Open Journal of Respiratory Diseases, 2013, 3, 79-88 Published Online May 2013 (
Therapeutic Administration of Mycobacterium bovis BCG
Killed by Extended Freeze-Drying Modulates Airway
Inflammation in a Chronic Murine Model of Asthma
Micheline Lagranderie1,2, Jeroen Alfons Juliette Vanoirbeek3, Bernardo Boris Vargaftig4,
Pierre-Marie Guyonvarc’h2, Gilles Marchal1,2, Xavier Roux2*
1Laboratoire Immunotherapie, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
2Immunotherapix, BioTop Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
3Research Unit of Lung Toxicology, Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
4Unité de Pharmacologie Cellulaire, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France
Email: *
Received February 1, 2013; revised March 2, 2013; accepted March 10, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Micheline Lagranderie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution
License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Background: We previously showed that treatment with Mycobacterium bovis BCG killed by extended freeze-drying
(EFD BCG) modulates inflammation through regulatory T cells (Tregs) in an acute asthma model. In this study, we
investigated the kinetics of Treg induction as well as their long-term homing in spleen and lungs correlating with re-
duced airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) in a murine model of acute allergic asthma. We then evaluated the therapeu-
tic implication of EFD BCG in a chronic asthma model. Methods: Tregs expressing Foxp3 were analyzed in various
organs shortly and long-term after EFD BCG, live- and Heat Killed- (HK-) BCG treatments in an acute model of
asthma. We further studied EFD BCG treatment on airway inflammation using a chronic model of asthma in mice. Re-
sults: Foxp3 expression peaked in the inguinal draining lymph-nodes (iDLNs) 2 - 4 days after EFD BCG treatment
whereas it was long-term observed in spleen (days 7 to 90). This increase in Foxp3 expression was also found in lungs
upon intranasal ovalbumin (OVA) challenge in OVA-sensitized mice. The loss of protection 4 months after EFD BCG
treatment was correlated with the end of this phenomenon. Moreover, major lung inflammation hallmarks of severe
asthma after multiple allergen challenges promoting chronic airway inflammation in OVA sensitized mice were reduced
by EFD BCG treatment: AHR, eosinophils and neutrophils in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL), mucus metaplasia, Th2 as
well as Th17 cytokine levels in BAL and sera. EFD BCG treatment also enhances PPAR-γ expression and regulates
NF-κBp65 translocation in lung extracts in this model of chronic asthma. Conclusions: EFD BCG treatment induced
long-term protective effect associated to Foxp3 Tregs in the spleen and lungs in an acute model of asthma and inhibits
AHR in a chronic model of asthma. EFD BCG could be a new and promising immuno-modulatory alternative treatment
to corticoids in severe human asthma.
Keywords: Asthma; Foxp3; Killed BCG; Modulation; Regulatory T Cells
1. Introduction
The hallmark of asthma is chronic moderate inflamma-
tion of the airway mucosa with transient episodes of se-
vere inflammation and AHR [1]. In allergic asthmatic
children and adults the frequency of Th2-producing cells
to aeroallergens increases, emphasising their role in lung
inflammation [2,3]. However, in the development of ef-
fective drugs to control severe allergic asthma, consid-
eration should be given not only to disease-associated
cytokines but also to eosinophilia, neutrophils and tran-
scription factors associated to Th2 development (GATA-
3) and inflammation (NF-κB) [4,5]. Even if inhaled glu-
cocorticosteroids are effective anti-inflammatory treat-
ment in asthma, some patients show a poor or absent
response even to high doses [6]. In smokers with asthma,
agonists of PPAR-γ produced improvements in lung func-
tion and Tregs were shown to control AHR and associ-
ated allergic disease [7,8]. New therapies enhancing
PPAR-γ and/or Tregs producing IL-10 could then repre-
sent an alternative benefit in the treatment of severe al-
*Corresponding author.
opyright © 2013 SciRes. OJRD
lergic asthma.
