Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 2013, 2, 81-91
doi:10.4236/cweee.2013.22B014 Published Online April 2013 (
Variations in the Water Quality of an Urban River in
F. A. Oginni
Department of Civil Engineering, College of Science, Engineering and Technology, Osun State University
Received 2013
Sango-Ota is the industrial nerve centre of Ogun State in Nigeria. River Atuara is an urbanized river in this town. The
aim of this study is to assess the quality of water in the river along its 13 km urbanized stretch within Owode – Ota and
Gbenga quarters of Sango – Ota in Ogun State, Nigeria. A study of some physical and chemical analysis was carried out
to determine the level of pollution in the river. Total Dissolved Solids, TDS, pH, Colour and Temperature measure-
ments were obtained for nine locations on the 21 km river stretch. Laboratory analyses were carried out at 4 locations
along the water course for the following parameters: pH, Conductivity, Turbidity, DO, BOD, COD, TDS, TSS. Others
include Phosphate, Chloride, Nitrate, Sulphate, Cadmium, Lead, Iron, Copper, Zinc, and Nickel. Results indicate that
the water quality reduces downstream of the urbanized stretch. Some of the level of heavy metals in the river calls for
concern. At Owode, the lead content of 0.11 mg/L is too high compared to a maximum of 0.01 mg/l permissible, which
can cause cancer. This can interfere with Vitamin D metabolism, and can affect mental development in infants. It is
toxic to the central and peripheral nervous systems. Cadmium is below 0.002 which is just below the 0.003 mg/l per-
mitted in Nigeria. Nickel content was 0.046 mg/l between Owode and Ewupe and this is above the maximum permissi-
ble level of 0.02 for Nigeria. This has the possibility of carcinogenic health impact. Owode and Ewupe have greater
industrial impacts than the other two locations, Igboloye and Gbenga. The trends of each of the 21 parameters from the
urbanized stretch of the river have been observed to follow a pattern that can be categorized as similar, mirrored, som-
ersault and composite of mirrored and somersault. More studies were recommended in this direction as well as in de-
termining the locations of factories and industries contributing to the pollution level around Ewupe and their effluent
disposal programs will need to be ascertained.
Keywords: Urbanized Water; Physical Chemical; Analysis; Health; Impact
1. Preamble
Sango-Otta urban community is the industrial nerve cen-
tre of Ogun State. It can be regarded as an extension of
Lagos. River Atuwara is the major river that drains the
Sango-Otta community. The level of pollution in this
urbanized stretch of the river is of concern to the com-
munity because of the level of industrialization within
this community. Ekweozor and Agbozu, 2001 [1] had
reported how environment degradation, environmental
deterioration and underdevelopment issues in Nigeria
had been of concern at both national and international
levels. Nasrullah et al., [2] 2006 indicated that rapid in-
dustrialization is having direct and indirect adverse ef-
fects on our environment. Nwidu et al.,2008 [3] showed
that quality of water and prevalent water related diseases
in hospitals were casually related to contamination of the
river within the community. Adekunle, 2009 [4] deduced
that the qualities of wells were affected by proximity to
river used as disposal of industrial effluent. There is
therefore the need to carryout water quality studies on
urbanized rivers within our communities. Studies on
various aspects of water quality studies had been carried
out on Nigerian waters. Workers in this respect include:
Izonfuo and Bariweni, 2001 [5] on the Epie creek of in
the Niger Delta; Wakawa et al., 2008 [6] on surface wa-
ter of River Challawa Kano, Nigeria; Fakayode, 2005 [7]
on Alaro River in Ibadan, Nigeria; Rim-Rukeh et al.,
2006 [8] on effects of Agricultural Activities on Orogodo
River, Agbor Nigeria; Ahmed and Tanko, 2000 [9] on
water quality changes for irrigation within River Hadejia
Catchment; and Arimoro, et al., 2007 [10] on impact of
Sawmill Wood Wastes on the Water Quality and Fish
Communities of Benin River, Niger Delta Area, Nigeria.
