Computational Water, Energy, and Environmental Engineering, 2013, 2, 1-9
doi:10.4236/cweee.2013.22B001 Published Online April 2013 (
Growing Public Health Concerns from Poor Urban Air
Quality: Strategies for Sustainable Urban Living
Bhaskar Kura, Suruchi Verma, Elena Ajdari, Amrita Iyer
Civil & Environmental Engineering, University of New Orleans, Louisiana, U.S.A
Received 2013
Urban areas around the world, particularly in emerging nations such as China, India, and Brazil are experiencing high
levels of air pollution due to increased population, economy, spending, and consumption, all of which contribute to de-
terioration in environmental and public health conditions in urban areas. This paper briefly discusses important sources
of air pollution, air pollutants of concern, public health impacts, and proposed strategies to combat urban air pollution
and promote sustainable urban living. A team of researchers under the mentorship of the main author is working on a
number of air quality projects that involve air quality monitoring (sources, ambient, indoor, and occupational), emis-
sions modeling, atmospheric dispersion modeling, air pollution control, and development of knowledge-based systems
to manage air quality. This paper presents potential strategies that could help address the growing public health con-
cerns in urban areas and promote sustainable and healthy living.
Keywords: Urban Air Quality; Exposures to Air Pollutants; Risk Assessment; Public Health
1. Introduction
The populations of the rapidly expanding cities of Asia,
Africa, and Latin America are increasingly exposed to
ambient air pollutants by several folds compared to the
levels of exposures in developed countries. It is estimated
that more than 1 billion people are exposed to outdoor air
pollution annually. Urban air pollution is linked to about
1 million premature deaths and 1 million pre-native
deaths each year [1]. Urban air pollution is estimated to
cost approximately 2% of GDP in developed countries
and 5% in developing countries [1]. Rapid urbanization
has resulted in increasing urban air pollution in major
cities, especially in developing countries.
The potential for serious consequences of exposure to
high levels of ambient air pollution was made clear in the
mid-20th century when cities in Europe and the United
States experienced episodes of air pollution, such as the
incidents of London Fog of 1952 [2] and Donora Smog
of 1948 [3], which resulted in large numbers of excess
deaths and hospital admissions. In more recent years, the
“gray sky” phenomenon has been the subject of growing
public concern. Research shows that high levels of am-
bient fine particles (PM2.5) lead to poor visibility [4].
Urban air pollution occurs when there are continuous
or large emissions of air pollutants. The level of pollution
depends on the meteorological (wind conditions and at-
mospheric stability) conditions as well. Urban air pollu-
tion is usually associated with high quantities of sulfur
dioxide, oxides of carbon (dioxide and monoxide), ox-
ides of nitrogen, and particulate matter (PM10 and PM2.5)
present in the atmosphere. Depending on other emission
sources in cities, heavy metals and volatile organic com-
pounds (VOCs) are also present. In the United States
air pollutants are broadly categorized into criteria pollut-
ants (SO2, NOx, CO, O3, PM10 and Pb) and hazardous air
pollutants (HAPs). Criteria pollutants have federal stan-
dards as promulgated by the United States Environmental
Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) which are shown in Table
1. Whereas HAPs do not have national ambient standards
and the goal is to eliminate them from the air environ-
ment to the extent possible as they are considered to be
hazardous/toxic to human health at any levels.
Data from the World Health Organization (WHO) in-
dicates that the world's average PM10 levels by region
ranges from 21 to 142 µg/m3, with a world average of 71
μg/m3[5]. Scientific studies suggest that fine particulate
matter – less than 10 microns in diameter (PM10) – is
likely to be the most dangerous because such fine parti-
cles can be inhaled deeply into the lungs where the
clearance time of deposited particles is much longer, in-
creasing the potential for adverse health effects.
Countries like China, India and Pakistan have recently
become highly polluted in terms of air pollution. By the
end of 2011, the mainland of the People's Republic of
China had a total urban population of 691 million or
51.2% of the total population, rising from 26% in 1990.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CWEEE
In the 11-yr period of 1990–2001, the urban population
increased 10%, from 26% to 36% of the population as
seen in Figure 1. Similarly, GDP changes are shown in
Figure 2[6].
Table 1. National ambient air quality standards (NAAQs) for criteria pollutants [Adapted from 17].