We have recently shown that Mycobacterium bovis
BCG, killed by Extended Freeze drying (EFD BCG) re-
duced, in a mouse model, the major features of acute
asthma by inducing Tregs and enhancing PPAR-γ ex-
pression in lung cell extracts [9]. Further studies were
required to investigate the kinetics of Tregs induction
and their homing in various organs as well as the effect
of EFD BCG treatment in a chronic model of asthma. By
contrast to live and HK BCG treatments, EFD BCG
long-term induced Tregs expressing Foxp3 associated
with a protective effect against asthma. We showed that
EFD BCG treatment administered to OVA-sensitized and
multiple OVA-challenged mice significantly reduced the
major hallmarks of severe asthma, enhanced PPAR-γ
expression and repressed NF-κBp65 in spleen and lung
cell extracts.
2. Methods
2.1. Treatments of Chronic and Acute Models of
The live BCG Pasteur strain 1173P2 was grown on
Sauton medium according to the conditions used for vac-
cine production [10]. The various BCG preparations (live
BCG, HK BCG, and EFD BCG) were obtained as previ-
ously described [11].
Male BALB/c mice (6-wk-old) were purchased from
the Centre d’Élevage Janvier (Le Genest-St Isle, France)
and maintained in accordance with national guidelines
for animal welfare.
Acute model of asthma was previously described by
Lagranderie et al. [11]. Briefly, BALB/c mice were
OVA-sensitized (Valeant Pharmaceuticals, Costa Mesa,
CA) and subcutaneously-treated (base of the tail) with
PBS, EFD BCG, live or HK BCG after 1 OVA challenge.
Twenty eight days after treatment, mice were OVA-
challenged 3 consecutive days iDLNs, spleens and lungs
were harvested at various times after the different treat-
ments and stored at 20˚C for transcription factor meas-
urements. AHR was measured by whole body plethys-
mography (EMKA technologies, Paris, France) (En-
hanced pause-Penh) as previously described [11-13].
In the chronic model of asthma, mice were OVA-sen-
sitized, EFD BCG or PBS subcutaneously-treated (base
of the tail) after 1, 2 or 3 OVA challenges as described in
Supplementary Figures 1(a)-(c). After the final OVA-
challenges (3 consecutive days), AHR was measured by
whole body plethysmography (Penh) and by invasive
flexiVent (Scireq, Montreal, Canada), resulting in airway
resistance-compliance data to methacholine (Mch) as
previously described [11,13]. Control mice were PBS-
treated after the third OVA-challenge and received 3
consecutive PBS challenges before AHR determination
(Supplementary Figure 1(d)).
2.2. Transcription Factors in Mouse Organs
The proteins were extracted from the organs harvested at
various times after treatment and stored at 20˚C and
were resolved by 7.5% SDS-PAGE. Protein (40 µg per
iDLNs and spleen, 60 µg per lungs) transferred to nitro-
cellulose sheets were probed with mouse monoclonal
anti-Foxp3, T-bet and GATA-3 (Santa Cruz Biotechnol-
ogy, Santa Cruz, CA) or β-actin mouse mAb (Ac-15 Ab-
cam, Cambridge, UK). HRP-conjugated polyclonal goat
anti-rabbit (DakoCytomation, Glostrup, Denmark) or
goat anti-rabbit IgG (Santa Cruz Biotechnology) were
used as secondary Abs. The immune complex was visu-
alized and scan-analyzed as previously described [9].
In the chronic model of asthma, spleen and lung nu-
clear extracts (10 µg) were tested for NF-κB activation or
PPAR-γ expression with NF-κBp65 or PPAR-γ Trans-
AM transcription factor assay kits (Active Motif, Carls-
bad, CA) according to the manufacturer’s recommenda-
2.3. Bronchoalveolar Lavage (BAL) Fluid,
Differential Cell Counts and Cytokine
Twenty-four hours after the final challenges, mice were
anesthetized, the trachea was cannulated and lungs were
washed with PBS (500 µl ×3). After centrifugation the
supernatants were stored at 20˚C for cytokine analysis
and the individual pellets were suspended in 500 µl of
PBS and the total bronchoalveolar lavage cells were
counted. Cytospins were prepared and stained with Diff-
Quick (Baxter Dade AG, Duedingen, Switzerland) for
differential cell counts.