Other workers in this field include Gaballah et al., 2005
[11]; Neal and Robson, 2000 [12]; FEPA,1991 [13];
USEPA,2000 [14]; WHO,2000 [15]; APHA, 2005 [16];
Robson and Neal, 1997 [17]; Inoue and Ebise, 1999 [18];
Walter, 1987 [19]; Isiorho and Oginni, 2008 [20]; Akpan,
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CWEEE
et al., 2008 [21]; and Fawell, 2007 [22]. The aim of this
study is to determine the variations in the physical-
chemical parameters that can be used to determine the
level of pollution along the urbanized stretch of River
Atuwara. This will further be analyzed in line with the
land use within the basin.
River Atuwara is located in the Ifo – Ota district of
Ogun state Nigeria. It takes its source from the Adenrele
area of Ifo district in Ogun state having a relief of 200m
above mean sea level. The river meanders from its source
to cross the old Lagos-Abeokuta express road at Owode,
passing through Ewupe, Benja and Igbolye after which it
crosses another major road, Idiiroko road at Iju. The
flood plain of the river is observed to be swampy indi-
cating abundance of loamy and sandy soils within. The
natural vegetation type in the catchment area is the
tropical or lowland rain forest. The river together with
another river, R. Iju have a confluence point at Iju lo-
cated after Canaan land on Idiroko road, Ota where it is
now named river Iju.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Reconnaissance Survey
A reconnaissance survey of the catchment area of the
Atuwara basin from the source to beyond the urbanized
stretch of the river was undertaken to be able to plan and
collect necessary data and information on the land and
water use of the basin. A 1:50,000 topographical map of
Ifo/Ota was obtained from the Ministry of Lands and
Survey located in Okelewo, Abeokuta. Materials em-
ployed for the reconnaissance survey include the follow-
Reconnaissance survey kits
Global positioning system (GPS)
TDS meter Stop watch
Measuring tape (50M) pH meter and
At areas where the river had to be traversed and or
crossed in some other instances, canoes were hired. Ser-
vices of some native Site assistants were also used so as
to be able to create soft landing pads in possible hostile
communities as well as making navigation less demand-
Data collected during the reconnaissance survey in-
clude the following:
Communities that use the river
Economic activities
Religious practices/rites in the area
Usage of the river along its stretch
Sources of pollution to the river
Nature of pollution
2.2. Materials and Methods for the Physical
In assessing the quality of water in river channels, sev-
eral physical, chemical, and biological analyses are re-
quired. The most common physical analyses are pH,
temperature and dissolved solids. Survival of fishes and
aquatic invertebrates depend on the right pH and tem-
peratures. Akpan et al., 2008 [23] used pH as criteria for
evaluation in their modeling and simulation of the effect
of effluent from Kaduna Refinery and Petrochemical
Company, KRPC, on the quality of R. Kaduna. The
physical parameters considered in this study are Tem-
perature, pH, and Total Dissolved Solids (TDS). These
parameters were measured in-situ for nine locations and
are considered as preliminary assessment of the quality
of water in the channel. The locations are:
Adenrele Onihale Owode
Ewupe Mosafejo Benja
Igboloye Gbenga1 Gbenga
Mosafejo and Benja are located, respectively on rivers
Iju and Atuwara, at same distance from the confluence
point, Igboloye. Mosafejo, though not urbanized, is con-
sidered separately because of its proximity to both Ig-
boloye and Benja. The urbanized stretch is from Onihale
to Gbenga. Other parameters determined on the field
include colour, odour, turbidity, and the velocity of flow.
Temperature was measured with the aid of a digital
thermometer. Measurements of both the water tempera-
ture and the ambient temperature were measured and
values recorded in degrees Celsius(℃).
