Creative Education
2013. Vol.4, No.6A, 9-14
Published Online June 2013 in SciRes (
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 9
OSCE Feedback: A Randomized Trial of Effectiveness,
Cost-Effectiveness and Student Satisfaction
Celia A. Taylor, Kathryn E. Green
School of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK
Received February 21st, 2013; revised March 24th, 2013; accepted April 1st, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Celia A. Taylor, Kathryn E. Green. This is an open access article distributed under the Crea-
tive Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any me-
dium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Purpose: To develop two new types of clinical feedback for final year medical students using OSCE
mark sheets and to evaluate their effectiveness, cost-effectiveness and student satisfaction in a random-
ized trial. Methods: A randomized trial was conducted with two groups (Cohort A and B) of students (n
= 350) at the University of Birmingham (UK) participating in a two stage Objective Structured Clinical
Examination (OSCE) (November 2011 and April 2012). Students were randomly assigned to receive one
of three feedback interventions (skills-based, station-based, or both) after the November OSCE. Multi-
variate regression analysis was used to test if feedback intervention was a significant predictor of April
OSCE score, while controlling for November OSCE score. Secondary outcomes were cost-effectiveness
and student satisfaction. Results: Feedback group was not a significant predictor of April scores for Co-
hort B. In Cohort A, the station-based group did better than the group who received both types of feed-
back (2.8%, 95% CI 0.4% to 5.2%, p = 0.022). There was no difference between the skills-based and sta-
tion-based groups. The cost of providing the station-based feedback was double of that for the skills-
based. Questionnaires were received from 245 students (70%). Students who received both types of feed-
back were the most satisfied, followed by those in the station-based group. Conclusion: There was no
consistent difference in effectiveness across the three trial groups. Students tended to prefer station-based
feedback over skills-based feedback, but students found elements of the standard feedback more helpful
than the feedback evaluated in this trial.
Keywords: Assessment; Medical Students; Objective Structured Clinical Examination; Feedback;
Randomized Trial
Feedback is an important part of medical education and is
necessary for students to improve as clinicians and learners
(Ende, 1983; Brown & Cooke, 2009; Chowdhury & Kalu, 2004;
Brukner, Altkorn, Cook, Quinn, & Mcnabb, 1999). Contrary to
reports from educators who feel feedback is abundant, students
often report a lack of and/or dissatisfaction with feedback
(Ende, 1983; De, Henke, Ailawadi, Dimick, & Colletti, 2004;
Gil, Heins, & Jones, 1984). Feedback should be specific, timely
and steer future learning, while reinforcing appropriate behav-
iors and competency levels (Ende, 1983; Brown & Cooke, 2009;
Chowdhury & Kalu, 2004; Brukner et al., 1999; Gigante, Dell,
& Sharkey, 2011; Van De Ridder, Stokking, McGaghie, & Ten
Cate, 2008). In contrast, feedback not perceived to come from a
credible source or that does not conform to the examinees’ own
self-perception may not be taken seriously (Sargeant, Mann,
Van der Vleuten, & Metsemakers, 2009; Bing-You, Paterson,
& Levine, 1997; Veloski, Boex, Grasberger, Evans, & Wolfson,
2006; Watling & Lingard, 2012). To aid student receptivity,
feedback should also be evaluative, focusing on the task and
not the person (Kluger & DeNisi, 1996).
The Objective Structured Clinical Exam (OSCE) is used
globally for formative and summative assessments and presents
an excellent opportunity to provide students with formal feed-
back on their clinical skills prior to entering postgraduate train-
ing. Some research has explored the use of the OSCE as a way
of providing immediate feedback to students by allowing an
additional time for examiners to speak with examinees (Black
& Harden, 1986; Hodder, Rivington, Calcutt, & Hart, 1989;
Hollingsworth, Richards, & Frye, 1994). Though this proved
beneficial, time constraints and testing policies do not allow for
immediate feedback in many exams. The nearest alternative
would be to show students their mark sheets which list the tasks
they are expected to complete (e.g. palpate, communicate
clearly) and include examiners’ comments on each task. The
tasks vary by station, but many of the tasks are assessed over
multiple stations in different OSCE settings. The logistical
difficulties in providing mark sheets are exacerbated by test
security restrictions, which would not usually allow students to
view mark sheets (University of Washington, 2004). Alterna-
tive methods of providing more feedback than marks alone
should however be explored, as examiners have a unique op-
portunity to view students’ clinical skills in a controlled setting.