Cytokine contents in the BAL and sera were deter-
mined using Bio-Plex Cytokine Assay (Bio-Rad, Marnes
La Coquette, France) [11]. The sensitivities of the cyto-
kines tested were, 0.2 pg/ml (IL-6), 0.3 pg/ml (IL-5, KC),
0.4 pg/ml (IL-10), 0.8 pg/ml (IL-17), 1.2 pg/ml (IFN-γ),
1.4 pg/ml (TNF-α), 12 pg/ml (IL-13), 15 pg/ml (eotaxin).
2.4. Lung Histology
In the chronic model of asthma, the lungs from different
groups of mice were recovered 24 hours after the final
OVA-challenges and fixed in 10% buffered formalin.
After paraffin-embedding, tissue sections were stained
with either hematoxylin/eosin (HE) or periodic acid-
Schiff (PAS).
2.5. Statistical Analysis
The mean and standard error for each group of six mice
were calculated. The Instat package from GraphPad (San
iego, CA) was used for analysis with the Student t test. D
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJRD
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJRD
Live BCG
(a) (b) (c)
Figure 1. Only EFD BCG treatment increases Foxp3 expression. Mice were OVA sensitized and Foxp3 expression was meas-
ured in extracts from inguinal lymph nodes (a) spleens (b) and lungs (c) at various times after treatment with live, HK and
EFD BCG and 24 hours after the OVA challenge (day 28). Six mice per group.
3. Results EFD in an acute model of asthma in which mice were
OVA-sensitized, EFD BCG-treated and, OVA-chal-
lenged 2, 3 or 4 months after the treatment. The EFD
BCG-treated as compared to PBS-treated mice were pro-
tected at least 3 months as shown by reduced Penh val-
ues at 2 and 3 months (P < 0.001), at 4 months the Penh
values of EFD BCG-treated mice were closed to those of
PBS-treated mice (P < 0.05) (Figures 2(a)-(c)). The ca-
pacity of EFD BCG to reduce AHR is correlated to the
expression of Foxp3 in spleens and lungs (Figures 2(d)-
(f)). When we observed a decreased Foxp3 expression in
both compartments (4 months after the EFD BCG treat-
ment) the AHR was not modulated (Figures 2(a)-(f)).
3.1. Kinetics Induction and Long-Term Homing
of Tregs in Various Organs after EFD BCG
Injection in OVA-Sensitized Mice
We have previously shown that EFD BCG subcutane-
ously injected to mice induced the recruitment of plas-
macytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) in the iDLNs [9]. These
pDCs promoted, few days after the EFD BCG injection,
the differentiation of naïve T cells towards Tregs ex-
pressing Foxp3.
However, the kinetics and the long-term homing of
Tregs in various organs remained to be studied from the
EFD BCG injection to OVA-sensitized mice until 24
hours after the OVA challenge. As compared to live or
HK BCG injections only EFD BCG injection induced a
significant increase of Foxp3 expression whatever the
organ studied (Figures 1(a)-(c)). In the iDLNs, Foxp3
expression slightly increased at day 1 after EFD BCG
injection, peaked at days 2 - 4 and then decreased regu-
larly (Figure 1(a)). Concomitantly to decreased expres-
sion of Foxp3 in the iDLNs we observed an increase of
Foxp3 expression in the spleen that peaked at day 14 and
remained at high levels even 24 hours after the OVA
challenge (day 28) (Figure 1(b)). In the lungs, the levels
of Foxp3 expression slightly increased until day 14 and
were strongly enhanced 24 hours after the OVA-chal-
lenge (Figure 1(c)).