The pH and total dissolved solids (TDS) or electrical
conductivity (EC) of the raw water samples were meas-
ured with HANNA HI 9810 pH-TDS meter. The meter
was standardized with a buffer solution (i.e. buffer 7 and
9). The buffer tablet was distilled in a 100ml of water in
a beaker. The probe of the meter is then placed in the
solution and adjusted to read 000 to standardize it. The
electrode response was checked by measuring the pH of
the test sample, first with distilled water and then with
the sample. The system was allowed to stabilize before
the final reading was made.
The velocity of the river flow was measured using the
float method. The floats used were pieces of polystyrenes
placed on river surface made to travel known distances
along the river. The time taken to travel specific dis-
tances were measured. The velocity of flow was the
2.3. Raw Water Sample Collection and
The materials required for raw water sample collection
and preservation are as follows:
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2l-bottles De-ionized distilled water
Masking tape Cooling facility
Canoe Digital Camera
GPS and Services of Local Assistants
Water samples were collected in clean containers dur-
ing analysis and the quantity collected at any given time
depends on the number of parameters wanted. In most
cases 2-liter samples may be sufficient. It is essential to
take the sample to the laboratory for testing immediately
after collection. This is such that the parameters required
are not altered due to variance in temperature or ambient
condition. This could render the results from the labora-
tory invalid.
The raw water samples that could not be taken to the
laboratory the same day were preserved. Since our water
samples were for bacteriological analysis the collection
bottles were always sterilised. The samples were left in a
refrigerator set at 4℃, a temperature where bacteria are
inactivated. The parameters, preservation required and
maximum periods are indicated in Table 1.
Raw water samples were collected from four strategic
locations along the urbanized stretch of the river. These
are Owode, Ewupe, Igboloye and. Gbenga. The two liters
capacity bottles were washed normally using detergent
and then rinsed properly with de-ionized distilled water
were used for collection and storage of samples. During
collection, the sample bottles were rinsed again with the
water samples twice. Each bottle was tagged with differ-
ent labels on masking tape for identification purposes.
The samples were put in cooling facility for adequate
preservation after collection in readiness for the labora-
tory located some 15 km to the site. Laboratory services
were provided by Messrs. Triple “E” Systems Associates
Ltd. (RC No. 108,343), and with Laboratory Services
DPR Permit No. RC 0733/2008.
Generally, the parameters considered are as follows:
Ph; Conductivity (S/cm); Turbidity (FTU);
Colour; DO(mg/L); BOD (mg/L); COD (mg/L)
Total Dissolved Solids (mg/L); Total Suspended
Solids(mg/L); Phosphate(mg/L);
Chloride (mg/L); Nitrate (NO3-) (mg/L);
Sulphate (SO4
-2) (mg/L); Cadmium (mg/L);
Lead (mg/L); Iron (mg/L); Copper (mg/L);
Zinc(mg/L); Nickel (mg/L)
3. River Atuwara Drainage Basin and Land
Use Survey Report
The catchment area of R. Atuwara at Igboloye as carved
out is shown in Figure 1. This area also covered about
40% of Sango-Ota municipality. Within the basin, the
right hand side of the main trunk of the river is more de-
veloped than the area on the left side of the basin.
The urbanized stretch of the river is from Owode to
Igboloye. Social and economic activities around the river
are indicated in Table 2 below. Occupation of the people
of Onihale, Ewupe and Igboloye is majorly agricultural
activities which includes cultivation of crops, fish farm-
ing, piggery and snailry. The river crosses the Lagos –
Abeokuta express road at Owode which serves as a mar-
ket and has a large abattoir very close to the river. Here
the river is used to dispose solid wastes from the market
and organic matter from decomposed animal flesh from
the abattoir. The river is also used for domestic purposes
such as cooking, bathing, washing of clothes, meat buck-
ets etc. Some areas of the river that may used to dispose
industrial, chemical, and institutional wastes include
Ewupe, Igboloye, Gbenga and Iju.
Table 1. Samples preservation and maximum periods.