Most research evaluating feedback to medical students does
not explore outcomes beyond student satisfaction (Boehler et
al., 2006). A randomized trial examined performance and satis-
faction with feedback after a knot-tying task and found that
students rated complementary feedback better than constructive
criticism. However, in follow-up the group that received the
constructive criticism did significantly better on a subsequent
knot-tying task (Boehler et al., 2006). This reiterates the im-
portance of going beyond “happy sheets” and evaluating the
real effectiveness of an intervention in terms of knowledge,
performance, and behaviors (Hodder et al., 1989; Boet, Sharma,
Goldman, & Reeves, 2012). As in the knot-tying study, such
evaluations should use random allocation, which helps to re-
duce bias and enables any causal relationship to be identified.
However we were unable to find any studies evaluating feed-
back provided after OSCEs which fulfilled either of these crite-
ria (random allocation or performance outcomes).
This study considers two methods of using the data on OSCE
mark sheets while maintaining test security, by extracting only
the data on student performance without giving away the re-
stricted information. We evaluated the effectiveness of feed-
back derived from the mark sheets in this randomized trial. The
research questions we addressed were:
1) Does receiving examiners’ comments help students to per-
form better on a subsequent OSCE? (station-based feedback)
2) Does receiving a grading (good, fair, etc) for important
skills, derived from OSCE tasks assessed in multiple stations,
help students to perform better on a subsequent OSCE? (skills-
based feedback)
3) What is the cost effectiveness of developing and deliver-
ing the two types of feedback?
4) Do students prefer one type of feedback over the other?
OSCE Structure and Standard Feedback
Students in the final year of medical school at The University
of Birmingham (UB) participate in a two stage OSCE. The
OSCE consists of 18, 10 minute stations. Nine stations are tak-
en in November and the remaining nine in April. Students must
achieve an overall mean score 50% to pass the OSCE and are
required to pass 12 of the 18 stations with a score 50% after
calibration using the Borderline Group method of standard
setting (Livingston & Zieky, 1982).
At the start of the academic year, students are randomly as-
signed to a cohort (Cohort A or Cohort B). Each cohort em-
barks on one of two rotation blocks and nine OSCE stations
correspond to each block. Cohort A begins with Part 1 subjects
(Medicine, Surgery, and the specialities). Cohort B begins with
Part 2 subjects (Pediatrics, Obstetrics/Gynaecology, and Com-
munity-Based Medicine). After completing their first rotation
block, students switch and take the other rotations and OSCE
stations. Specific skills are assessed in each station and a num-
ber of generic skills are assessed in multiple stations (e.g.
communication with patients, history taking).
The standard feedback provided to students after the No-
vember OSCE comprises (I) individual station scores, (II) his-
togram depicting the spread of total scores, and (III) generic
station-based feedback for the cohort.
Trial Design
The authors consulted the CONSORT statement at the plan-
ning and reporting phases of this trial (Moher et al., 2010;
Schulz et al., 2010). This was a three-arm trial with balanced
stratified randomization and colleagues who were not part of
this project determined the allocation to the feedback groups.
The allocation was stratified by cohort to ensure a balanced
design. One of the authors (KG) collated these allocations and
managed the process of delivering the feedback to students.
Another author (CT) was blinded from the allocation of the
feedback group and conducted the analyses. She was not aware
of group allocations until after analyses were complete. Stu-
dents were aware of their group allocation when they received
their feedback, but the examiners for the April OSCE were
blinded as to which type of feedback each student had received.