3.2. Treatment with EFD BCG Reduces AHR
and Bronchial Inflammation in a Model of
Chronic Asthma
BALB/c mice were OVA-sensitized and OVA-chal-
lenged as shown in Supplementary Figures 1(a)-(d). The
effect of EFD BCG treatment administered one week
after 1, 2 or 3 OVA-challenges was determined by meas-
uring AHR 24 hours after the final OVA-challenges (3
consecutive days). In PBS-treated mice, after 1 or 2 and
particularly after 3 OVA-challenges, the Penh values in
response to various doses of Mch, increased significantly
(P < 0.001), as compared to control mice receiving PBS
as final challenges, (Figure 3(a)). By contrast, EFD
BCG-treated mice, even those treated after 3 OVA chal-
lenges had significant lower Penh values than PBS-
treated and OVA-challenged mice (P < 0.001) (Figure
3(a)). Mice EFD BCG treated after 1, 2 or 3 OVA chal-
lenges displayed similar Penh values than control mice
PBS-treated and PBS-challenged (Figure 3(a)). The
measurement of dynamic compliance and resistance in
mechanically ventilated mice induced a significant change
in responsiveness to Mch in EFD BCG-treated mice after
3 OVA-challenges compared with PBS-treated mice (P <
.001 and P < 0.01 respectively) (Figures 3(b) and (c)).
It has to be noted that even though the protein content
used for lung extracts (60 µg) is higher than that of
iDLNs and spleen extracts (40 µg) we found lower levels
of Foxp3 expression in the lungs probably due to a lower
number of T cells in lung tissue extracts. We have pre-
viously shown that the pDCs recruited to the iDLNs after
EFD BCG injection polarize naïve T cells towards Tregs
expressing Foxp3 [9] and the present results suggested
that these Tregs expanded and migrated to the spleen
where they homed before migrating to the lungs 24 hours
after the OVA-challenge.
We then studied the long-term protective effect of
(a) (b) (c)
(d) (e) (f)
Figure 2. EFD BCG treatment induced long-term Foxp3 expression correlating with protection. OVA-sensitized mice were
PBS- or EFD BCG-treated. Twenty-four hours after OVA- or PBS-challenges the Penh values were recorded after increasing
doses of Mch (a) 2; (b) 3 and (c) 4 months after the various treatments. Six mice per group. Foxp3 expression was measured
in lung cell extracts recovered (d) 2; (e) 3 and (f) 4 months after the EFD BCG treatment. Each band represents lung prote in
extracts of 3 mice. *P < 0.1, ***P < 0.001.
The number of lymphocytes, eosinophils and neutro-
phils of PBS-treated mice increased in BAL after 3 OVA
challenges, whereas EFD BCG-treatment (after 1, 2, or 3
OVA challenges) reduced significantly these cell num-
bers (P < 0.001) (Figures 4(a)-(c)). The number of
macrophages was not affected by the OVA challenges in
PBS-treated mice, only mice EFD BCG treated after the
first OVA challenge showed a slight decrease of macro-
phages in the BAL (P < 0.01) (Figure 4(d)).
As compared to control mice (Figure 4(e)), histologic
studies showed in PBS-treated mice numerous infiltrat-
ing cells in the lung parenchyma in twice-challenged
mice (data not shown) and an inflammation in those
third-challenged (Figure 4(f)). EFD BCG administered
after the third OVA-challenge reversed this inflamma-
tory process (Figure 4(g)). Similarly, the number of
mucus goblet cells were significantly increased after PBS
than after EFD BCG treatment (80% vs. 25% in small
bronchi and 80% vs. 45% in large bronchi after 3 OVA-
3.3. EFD BCG Treatment Reduces
Inflammatory Cytokines in Sera and BAL
Levels of Th1, Th2 and Th17 cytokines and eotaxin, a
specific eosinophil chemoattractant, were measured in
sera and BAL fluids of all groups of mice. In both
compartment, as compared to PBS treatment EFD BCG
administered after one (Figures 5(a) and (b)), two
(Figures 5(a) and (d)) or three (Figures 5(e) and (f))
OVA challenges reduced similarly Th2 (IL-5, IL-13),
inflammatory (KC, IL-6), and Th17 (IL-17) cytokines.