Pollutant Primary/Secondary Average Time Level Urban Sources Health Impacts
8-hour 9 ppm (10.31 mg/m3)
Carbon Monoxide primary
1-hour 35 ppm (40.09 mg/m3)
Vehicles Fatigue, impaired vision, CNS
and cardiovascular defects
Lead primary and
Rolling 3
month average 0.15 μg/m3 Vehicles
Lead poisoning in children, CNS
defects, renal and reproductive
primary 1-hour 100 ppb (188.18 μg/m3)
Nitrogen Dioxide
primary and
secondary Annual 53 ppb (99.73 μg/m3)
Vehicles Increased bronchial sensitivity and
reduced lung capacity
Ozone primary and
secondary 8-hour 0.075 ppm (147 μg/m3)
Secondary pollutant;
Photochemical reactions
of vehicle emission
Respiratory defects and reduced
lung capacity
primary Annual 12 μg/m3
secondary Annual 15 μg/m3
primary and
secondary 24-hour 35 μg/m3
PM10 primary and
secondary 24-hour 150 μg/m3
Vehicles, power plants,
industry, agriculture,
surface dust, sea spray
Respiratory and cardiovascular
defects. Also, an increase in short
term mortality rate. Increased
cardiopulmonary and lung cancer
mortality rate.
primary 1-hour 75 ppb (196.5 μg/m3)
Sulfur Dioxide
secondary 3-hour 0.5 ppm (1.31 mg/m3)
Power plants, vehicles Changes in the pulmonary function
and increase in mortality rate.
(a) (b)
Figure 1. (a) Population and urbanization rate increase in China and (b) Gross domestic product growth in China from 1990
to 2003 [6].
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CWEEE
(a) (b)
Figure 2. (a) Energy consumption and vehicle population growth in China and (b) SO2 and fly ash emission in China [6].
More than 450 million of China’s 1.3 billion people
are now living in urban areas where over 70 percent of
China’s gross domestic product (GDP) is generated [7].
Two out of three cities in China failed to meet the resi-
dential ambient air quality standard, resulting in large
population exposure to health risks such as chronic
bronchitis, pulmonary heart disease, and lung cancer.
Respiratory diseases are a leading cause of premature
deaths in China. In the long term, China faces increasing
urbanization; according to predictions, nearly 70% of the
population will live in urban areas by 2035[8].
In addition to PM10 and PM2.5, China has large emis-
sions of sulfur dioxide and total suspended particles (TSP)
[9]. In 2001, the concentration of PM2.5 in Beijing aver-
aged 110 µg/m3, more than seven times the ambient air
quality standard established for the United States by the
U.S. EPA for fine particulate matter [10].
According to the 2001–2008 “State of the Environ-
ment in China” reports, the average daily concentration
of SO2 in urban air was between 1 - 389 μg/m3 while the
average daily NO2 urban air concentration in China fluc-
tuated between 2 and 77μg/m3. At present, the particulate
pollution in China’s ambient air is very serious, with not
only high levels of TSP concentrations but also compara-
tively high levels of PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations [11].
Figures 3-5 depict the ambient air quality in some of
the cities of China [9].
In addition to air pollution, water pollution and other
forms of pollution also pose serious threat to human
health. Clean water is very essential for consumption by
an individual. However, in most of the developing cities
(or countries), clean water is readily available via water
treatment plants set up by various governmental and non-
governmental agencies. Air pollution is one thing that
can only be treated at the source of the pollution. Once
the pollutant is emitted into the atmosphere, it is very
difficult to clean up.
2. Sources of Urban Air Pollution
Several sources were identified that cause urban air pol-
lution. The major source of deterioration of urban air
quality is transportation. Vehicles like cars or trucks run
on internal combustion engines which use gasoline or
other fossil fuels. This process of burning the fuel to
power vehicles contributes to air pollution by releasing
air pollutants such as particulates (TPM, PM10, PM2.5),
SO2, NOx, CO, and unburned hydrocarbons. These emis-
sions cause cancer and other serious health issues.
The American Lung Association reports that 30,000
people are killed by car emissions annually in the United
States alone [12]. A study by the World Health Organi-
zation reported in National Geographic News states that
air pollution in China is related to around 656,000 deaths
every year throughout the country [13]. China currently
has one car for every 17.2 people. In the United States,
there’s one car for every 1.3 people. If China were to
catch up with the U.S. car ownership rate, the country
would field a billion vehicles all by itself [14].
