
After definite integration by applying the conditions qt
= 0 at t = 0 and qt = qt at t = t, Equation (15) becomes the
llowing [47-49]: fo
he amount of adsorption equilibrium
k2 and qe can be determined exper
of t/qt versus t (Figure 12).
nt with this adsorption model was confirmed by
rst-order equation of Lager-
t (16)
here qt (mg/g) is the amount of adsorption time t (min),
k2 (g/mg min) is the rate constant of the second-order
equation and qe is t
imentally by plotting
Based on the correlation coefficients presented in Ta-
ble 2, the adsorption of Zn(II) onto Algerian kaolin was
best described by the second order equation. A good
e similar values of qe experimental and qe calculated.
Many studies reported the fi
en does not fit well to the initial stages of the adsorp-
tion processes [42,45,50,51]. The first-order kinetic pro-
cess has been used for reversible reaction with an equi-
librium being established between liquid and solid phases.
In many cases, the second-order equation correlates well
to the adsorption studies [43,50].
The best fit to the pseudo-second order kinetic indi-
cated that the adsorption mechanism depended on the
adsorbate and adsorbent [52,53].
3.7. Thermodynamic of Adsorption
Adsorption experiments to study the effect of tempera-
ture were carried out from 25˚C to 60˚C at optimum pH
value of 6.1 and adsorbent dosage level of 0.1 g·L1. The
contact time for adsorption was maintained at 12 min.
The variation in the extent of adsorption with respect to
temperature has been explained based on thermodynamic
parameters viz. free energy change (ΔG), enthalpy
change (ΔH) and entropy change (ΔS) which were de-
termined using the following equations [54]:
when lnKd was plotted against 1/T, (Figure 13), a straight
line with the slope of ΔH/T and intercept of ΔS/R were
obtained. The values of ΔH and ΔS were obtained from
the slope and intercept of the Van’t Hoff plots. The ther-
modynamic parameters for the adsorption process are
given in Table 3.
It is clear that positive value of ΔH suggested the en-
dothermic nature of the adsorption and the negative value
of ΔG indicated the spontaneous nature of the adsorption
process. Generally, the change in adsorption enthapy for
050100 150 200 250 300 350 400
t/qt (min.g/mg)
Figure 12. Pseudo second-order plots for Zn(II) adsorbed
on kaolin.
Table 2. Comparison of adsorption rate constants, experimen
der reaction kine ti cs for removal of zinc by kaolin clay. tal and calculated qe values for the pseudo-first and second or-
Pseudo-second order qe experimental (mg·g1) Pseudo-first order
k1 (min1) qe calculated (mg·g1) R2 k2 (g·mg1·min1) qe calculated (mg·g1) R2
0.18 0.07 0.855 11.33 9.44 1
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JWARP
Table 3. Thermodynamic parameters.
−ΔG (KJ·mol1) ΔH (KJ·mol1) R2 ΔS (J·mol1·K1)
25˚C 30˚C 40˚C 50˚C 60˚C
0.34 0.94 3.4.54 35.42 0.12 0.96 2.1434
0,0030 0,0031 0,00320,0033
0,0034 0,0035
ln Kd (L/g)
1/T (K-1)
Figure 13. Plot of lnKd against 1/T for the adsorption of
Zn(II) on kaolin.
physisorption is in the range of 20 to 40 kJ mol1, but
chemisorption is between 400 and 80 kJ mol1 [53,55].
The value of adsorption heat showed that physical ad-
inc on natural and MnO2 modified diatomite and on
andomness in the
nts reported in literature and the values of adsorp-
The estigation was
other adsorbents. Therefore, considering the low cost of
Table 4. Comparison of adsorption capacity of kaolin clay
with vants for Z
Adsorbent Adsorption capaci (mg/g) Refer
sorption took place in the adsorption of Zn(II) ion on
kaolin. Similar results were found for the adsorption of
crosslinked starch Phosphates [56,57].
The slightly positive ΔS value showed the increased
randomness at the solid/solution interface during the ad-
sorption process. The adsorbed water molecules, which
were displaced by the adsorbate species, gained more
translational energy than was lost by the adsorbate ions,
thus allowing the prevalence of the r
stem. Enhancement of the adsorption capacity at high-
er temperatures may be attributed to the enlargement of
pore size and/or activation of the adsorbent surface [58,
3.8. Comparison of Kaolin Clay with Various
Adsorbents for Zn(II) Removal
The adsorption capacity of the kaolin clay for the re-
moval of Zn(II) was compared with those of other ad-
tion capacities were presented in Table 4. The val
reported in the form of monolayer adsorption capac
experimental data of the present inv
comparable with the reported values. The kaolin clay had
a high adsorption capacity as comparable with that of the
rious adsorben(II) removal.
Acbon tive car11.24[60]
Kaolinite 3.05 [60]
Low r coal
Present work
Bentonie 9.12 [60]
Penicilliumchrysogenum 11.11 [61]
Tannic acid immobilized 1.23 [62]
7.62 (undyed), [63]
Groundnut shells (undyed
and dyed with C.I.
Reactive Orange 13) 9.57 (dyed) [63]
Carbon aerogel 1.183
Sugar beat pulp 0.176 [65]
Fly ash 11.11 [65]
ank Turkish1.66 [66]
grade phosp10.32 [67]
Activated alumina 13.69 [68]
Clarified sludge 15.53 [68]
Streptoverticillium 9.15 [61]
Humic acid 6.12 [69]
Amphibolite 11.5 [70]
Granite 8.64 [70]
Zeolite 13.2 [71]
Sawdust 2.58 [72]
Brine sediments 4.85 [72]
kaolin clay 12.23
this nt, it can b as an ale
matethe concentration of Zn(II-
4. Con
The result investigatioow that kalow
cost mates suitable adsoacity with re-
gard to the removal of zinc ions from its aqueous solu-
tions. Thd amount of Zons increath
increacentration of adsorbat, pH em-
perature. Experimental results were evaluated with Lang-
atural adsorbene usedternativ
rial to minimize ) in was
ts of presenn sholin,
rial, harption cap
e adsorben(II) ised wi
se in initial conand t
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JWARP
muir, Fnd Dubinin-Rkevic
addition to higher values of correlation coefficients,
Freundlich isotherms for zinc metal. Pseudo-
on kinetic has provided a realistic
of Zn2+ with similar values
Liang, C. T. Gao and W. Q. Chen, “Heavy Me-
reundich aadushh isotherms.
monolayer capacities (qm) determined from Langmuir
isotherm and adsorption intensity (n) determined from
Freundlich isotherm indicate appropriateness of Lang-
muir and
second-order reacti
description for removal
of q
calculated and qe experimental, whereas in the first order
kinetic the difference between these values is large. The
correlation coefficient was also higher in pseudo-second-
order kinetic.
The enthalpy change for the adsorption process was
indicative of the endothermic nature of adsorption. The
dimensionless separation factor (RL) showed that kaolin
can be used for removal of zinc ions from aqueous solu-
tions. The results of this research were compared to the
published data in the same field, and found to be in
agreement with most of them. The batch design may be
useful for environmental technologist in designing treat-
ment plants for metal removal from wastewaters.
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