Acidity – Alkalinity Refrigeration at 40 C 24 – hours
Biochemical oxygen demand Refrigeration at 40 C 6 – hours
Chemical oxygen demand 2ml conc. H2SO4 per litre 7 days
Colour Refrigeration at 4OC 24 – hours
Dissolved oxygen Determine on site No holding
Metals Total Conc. HNO3 to PH 2- 3 6 months
Metals Dissolved Filtrate 3ml 1 : 1 HNO3 perL 6 months
Nitrogen Total 40mg Hg2+ or 2ml conc. H2SO4 at 40C 7 DAYS
Organic carbon Total 2ml conc. H2SO4 per litre (Ph2) 24 hours
pH Determine on site No holding
Phosphorus 40mg Hg2+ per litre at 40C 7 days
Other organic substances
R. Atuara Drainage Basin
Sango-Otta – Idiroko Road
Lagos – Abeokuta Express Road
Ifo Otta District Boundary Line
Canaan land, Idiroko Road
Figure 1. R. Atuara drainage network and catchment area at igboloye.
Table 2. Location of Settlements along R. Atuwara and Land use.
S/No Sample Location Distance From Source (Km) Land / Water use
1 Adenrele 0 Fishing and domestic purposes
2 Onihale 6 Farming and waste disposal
3 Owode 8 Market, Abattoir, and Cloth washing
4 Ewupe 12 Domestic use but smelly water
5 Benja 16.8 Livestock and fishing. Bad odour
6 Igboloye 18.6 Domestic use and Shrine
7 Gbenga1 20.0 Domestic and Farming
8 Gbenga 21.0 Farming and Fishing
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Typical uses of the urbanized river at different loca-
tions are indicated in Plates 1 - 4 below.
disposal of solid wastes both organic and inorganic. It is
also used for domestic purposes such as bathing, cooking,
and cloth washing, (laundering),
The variations of the ambient temperature and the wa-
ter temperature along the river are shown in Figure 2.
4.1. Chemical Analysis
Chemical analysis was carried out on samples from four
sites because these particular sites have peculiar events
occurring around them such as the presence of pharma-
ceutical industries, contact with wastewater from institu-
tion, mixed agricultural activities e.t.c. The analysis car-
ried out on them includes Conductivity(S/cm), Turbid-
ity (FTU), DO (mg/L), BOD (mg/L), COD (mg/L), Total
Dissolved Solids (mg/L), Total Suspended Solids(mg/L),
Phosphate (mg/L), Chloride (mg/L), Nitrate(NO3
2-)(mg/L), Cadmium(mg/L), Lead(mg/L),
Iron(mg/L), Copper(mg/L), Zinc (mg/L), Nickel (mg/L).
Results of the analysis and expected standards by Nigeria
and World Health Organization, WHO, are presented in
Table 4.
4. Analysis and Discussion of Results
Results of preliminary and physical assessment of nine
locations around the water in the channel are presented in
Table 3.
Occupation of the people around the river is majorly
agricultural, including fish farming. The river is used for
Table 3. Temperature, Color, pH and Total Dissolved Solids in the Channel.
Temperature (0C)
S/N Location
Ambient Water
Colour pHTotal Dissolved Solids (ppm) Remarks
1 Adenrele 31.5 26.7 Slightly Clear 5.50.49 Source
2 Onihale 32.4 26.3 Mudish brown 6.50.53
3 Owode 31.4 26.5 Light brown 5.80.52 Urbanized
4 Ewupe 30.1 26.3 Greenish but slightly clear5.30.57 Urbanized
5 Mosafejo 31.5 26.7 Clear 5.40.28
6 Benja 28.0 26.4 Light brown 5.50.56 Urbanized
7 Igboloye 27.2 26.3 Light brown 5.50.53 Urbanized. Serves as shrine
8 Gbenga1 26.8 26.4 Light brown 5.50.44
9 Gbenga2 28.5 26.2 Mudish brown 6.70.59 Lots of dirt
Figure 3. pH and total dissolved solids (TDS) at specified
Figure 2. Ambient and water temperature (˚C).