A true control group was not used because of the ethical con-
siderations of depriving one group of students of additional
feedback. Instead, a three-arm design was used to evaluate if
differences exist between the two new types of feedback
(skills-based and station-based) and also if receiving both types
of feedback would be beneficial.
The primary outcome of this trial was April OSCE perform-
ance. The secondary outcomes were cost-effectiveness and
student satisfaction with feedback.
Participants and Settin g
All final year medical students at UB in October 2011 were
eligible for participation (n = 351). An opt-out method was
used so that students who may have forgotten to “opt-in” would
not be deprived of the additional feedback. One student who
was only required to take nine stations was excluded. We un-
dertook a power analysis to determine the effect size that could
be detected in each regression model. Assuming 10% of stu-
dents opted-out of the study or did not complete both parts of
the OSCE, we estimated the likely sample size of each cohort to
be 157. At alpha = 0.05 and 80% power, this would enable us
to detect an effect size of f2 = 0.05 (between Cohen’s standards
for a “small” and “medium” effect), where f2 is the proportion
of variance explained by a predictor (Faul et al., 2009; Cohen,
The trial took place at UB between November 2011 and May
2012. The OSCEs took place in six different National Health
Service (NHS) sites in the Birmingham area.
Feedback Interventions
Skills-Based Feedback: The skills-based feedback was de-
signed to give students an overall rating of how they did on
generic skills in the November OSCE. Each mark sheet has
between three and nine tasks that students are expected to com-
plete and each task was rated by examiners on a 4-point rating
scale from “0” not done/very poor to “3” very good. The au-
thors independently mapped each task on the OSCE mark
sheets to a Tomorrow’s Doctors competency (General Medical
Council, 2009). For example, auscultation or palpation tasks
mapped to the “perform an examination” competency. All dis-
crepancies were discussed until consensus was reached. The
competencies were then collapsed into seven skills (Table 1)
and Excel 2007 was used to calculate the feedback ratings.
Skills were averaged within stations to prevent any one station
from skewing the score. Skills that were assessed in three or
more stations were then averaged across stations and an overall
percentage score calculated. Students were told whether their
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Table 1.
Skills-based feedback categories.
Range of number of stations/9
included in each skill categorya
Skill Category
Cohort A Cohort B
Taking a patient history 3 - 4 5 - 6
Communicating with
patient/role player 6 - 7 6
Conducting a physical or
mental examination 5 - 7 3 - 4
Planning investigations 4 - 7 N/A
(<3 common stations)
Interpreting history,
examination and
investigations and/or making
a (differential) diagnosis
8 - 9 5 - 7
Treatment and management,
including prescribing skills
and providing immediate care
in an emergency
4 - 5 6
Communicating scientific
and/or critical knowledge to a
5 - 6 4 - 6
Note: aDifferent scenarios are used within some stations in each half-day OSCE
session; there is some variation in the skills assessed across the different scenarios.
performance in each skill was excellent (85%+), very good
(75% - 84.9%), good (65% - 74.9%), fair (55% - 64.9%), or
needs improvement (<55%). Students were also given a rank
ordering of their relative performance in each skill.
Station-Based Feedback: In addition to the tasks on the mark
sheets, there are boxes where examiners can comment on how a
student performed on each task. For the station-based feedback
students were given verbatim transcriptions of the examiners’
comments. Examiners were trained prior to the OSCE and were
made aware that their comments might be transcribed for stu-
dents. If there were no comments on a mark sheet, “No com-
ments” was listed as the feedback for that station.
On December 16, 2011 all students received an email with
their personalized feedback. This was the earliest possible date,
as all OSCE marks had to be approved by an exam board before
the feedback could be generated.
Analysis of the Primary Outcome
Multiple linear regression was performed separately for Co-
hort A and Cohort B using STATA v. 12 to examine the effect
of feedback group on April performance. In addition to a
dummy coded variable for feedback group, the mean percent-
age score for the November OSCE was included in the model
in order to control for regression to the mean. The outcome
variable was the mean percentage score for the April OSCE
stations. To account for the use of two regression models,
p-values < 0.025 would be considered statistically significant.