Listed below are the specific air pollutants emitted
from transportation related sources. Percentages men-
tioned indicate contribution of these transportation
sources to the overall ambient concentration of that par-
ticular air pollutant.
Carbon monoxide (CO) [70% to 90%]
Hydrocarbons likemethane (CH4), gasoline (C8H18)
and diesel vapors, benzene (C6H6), formaldehyde (CH2O),
butadiene (C4H6) and acetaldehyde (CH3CHO). [50%]
Oxides of nitrogen (NOx) - [45% to 50%]
Greenhouse gases like carbon dioxide [30%] in
developed countries and [15%] worldwide. China emits
6,018 million ton of greenhouse gases each year.
Particulate matter (PM10/PM2.5) - [25%]. In the
United States particulate matter (PM10) levels above 50
micrograms are considered unsafe. In Europe, the aver-
age levels for PM10is approximately 40 μg/m3, and in
Beijing the average level is 141 μg/m3.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CWEEE
Sulfur dioxide (SO2) - [5%]
Lead– Lead is a toxic metal mainly used as an anti-
knocking agent in gasoline (Lead tetraethyl - Pb(C2H5)4)
and is also used in batteries (lead dioxide as an anode and
lead as a cathode).
Odors- Diesel and gasoline engines are the major
sources of odors. [15]
Gas stations also contribute to urban air pollution, par-
ticularly because of the evaporation of gasoline during
filling of gas station storage tanks and vehicles. The main
compounds are: benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylenes,
lead, methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE; MTBE is cur-
rently classified as a potential human carcinogen), ethyl-
ene dichloride (EDC) and naphthalene. [16] Dry cleaning
shops are common sources present in the urban environ-
ment which pose significant threat to human health.
These facilities emit volatile organic compounds (VOC),
most of which are considered to be HAPs. Dry cleaning
units emit perchloroethylene (Perc) and petroleum sol-
vents[18]. Perc may cause cancer in human and is identi-
fied as HAP. Perchloroethylene can be measured in the
breath, and breakdown products of it can be measured in
the blood and urine [19]. Petroleum solvents used in this
industry also emit HAPs and VOCs. Specific VOCs in-
clude: Stoddard solvent which is a mixture of C5-C12
petroleum hydrocarbons containing 30% - 50%
straight-and branched-chained alkanes, 30% - 40%
cycloalkanes, and 10% - 20% alkyl aromatic com-
pounds[20].Other contaminants are carbon tetrachloride,
trichloroethylene, perchloroethylene,
1,1,2-trichlorotrifluoroethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane,
glycol ethers, decamethylcylcopentasiloxane, n-propyl
bromide, pure dry™[20].
Figure 3. PM10 yearly ambient concentration in some cities of China [9].
Figure 4. SO2 yearly ambient concentration in some cities of China [9].
Figure 5. NO2 yearly ambient concentration in some cities of China [9].
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CWEEE
Compounds in VOCs can react with sunlight and con-
tribute to ground level ozone which can cause respiratory
disease. In 1991, California wasthe first state which de-
clared perchloroethylene as a toxic chemical.As a result
of thisban will be implemented on using this material by
thedry cleaners in that state from 2023 [21]A recent
study at Georgetown University shows that perc remains
in dry-cleaned clothes and the level of this chemical in-
creases with repeated dry cleanings [22].
3. Health Impacts from Exposure to Air
The health impacts of a particular air pollutant depends
on the pathway that it enters a human body and the type
of interactions it goes through once it is inside the body.
This is depicted in Figure 6. Usually, the pathway of
exposure to an air pollutant is inhalation of the pollutant.
Another route of exposure could be dermal where the
skin comes in contact with the pollutant. Skin offers a
good resistance to any air pollutant, but in case of any
cracks or aberrations, it is highly possible that the pol-
lutant might enter the body through the skin.
The extent of exposure depends on the dose that the
individual is exposed to and the time that the individual
was exposed for. Even when the individual goes through
a very small dosage of the pollutant, if the time period of
exposure is long enough, the person can suffer a fatality
in some cases. Based on this, the health impacts are clas-
sified as acute and chronic.
Air pollutants majorly affect the respiratory system
that mainly constitutes the lungs. The various effects on
the respiratory system are increased respiratory (lung)
illnesses, asthma exacerbations (makes asthma worse),
decreased lung function in children, and chronic respiratory
illnesses. In some cases with high levels of exposure,air
pollutants can cause cancer and premature death.