Table 4. Results of water analysis and expected standards by nigeria and WHO.
S/No Parameter Owode Ewupe Igboloye Gbenga
Distance from source (km)8.0 12.0 18.6 21.0
1 pH 7.69 7.16 7.38 7.39 6.5-8.5 6.5-7.5
2 Conductivity µS/cm 141 136 152 178 1,000 500
3 Turbidity ND 2.00 26.00 85.00 - 5.0 NTU*
4 Color Faint Yellow Faint YellowFaint Yellow Brownish Yellow 3.0 TCU**
5 DO mg/l 4.60 0.80 7.40 3.80 - -
6 BOD mg/l 1.40 0.80 2.80 3.60 - -
7 COD mg/l 40.00 60.00 28.00 20.00 - -
8 TDS mg/l 82.00 70.00 79.00 92.00 500 1,000
9 TSS mg/l 35.00 40.00 45.00 108.00
10 Phosphate mg/l 1.133 0.981 1.140 0.812 - -
11 Chloride mg/l 3.80 4.70 6.80 3.10 250 250
12 Nitrate mg/l 0.003 0.181 0.001 0.012 50 50
13 Sulphate mg/l 10.00 13.00 17.00 14.00 100 250
14 Cadmium mg/l <0.002 <0.002 <0.002 <0.002 0.003 Not done
15 Lead mg/l 0.11 <0.01 <0.01 <0.01 0.01 Not considered
16 Iron mg/l 1.922 1.161 1.850 1.927 0.3 “
17 Copper mg/l 0.091 0.067 0.080 0.115 1 “
18 Zinc mg/l 0.0654 0.0778 <0.001 0.0240 3 “
19 Nickel mg/l 0.046 0.046 0.012 0.116 0.02 “
*Nephelometric turbidity unit; **True color unit.
The results for the 4 sites are presented graphically
from Figure 4 to Figure 21.
The following are deductions from the analysis:
The areas that are of concern are the concentrations of
the following parameters:
(i) Conductivity (ii) Turbidity
(iii) Lead at Owode (iv) Iron
(v) Nickel
The concentrations of these chemical parameters are
above the WHO and Nigerian standards.
All the four sites except Owode, which has highest pH
value of 7.69, (Figure 4), fell within the ranges given by
Nigeria and WHO standards. The pH at Owode was
above the range specified by WHO.
Generally conductivity in the river channel at all the
locations were below both WHO and Nigerian standards.
However, conductivity fell slightly below the Owode
value at Ewupe to continue rising along the urbanized
river stretch. This is shown in Figure 5.
Figure 4. pH trend urbanized stretch.
The river is more turbid at both Igboloye and Gbenga
at kilometers 18.6 and 21 respectively as shown in Fig-
ure 6. This can be accounted for by the use of the river
for domestic purposes, like washing and farming at both
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locations. The first 4 km of the 13 km of the urbanized
river stretch downstream (Owode and Ewupe) are more
urbanized than the last 2.6 km of the 13 km stretch, (Ig-
boloye – Gbenga). This explains the higher turbidity ob-
tained in the less urbanized stretch along the river. It can
be concluded that turbidity, T, is inversely proportional
to the level of urbanization, UL and indicated as equation
T 1 U
L (1)
If other factors that affect turbidity within the urban-
ized river stretch such as channel shape, slope, lining and
bank slope stability are constant, then
T = k(1/UL) (2)
where k is the constant coefficient to be determined.
The color of the water in the channel remained at faint
yellow from commencement of the urbanized stretch at
Owode, for 10.6 km downstream to Igboloye. The color
at 2.4 km further downstream became brownish yellow at
Gbenga. This indicates effect of erosion due to domestic
use of the river within this section of the river.