The authors kept track of the time they spent developing and
executing each type of feedback so that cost-effectiveness could
be assessed. The total hours were extrapolated to the time re-
quired to provide each type of feedback to the entire cohort. We
assumed that the station-based feedback could be executed by
an administrator, while the skills-based feedback would require
academic input. The time commitment was then costed using
2011/12 UK Higher Education pay scales, at the bottom end of
administrative band 500 and academic grade 7, uplifted for
employer National Insurance and pension contributions, as-
suming a working week of 37.5 hours and 46 working weeks
per year.
Student Satisfaction
A short questionnaire was emailed to students via Survey
Monkey on January 11, 2012. The survey was designed to as-
certain student opinion on the helpfulness of the feedback pro-
vided as part of this trial and the standard feedback they re-
ceived (in regards to future OSCE performance and clinical
practice) using a 4-point rating scale. The percentage of stu-
dents rating each type of feedback as somewhat or very helpful
was calculated by trial group using SPSS v. 18.
No students opted-out of the study. A flow diagram of the trial
is shown in Figure 1. One student did not take the April stations
due to ill health and was excluded from the analysis. Summary
statistics for each feedback group are shown in Table 2.
Table 2.
Summary Statistics.
Feedback Group
Skills Station Both
Number of Students116 116 117
Nov. OSCE, N (%)
Part 1 subjects
Part 2 subjects
58 (50.0)
58 (50.0)
58 (50.0)
58 (50.0)
58 (49.6)
59 (50.4)
Nov. OSCE Scorea,
Mean (SD)
Part 1 subjects
Part 2 subjects
67.4 (8.23)
66.9 (8.68)
66.4 (8.03)
68.7 (8.01)
67.5 (7.96)
69.3 (8.61)
Nov. # passed
OSCE stations,
Median (IQR)
Part 1 subjects
Part 2 subjects
8 (7 - 9)
8 (7 - 9)
8 (7 - 9)
8 (7 - 9)
8 (7 - 9)
9 (7 - 9)
Apr. OSCE Scorea,
Mean (SD)
Part 1subjects
Part 2 subjects
65.6 (7.86)
70.0 (7.45)
65.9 (7.48)
70.5 (7.69)
65.6 (6.82)
68.2 (7.66)
Apr. # passed
OSCE stations,
Median (IQR)
Part 1 subjects
Part 2 subjects
8 (7 - 9)
8 (7 - 9)
8 (7 - 9)
8 (7 - 9)
8 (7 - 9)
8 (7 - 9)
Improvement in
OSCE (Apr.-Nov.),
Mean (SD)
Part 1 Part 2
Part 2 Part 1
2.30 (7.99)
1.29 (8.52)
4.11 (8.09)
2.80 (8.67)
0.75 (6.90)
3.71 (7.95)
Note: aAll scores are first sit scores. Some students had extenuating circumstances
that would entitle them to a further attempt if they failed the OSCE overall.
However all students taking both parts of the OSCE are included in the analysis
(one student declared herself unfit to sit in April so is excluded, although did
receive feedback on her November performance).
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 11
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Figure 1.
Trial flow diagram.
OSCE Performance entire cohort. There are no economies of scale in providing
both feedback interventions, so the total time spent providing
both for the whole cohort would have been approximately 100
hours. The total cost of providing the feedback would be ap-
proximately £500 ($790) for the skills-based and £1050 ($1660)
for the station-based. This amounts to around £1.40 ($2.20) per
student for the skills-based feedback and £3.00 ($4.75) per
student for the station-based feedback. No further analysis of
cost-effectiveness was undertaken because there was no differ-
ence in effectiveness between the station- and skills- based
groups in either cohort.