Figure 6. Exposure pathways for air pollutants (Source:
Once inside the lungs, the air pollutants get picked up
by the bloodstream and can cause a number of cardio-
vascular impacts. These include, but not limited to,
myocardial infarction (heart attack), stroke, hypertension
(high blood pressure), atherosclerosis (artery disease),
arrhythmia (irregular heartbeat), and thrombosis (abnor-
mal clotting).
In several cases, certain reproductive (birth) defects
have been observed. These birth defects are preterm ba-
bies (born earlier than they should be), low birth weight,
slow growth in the womb, miscarriage, still birth, pre-
mature birth, infant mortality. Studies have found that a
10% increase in PM and SO2 pollution are associated
with a 1% increase in infant deaths. Also, breathing high
levels of urban air pollution almost tripled a mother’s
chances of having a low birth weight baby.
More in-depth health impacts are shown in Tables 1-3.
Quantifying the magnitude of these health impacts in
cities worldwide, however, presents considerable chal-
lenges owing to the limited availability of information on
both effects on health and on exposures to air pollution in
many parts of the world. Man-made urban air pollution is
a complex mixture with many toxic components.
4. An Integrated Approach to Risk
An air quality research team at the University of New
Orleans (UNO) is involved in research that promotes
integrated air quality management using health risk as an
important criteria. As part of integrated air quality man-
agement, the team typically uses the following strategies
and research methods to achieve the overall air quality
management goals:
Air quality monitoring: Monitoring of ambient air
quality, source emissions, indoor air quality, and occupa-
tional exposures are monitored as part of the research
Modeling: Modeling strategies used include, emis-
sions modeling, atmospheric dispersion modeling, expo-
sure modeling (both ambient conditions and indoor con-
Clean/green technologies: As part of this initiative,
research efforts are made to optimize industrial and mu-
nicipal processes with the goal of (a) promoting/in-
creasing efficiency, (b) minimize consumption of natural
resources, input materials, fuel, and energy, (c) minimize
life-cycle costs, (d) reduce waste quantities, and (e)
minimize health risks (cancer and non-cancer health
risks). UNO has an emissions test facility which can be
used to simulate industrial and other processes to evalu-
ate existing manufacturing technologies and recommend
process changes to achieve environmental friendliness.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CWEEE
Table 2. Health Effects of Airborne VOCs.
Air Pollutant
Toxicity/Health Effects URE
ne / Methyl Chlo-
roform (CH3CCl3)
1,900,000 1,900,000
Irritation eyes, skin; headache, lassitude
(weakness, exhaustion), central nervous system
depression, poor equilibrium; dermatitis; cardiac
arrhythmias; liver damage
N/A 5 Dry
113 (CCl2FCClF2)
7,600,000 7,600,000
Irritation skin, throat, drowsiness, dermatitis;
central nervous system depression; in animals:
cardiac arrhythmias, narcosis
N/A N/A Dry
(CH2=CHCH=CH) 2,200 A
Irritation eyes, nose, throat; drowsiness, dizziness;
liquid: frostbite; teratogenic, reproductive effects;
[potential occupational carcinogen]
3.00E-05 2.00E-03 Traffic; Gas
(C6H6) F 320
Irritation eyes, skin, nose, respiratory system;
dizziness; headache, nausea, staggered gait; ano-
rexia, lassitude (weakness, exhaustion); dermatitis;
bone marrow depression; [potential occupational
7.80E-06 3.00E-02 Traffic; Gas
Carbon tetrachlo-
63,000 12,600
Irritation eyes, skin; central nervous system de-
pression; nausea, vomiting; liver, kidney injury;
drowsiness, dizziness, incoordination; [potential
occupational carcinogen]
6.00E-06 1.00E-01 Dry
(CH3CH2C6H5) 435,000 435,000 Irritation eyes, skin, mucous membrane; headache;
dermatitis; narcosis, coma 2.50E-06 1 Gas
ether (MTBE)
N/A N/A Headache, nausea, dizziness, irritation of the nose
or throat, and sense of confusion 2.60E-07 3 Gas
(C6H5CH3) 760,000 375,000
Irritation eyes, nose; lassitude (weakness, exhaus-
tion), confusion, euphoria, dizziness, headache;
dilated pupils, lacrimation (discharge of tears);