The trend recorded for Dissolved Oxygen, DO, level
along the river is shown in Figure 7. DO can be an indi-
cator of how polluted the water is and how well the water
can support aquatic plant and animal life. At Igboloye,
10.6 km from the commencement of urbanized stretch,
the highest DO, level of 7.4 mg/L was recorded. The
highest Biological Oxygen Demand, BOD, of 3.6 mg/L
was recorded at Gbenga, 2.4 km downstream of Ig-
Figure 5. Conductivity (mS/cm).
8 1012141618202
Turbidity (NTU)
Distance Along River From Source (Km)
Figure 6. Turbidity (NTU).
Ewupe has the highest Chemical Oxygen Demand,
COD, of 60.0 mg/L as well as lowest Biological Oxygen
Demand, BOD and Dissolved Oxygen, DO of 0.80 mg/L
in each case. These are shown in Figure 8 and Figure 9.
The trends presented by the Total Dissolved Solids,
TDS, and Total Suspended Solids, TSS, are shown in
Figure 10 and Figure 11. TDS values within the river
stretch considered ranged between 70 and 92 mg/L
which are far below the Nigerian and WHO standards,
with the lowest recorded at 4 km away from downstream
urbanized stretch at Ewupe. TSS rises gently from
Owode, kilometer 8 from source to some 10.6 km down-
stream at Igboloye. The trend then rises sharply through
the 2.4 km downstream to Gbenga as shown in Figure
Figure 7. Dissolved oxygen, Do,(mg/L).
Figure 8. BOD (mg/L).
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Figure 9. COD (mg/L).
Figure 10. Total dissolved solids (mg/L).
Figure 11. Total suspended solids (mg/L).
The trends presented by Phosphate and Chloride are
indicated in Figure 12 and Figure 13. The trends are
similar from a distance of 12 km through downstream of
the urbanized stretch. The trend presented by Nitrate,
shown in Figure 14 indicates a somersault trend of that
of Phosphate. At kilometer 12 from source, Ewupe has
the lowest Phosphate level as well as the highest Nitrate
level. Also at 18.6 km from the source, the highest phos-
phate level was recorded with the lowest level for Ni-
The trend for Sulphate level along the urbanized
stretch is shown in Figure 15. This trend is somehow
similar to that of Chloride asshown in Figure 13. Both
indicate highest levels at Igboloye, 18 km from the
source, although the sulphate level did not fall below the
Owode level as was the case for Chloride levels.
From results, the water in the channel is free from
problems that may arise through higher levels of Cad-
mium, (Figure 16). At all the investigated stations, Cad-
mium levels were lower than 0.002 mg/L which in turn
are lower than 0.003 mg/L limit stipulated by Nigerian
Figure 17 indicates that the lead level in the river at
the beginning of urbanization, is of great concern at
Owode, 8 km from the river source. The expected Nige-
rian standard for lead is 0.01 mg/L and the levels at other
locations are lower, that at Owode is 10 times greater at
0.11 mg/L.
The iron content in the river at all the locations ranged
between 1.161 mg/L and 1.927 mg/L which are far above
the 0.3 mg/L standard for Nigeria. However it records the
lowest level at Ewupe (Figure 18).
Figure 12. Phosphate (mg/L).
Figure 13. Chloride (mg/L).
Figure 14. Nitrate (NO-3) (mg/L).
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Figure 15. Sulphate (SO4-2)(mg/L).
Figure 16. Cadmium (mg/L).
Figure 17. Lead (mg/L).
Figure 18. Iron (mg/L).
Copper contents in the river more or less followed the
same trend as that of iron. This can be deduced from
Figure 19. They are also below the Nigerian standard.
Zinc contents at all considered river locations fell be-
low standards specified by Nigeria. Igboloye has the
lowest Zinc level, as indicated by Figure 20.
The obtained result for Nickel content in the river
(Figure 21) indicates that only Igboloye, 18.6 km from
the source is below the standards set by Nigeria. The
others are above thereby suggesting that it can possibly
be carcinogenic.