The internal consistency of the 18 station-level scores in the
OSCE (calculated using Cronbach’s alpha) was 0.72 for Cohort
A and 0.71 for Cohort B. The coefficients for the regression
models predicting April OSCE performance are shown in Ta-
ble 3. Feedback group was not a statistically significant predic-
tor of April OSCE score for Cohort B. For Cohort A, students
who received station-based feedback had higher April scores
than the group that received both types (mean difference 2.8%,
95% CI 0.4 to 5.2, p = 0.022). There was no statistically sig-
nificant difference between the April scores of the station- and
skills-based groups. The effect sizes (f2) of the skills-only and
station-only feedback groups compared to the group receiving
both types were 0.014 and 0.032 (Cohort A); and 0.004 and
0.001 (Cohort B), respectively.
Student Satisfaction
Questionnaires were received from 245 students (70%). Ta-
ble 4 shows the percentage of students rating each type of
feedback as somewhat or very helpful, by feedback group. Only
35% of students in the skills-based only feedback rated this as
somewhat or very helpful, compared to 73% of students who
received both interventions. The “both” group were also more
positive about the station-based feedback, with 92% rating this
The skills-based feedback took 25 hours to complete and
would not take extra time for more students. The station-based
feedback would have taken 75 hours had it been done for the
Table 3.
Predictors of April OSCE performance.
Cohort A Cohort B
Variables in Re-
gression Model Coef. (95%CI), p-value Coef. (95%CI), p-value
Constant 35.1 (26.7 - 43.5),
38.5 (30.1 - 46.9),
Nov. OSCE Score 0.49 (0.37 - 0.61),
<0.001 0.39 (0.27 - 0.51), <0.001
Feedback group (cf
1.83 (0.55 - 4.22), 0.131
2.80 (0.41 - 5.18), 0.022
0.90 (1.54 - 3.34), 0.467
0.52 (-1.90 - 2.95), 0.671
n 174 175
R² 0.28 0.20
Table 4.
Questionnaire resultsa by feedback group.
Feedback Group
of Feedback Skills
N (%)a
N (%)a
N (%)a
Station Scores 63 (92.6) 78 (95.1) 69 (90.8)
Histogram 40 (75.5) 49 (80.3) 52 (78.8)
Station-Based 40 (54.1) 55 (66.3) 50 (67.6)
Skills-Based 25 (34.7) N/A 55 (73.3)
Station-Based N/A 65 (77.4) 69 (92.0)
Note: aPercent of students who rated each mode of feedback somewhat helpful or
very helpful by Feedback Group (4-point rating scale).
as somewhat or very helpful compared to 77% of students who
only received this type of feedback. At least 90% of students in
all three groups rated their individual station scores as some-
what or very helpful.
This randomized trial evaluated the effectiveness of using
OSCE mark sheets to deliver two new types of feedback to
students on their clinical performance. The group that received
both skills- and station-based feedback were the most satisfied
with the additional feedback they received. However, they did
not perform better on their subsequent OSCE and actually those
in Cohort A did not do as well as the station-only group. This
divergence between satisfaction and effectiveness has been
noted previously (Boehler et al., 2006). While the average cost
per student of providing either type of additional feedback is
low, the resources required still have an opportunity cost and
may be more productively employed elsewhere at the medical
The effect sizes were very low and differences amongst trial
groups in the regression models lacked educational significance.
Furthermore, only one cohort saw a statistically significant
result for trial group. Receiving station feedback alone was
better than receiving both for Cohort A, but not for Cohort B.
This may be due to moving from Part 1 subjects to Part 2 sub-
jects, or vice versa. The examiners in Cohort A and B are dif-
ferent, but if the comments of the November Cohort A examin-
ers negatively affected the students, we would also have ex-
pected to see the station-based group do worse than the skills-
based group. Cohort A also received feedback on one more
skill (planning investigations) compared to Cohort B (Table 1),
but it seems unlikely this would negatively impact scores for
only those students receiving both types of feedback.