anxiety, muscle fatigue, insomnia; paresthesia;
dermatitis; liver, kidney damage
N/A 5 Gas
(HCHO) 922.5 19.68
Irritation eyes, nose, throat, respiratory system;
lacrimation (discharge of tears); cough; wheezing;
[potential occupational carcinogen]
1.30E-05 9.80E-03 Traffic
(CH3CHO) 360,000 N/A
Irritation eyes, nose, throat; eye, skin burns; der-
matitis; conjunctivitis; cough; central nervous
system depression; delayed pulmonary edema; in
animals: kidney, reproductive, teratogenic effects;
[potential occupational carcinogen]
2.20E-06 9.00E-03 Traffic
o- Xylene
(C6H4(CH3)2) 435,000 435,000
Irritation eyes, skin, nose, throat; dizziness, ex-
citement, drowsiness, incoordination, staggering
gait; corneal vacuolization; anorexia, nausea,
vomiting, abdominal pain; dermatitis
N/A 1.00E-01 Gas stations
p- Xylene
(C6H4(CH3)2) 435,000 435,000
Irritation eyes, skin, nose, throat; dizziness, ex-
citement, drowsiness, incoordination, staggering
gait; corneal vacuolization; anorexia, nausea,
vomiting, abdominal pain; dermatitis
N/A 1.00E-01 Gas stations
m –Xylene
(C6H4(CH3)2) 435,000 435,000
Irritation eyes, skin, nose, throat; dizziness, ex-
citement, drowsiness, incoordination, staggering
gait; corneal vacuolization; anorexia, nausea,
vomiting, abdominal pain; dermatitis
N/A 1.00E-01 Gas stations
Ethylene dichloride
(ClCH2CH2Cl) 202,500 4,000
Irritation eyes, corneal opacity; central nervous
system depression; nausea, vomiting; dermatitis;
liver, kidney, cardiovascular system damage;
[potential occupational carcinogen]
2.60E-05 2.40E+00 Gas stations
(ClCH=CCl2) 537,000 N/A
Irritation eyes, skin; headache, visual disturbance,
lassitude (weakness, exhaustion), dizziness,
tremor, drowsiness, nausea, vomiting; dermatitis;
cardiac arrhythmias, paresthesia; liver injury;
[potential occupational carcinogen]
2.00E-06 6.00E-01 Dry
(Cl2C=CCl2) 678,000 N/A
Irritation eyes, skin, nose, throat, respiratory sys-
tem; nausea; flush face, neck; dizziness, incoordi-
nation; headache, drowsiness; skin erythema (skin
redness); liver damage; [potential occupational
5.90E-06 2.70E-01 Dry
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CWEEE
Table 3. Health effects of airborne metals.*
(µg/m3) Toxicity/Health Effects URE
(mg/m3) Urban Sources
(Pb) 50 50
Lassitude, insomnia; facial pallor; anorexia,
constipation, abdominal pain, colic; anemia;
gingival lead line; tremor; paralysis wrist,
ankles; encephalopathy; kidney disease; irrita-
tion eyes; hypertension
N/A++ 1.5E-04 [2 times more
potent that Hg]
(Sb) 500 500 Chronic poisoning, functional disorders of the
heart, degeneration of the heart muscle N/A 2.2E-04 [1.4 times
more potent that Hg]
(Cu) 1,000 1,000 Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat; Cumulative Lung
Damage N/A N/A Traffic-Brake
(Zn) 5,000 5,000
Irritation-Eye, Nose, Throat, Skin---Marked
Respiratory Effects---Acute lung dam-
age/edema Chronic (Cumulative) Toxic-
ity-Suspect Carcinogen or mutagen
N/A N/A Vehicular tires
(Hg) 100 50
Irritation eyes, skin; cough, dyspnea, bronchitis,
pneumonitis; tremor, insomnia, lassitude ;
stomatitis, salivation; gastrointestinal distur-
bance, anorexia, weight loss; proteinuria
N/A 3.00E-04 Various
(Cr) 1,000 500 Cancer; irritation eyes, skin; lung fibrosis (his-
1.2E-02 [38 times
more carcinogenic
than Ni]
1E-04 [3 times more
potent that Hg] Various
5,000 1,000
Asthenia, insomnia, mental confusion; metal
fume fever: dry throat, cough, chest tightness,
dyspnea, rales, flu-like fever; low-back pain;
vomiting; malaise ; lassitude ; kidney damage
N/A 0.5E-04 [6 times more
potent that Hg]
(Ni) 1,000 15 Sensitization dermatitis, allergic asthma, pneu-
monitis; [potential occupational carcinogen] 3.12E-04 0.9E-04 [3.3 times
more potent that Hg] Various
(Cd) 5 N/A
Pulmonary edema, dyspnea, cough, chest tight-
ness, headache; chills, muscle aches; nausea,
vomiting, diarrhea; anosmia, emphysema,
proteinuria, mild anemia; [potential occupa-
tional carcinogen]
0.18E-02 [5.8 times
more carcinogenic
than Ni]
0.1E-04 [30 times
more potent that Hg] Various
(As) 10 2
Ulceration of nasal septum, dermatitis, gastro-
intestinal disturbances, peripheral neuropathy,
hyperpigmentation of skin, [potential occupa-
tional carcinogen]
0.43E-02 [13.8 times
more carcinogenic
than Ni]
0.15E-04 [20 times