Generally the quality of the water in the channel dete-
riorated greatest at Ewupe, 12 km downstream of the
source and 4 km downstream of the commencement of
urbanized river stretch.
Figure 19. Copper (mg/L).
Figure 20. Zinc (mg/L).
Figure 21. Nickel (mg/L).
4.2. Physical-Chemical Parameter Trend
It is observed that the results of many of the parameters
along the urbanized stretch as presented by Figure 4
through Figure 21 have followed some interesting trends.
The trends can be categorized as
(i) Similar trends (ii) Mirrored Trends
(iii)Somersault trends (iv) Composite trends
The parameters that are grouped under each category
are indicated in Table 5.
The trends can be used for modeling water quality pa-
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Table 5. Grouped parameters and trend categories.
1 pH and Iron DO DO BOD
Iron Zinc Zinc COD
Sulphate* *Apologetic
2 Conductivity COD BOD
TDS Chloride COD
3 Chloride TSS
Sulphate Lead
5. Conclusions and Recommendations
5.1. Conclusions
The urbanized stretch of R. Atuwara right from upstream
at Owode to downstram at Gbenga had experienced dif-
ferent levels of pollution at different points as a result of
varied activities along the river. Generally the quality
deteriorated downstream.
Results of the physical and chemical analyses carried
out pointed to some areas of concern. These are dis-
cussed below.
(i) The pH level at Owode, the beginning of the ur-
banized stretch is greater than the WHO standard, though
within Nigeria’s standard.
(ii) Conductivity levels are lower than both WHO and
Nigerian standards. It is lowest at Ewupe, 4 km down-
stream of beginning of the urbanized river stretch. The
sharpness of its rise within this stretch along the stream
may be of concern since sudden increases in conductivity
indicate that there is a source of dissolved ions in the
vicinity. It can be used as an indication of potential water
quality problems.
(iii) The DO level at Ewupe shows that the water qual-
ity at this point is the poorest, ( This indicates
that some fish and macro invertebrate populations will
begin to decline ( Most warm water fish need
DO in excess of 2 mg/L to survive.
(iv) Lead level at Owode.
(v) Iron content levels through the river stretch is
greater than recommended level.
(vi) The concentration of iron rose from Ewupe down-
stream through to Gbenga.
(vii) Nickel content in the river along the stretch ex-
cept at Igboloye is greater than the Nigerian standard.
Nickel above this shows possible carcinogenic condition.
Nickel level at Gbenga is worst.
(viii) From observations of the Figure 4 through Fig-
ure 21, the trends presented by some parameters may
suggest categorization of the trends into 3 or 4. Some
trends are similar to themselves, some seem to be mirror
images of others, while some other ones seem to follow
somersault trends of some other ones. A fourth trend can
be a composite of the somersault and mirrored trends.
This exercise may lead to modeling of behaviors of some
parameters from known parameters.
5.2. Recommendations
There is need to carry out further studies on the locations
of factories and industries around Ewupe and their efflu-
ent disposal programs will need to be ascertained.
2 Further studies is required in the areas of concerns
highlighted in the conclusions above and necessary
measures put in place to combat the problems that may
3 Further studies is also required to investigate the
possibilities of modeling an unknown water quality from
some known ones initiated by observed similarity or oth-
erwise of the trends along the urbanized river.
4 The river should not be used as a source of disposal
for in-habitants along its course. Rather wastes may be
properly disposed using other disposal approaches to
improve the river quality.
5 Government and stakeholders should put into place
more stable laws and regulations with proper enforce-
ment so as to guide river use and maintenance program
that will incorporate users from the villages around the
river course.
6 The different organizations using the river as a
source of wastewater disposal should be well monitored
by the concerned authorities.
7 Communities along the river course should be
enlightened on the possible consequences of pollution by
introducing public awareness program.
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