Our findings suggest that the additional feedback derived
from OSCE mark sheets was not effective in improving per-
formance. One of the reasons for this could be weaknesses in
both types of additional feedback: feedback should be specific,
non-evaluative, timely, and provide guidance on current and
future behaviour (Ende, 1983; Brown & Cooke, 2009; Chowd-
hury & Kalu, 2004; Brukner et al., 1999; Kluger & DeNisi,
1996). Despite our best efforts to map OSCE tasks to important
clinical skills, deriving those skills from tasks on OSCE mark
sheets may not have produced specific enough areas for stu-
dents to improve upon. Likewise, examiner comments may not
have been specific enough to be useful, or perhaps were too
evaluative (about the student instead of the task). Examiners
could instead be asked to provide specific information about
each student’s strengths and areas in which they could improve.
The lag time between the November OSCE and provision of
the feedback (5 weeks) could have been one reason for its inef-
fectiveness (Gigante et al., 2011). This delay was the result of
having to wait until all marks had been processed and ratified
by the exam board to begin transcribing the station-based feed-
back and calculating skills-based scores. Other methods of
delivering feedback as immediately as possible should be ex-
plored. For example, digitised voice recordings or comments
typed electronically by examiners could be sent to students
much sooner than transcriptions of paper mark sheets.
While this was a randomized trial, it was not possible to
blind students to which feedback intervention they had received
and this may have affected their study behavior for the April
OSCE. However both April examiners and the statistician were
blinded as to students’ group allocations and it is unlikely that
students receiving both types of feedback would have relied on
this to ensure they passed this high-stakes exam. Ethical con-
siderations prevented us from having a “no additional feedback”
group, although it does not appear that either type of additional
feedback was effective in improving OSCE performance. Stu-
dents are inevitably concerned with passing their examinations,
but from a patient perspective, the most important outcome—
for which April OSCE performance is a surrogate of unknown
quality—is whether the feedback helps students perform better
in clinical practice.
In the planning phases of this project, it was hoped that we
could use OSCE mark sheets to provide valuable feedback to
graduating medical students and that the resources required
would be justified. What we learned is that OSCE mark sheets
in their current form did not include the information necessary
for students to improve performance, but we feel that with a
few amendments, OSCE mark sheets could be used to provide
useful feedback in the future. Despite a lack of improved OSCE
performance, students seemed to appreciate the additional feed-
back. It would be useful to undertake some qualitative work to
explore how students implement different types of feedback
and perhaps to identify ways in which students could be sup-
ported in their use of feedback. We would also recommend
faculty or institutions focus resources into ensuring feedback is
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 13
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
used effectively by students.
We thank Professor Carole Torgerson for providing guidance
on design, Beverley Merricks for providing guidance on the
OSCE and Alan Girling & Amanda Chapman for assistance
with randomization.
Bing-You, R. G., Paterson, J., & Levine, M. A. (1997). Feedback fal-
ling on deaf ears: Residents’ receptivity to feedback tempered by
sender credibility. Medical Teacher, 19, 40-44.
Black, N. M. I., & Harden, R. M. (1986). Providing feedback to stu-
dents on clinical skills by using the objective structured clinical ex-
amination. Medical Education, 20, 48-52.
Boehler, M. L., Rogers, D. A., Schwind, C. J., Mayforth, R., Quin, J.,
Williams, R. G., et al. (2006). An investigation of medical student
reactions to feedback: A randomised controlled trial. Medical Educa-
tion, 40, 746-749. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2929.2006.02503.x
Boet, S., Sharma, S., Goldman, J., & Reeves, S. (2012). Review article:
Medical education research: An overview of methods. Canadian
Journal of Anesthesia, 59, 159-170. doi:10.1007/s12630-011-9635-y
Brown, N., & Cooke, L. (2009). Giving effective feedback to psychiat-
ric trainees. Advances in Psychiatric Treatment, 15, 123-128.
Brukner, H., Altkorn, D. L., Cook, S., Quinn, M. T., & Mcnabb, W. L.