more potent that Hg] Various
*Note: Ambient Standards for the above air pollutants are not available. Some sources recommend 1/1000th value of OSHA PEL as ambient limit. N/A- Not
Engineering controls: The research team identifies,
evaluates, and develops air pollution control technologies
appropriate for various industry sectors for both particu-
lates and gaseous air pollutants.
Development of decision support systems: Kura’s
research team developed a number of decision support
systems for industrial environmental management, occu-
pational exposures and health management, health risk
management system for public, and life cycle assessment
and life cycle costing predictive model for industrial
5. Proposed Research and Management
Strategies for Urban Air Quality Man-
As the urban air environment is contaminated with a va-
riety of pollutants such as criteria pollutants (CO, SO2,
NOx, PM10, PM2.5, Pb, O3) and hazardous air pollutants
(heavy metals, volatile organic compounds, and others)
from a wide range of sources such as transportation, com-
mercial, and industrial sources, urban air quality man-
agement requires a comprehensive and integrate ap-
proach. Kura’s research team at UNO has significant
experience in this area. A conceptual urban air quality
management approach is described in this section:
Identify sources of air pollution in the immediate
urban area and the area of influence
Knowing the sources of air pollution to identify the
specific pollutants that may be released in the air envi-
Conduct preliminary air quality monitoring to
identify the concentration ranges for air pollutants of
Identify the best monitoringtechniques, equip-
ment, and resources needed to understand the short
term and long term trends of these pollutants
Establish a permanent network of air quality
monitoring stations to measure criteria pollutants and
hazardous air pollutants
Develop a database of air pollutant emission quan-
tities from various sources that have been identified for
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CWEEE
the urban area being investigated
Evaluate the relationships between the emission
quantities and the ambient concentrations under various
meteorological conditions
Prioritizethe sources of air pollution for regulating
as appropriate
Use the data obtained from the network of air qual-
ity monitoring stations for developing policies to con-
trol emissions and also to make changes in public be-
havior which may be responsible for poor air quality
(traffic; open burning; fuel combustion; others)
Develop a decision support system to integrate the
ambient air quality data to compute exposures and health
risk probabilities (cancer and non-cancer)
Use the data from the decision support system to
assist the policy makers, scientists, and the public to
achieve the required air quality management goals.
A proposed integrated air quality management plan for
urban areas is illustrated in Figure 7.
6. Summary and Conclusions
This paper presents various urban air quality challenges
experienced by many cities around the world. More spe-
cifically, types of sources present in urban areas, types of
air pollutants, and health hazards associated with most
common urban air pollutants. Due to the high concentra-
tion of population, recent growth in the economy and
increased consumption resulted in deteriorated air quality.
Information provided in this paper and some suggested
strategies discussed should be helpful to initiate a dia-
logue among interested parties. While it is not practically
feasible to discuss all aspects of integrated urban air
quality management strategies, this paper should serve
well in undertaking further actions by the stake-holders
from the governmental agencies, the scientific commu-
nity, and the public.
7. Acknowledgements
Principal author (who serves on the Board of Trustees of
ITU) acknowledges and thanks the financial support re-
ceived from the International Technological University
(ITU), San Jose, CA towards conference travel.
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Copyright © 2013 SciRes. CWEEE
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January 2002, Revised July 2009
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