(1999). Giving effective feedback to medical students: A workshop
for faculty and house staff. Medic a l T e ac h e r , 21, 161-165.
Chowdhury, R. R., & Kalu, G. (2004). Learning to give feedback in
medical education. The Obstetrician & Gynaecologist, 6, 243-247.
Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences
(2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Earlbaum.
De, S. K., Henke, P. K., Ailawadi, G., Dimick, J. B., & Colletti, L. M.
(2004). Attending, house officer, and medical student perceptions
about teaching in the third-year medical school general surgery
clerkship. Journal of the American College of Surgeons, 199, 932-
942. doi:10.1016/j.jamcollsurg.2004.08.025
Ende, J. (1983). Feedback in clinical medical education. Journal of the
American Medical Association, 250, 777-781.
Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Buchner, A., & Lang, A. G. (2009). Statistical
power analyses using G*Power 3.1: Tests for correlation and regres-
sion analyses. Behavior Research Methods, 41, 1149-1160.
General Medical Council (2009). Tomorrow’s doctors. London: Gen-
eral Medical Council.
Gigante, J., Dell, M., & Sharkey, A. (2011). Getting beyond “good job”:
How to give effective feedback. Pediatrics, 127, 205-207.
Gil, D. H., Heins, M., & Jones, P. B. (1984). Perceptions of medical
school faculty members and students on clinical clerkship feedback.
Academic Medicine, 59, 856-864.
Hodder, R. V., Rivington, R. N., Calcutt, L. E., & Hart, I. R. (1989).
The effectiveness of immediate feedback during the Objective Struc-
tured Clinical Examination. Medical Education, 23, 184-188.
Hollingsworth, M., Richards, B. F., & Frye, A. W. (1994). Description
of observer feedback in an objective structured clinical examination
and effects on examinees. Teaching and Learning in Medicine, 6,
49-53. doi:10.1080/10401339409539643
Kluger, A., & DeNisi, A. (1996). The effects of feedback interventions
on performance: A historical review, a meta-analysis, and a prelimi-
nary feedback intervention theory. Psychological Bulletin, 119, 254-
284. doi:10.1037/0033-2909.119.2.254
Livingston, S., & Zieky, M. (1982). Passing scores: A manual for
setting standards of performance on educational and occupational
tests. Princeton, NJ: Educational Testing Service.
Moher, D., Hopewell, S., Schulz, K. F., Montori, V., Gøtzsche, P. C.,
Devereaux, P. J., et al. (2010). CONSORT 2010 Explanation and
Elaboration: Updated guidelines for reporting parallel group ran-
domised trials. British Medical Journal, 34 0, c.869.
Sargeant, J. M., Mann, K. V., Van der Vleuten, C. P., & Metsemakers,
J. F. (2009). Reflection: A link between receiving and using assess-
ment feedback. Advances in Health Science Education, 14 , 399-410.
Schulz, K. F., Altman, D. G., & Moher, D. for the CONSORT Group
(2010). CONSORT 2010 statement: Updated guidelines for reporting
parallel group randomised trials. PLoS Medicine, 7, e1000251.
University of Washington (2004). Second year OSCEs: Preparing for
the second year OSCEs. URL (last checked 14 September 2012).
Van De Ridder, J. M. M., Stokking, K. M., McGaghie, W. C., & Ten
Cate, O. T. (2008). What is feedback in clinical education? Medical
Education, 42, 189-197. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2923.2007.02973.x
Veloski, J., Boex, J. R., Grasberger, M. J., Evans, A., & Wolfson, D. B.
(2006). Systematic review of the literature on assessment, feedback
and physicians’ clinical performance: BEME Guide No. 7. Medical
Teacher, 28, 117-128. doi:10.1080/01421590600622665
Watling, C., & Lingard, L. (2012). Toward meaningful evaluation of
medical trainees: The influence of participants’ perceptions of the
process. Advances in Health Science Educa ti on , 17, 183-194.