Eotaxin levels particularly increased in BAL fluid of
PBS-treated mice after the second and third challenges
were strongly reduced by EFD BCG treatment. TNF-α
levels were only detected in the sera and were signifi-
cantly reduced in EFD BCG-treated mice, whereas IFN-γ
and IL-10 levels increased in sera and BAL fluids of
EFD BCG-treated mice. It has to be noted that EFD BCG
even when administered after 3 OVA challenges reduced
inflammatory cytokines in sera and BAL fluids at similar
levels than controls PBS challenged (Figures 5(e) and
3.4. Enhanced Foxp3 Expression Is Associated to
Reduced NF-κB Activation in Spleen and
We have previously shown in a model of acute asthma
that EFD BCG induced Tregs expressing Foxp3 [9] in-
creased T-bet and reduced GATA-3 transcription factor
signatures of Th1 and Th2 immune responses respec-
tively [14]. Thus we measured these transcription factors
in lung cell extracts of mice EFD BCG or PBS treated
after 1, 2, or 3 challenges. As shown in Figure 6(a), after
the last OVA-challenge, as compared to PBS-treated
mice, GATA-3 expression is decreased in the lungs ex-
tracts of EFD BCG-treated mice whereas Foxp3 expres-
sion is increased. EFD BCG treated mice displayed
higher levels of T-bet expression in their lung extracts
than PBS-treated and OVA-challenged mice. It has to be
noted that T-bet expression in the lungs of PBS-treated
and PBS-challenged control mice is identical to that of
EFD BCG-treated mice (Figure 6(a)).
Same profiles were observed in spleen cell extracts
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJRD
Figure 3. EFD BCG treatment reduces AHR in a chronic
model of asthma. OVA-sensitized mice (6 per group) were
EFD BCG treated after 1, 2 or 3 OVA challenges and OVA
or PBS-challenged (supplementary Figure 1). (a) Twenty-
four hours after the last OVA-challenges Penh values were
recorded after increasing doses of Mch; (b), (c) Changes in
lung compliance and resistance of EFD BCG- or PBS-
treated mice after 3 OVA challenges are shown. **P < 0.01,
***P < 0.001.
(data not shown).
As previously shown in an acute model of asthma [9]
we observed, as compared to PBS-treated mice, a block-
ade of NF-κBp65 translocation to the spleen and lung
nucleus (Figure 6(b)) of EFD BCG-treated mice after 1,
2, or 3 OVA-challenges. The expression of PPAR-γ in-
creased significantly (P < 0.001) in spleen and lung nu-
clear cell extracts when mice were EFD BCG treated
after 1 and 2 OVA-challenges and this increase was less
marked after 3 OVA-challenges (P < 0.01) (Figure 6(c)).
4. Discussion
We recently showed that EFD BCG treatment reduces
inflammation in an acute model of asthma [9,11] as well
as in models of acute and chronic colitis [15] with no
side effects observed in mice. The major finding of the
present investigation is that EFD BCG treatment after
multiple allergen challenges in a chronic model of
asthma showed comparable reduction in lung inflamma-
tion than observed in the acute model previously de-
scribed [9,11]. Indeed, administration of EFD BCG after
the onset of acute eosinophilic airway inflammation was
found to decrease cellular inflammation (eosinophils,
lymphocytes, neutrophils) in BAL during chronic aller-
gen challenges. Moreover, therapeutic treatment with
EFD BCG after 3 OVA-challenges significantly de-
creased the size and extent of inflammation in lungs and
reduced the number of mucus producing goblet cells
within the bronchiolar epithelium. The decrease in lung
inflammation observed after EFD BCG treatment corre-
lated with lowered inflammatory cytokines (Th1, Th2
and Th17) and increased IL-10 and IFN-γ production
levels in BAL and sera. Moreover we showed that the
long-term presence of Tregs expressing Foxp3 in spleen
and lungs correlated with reduced AHR in an acute
model of asthma.
Patients with severe refractory asthma fail to show a
clinical improvement in lung function in response to high
doses of inhaled steroids [6,16]. These individuals have a
marked defect in the capacity of their CD4 + T cells to
synthesize IL-10 in response to glucocorticoids in vitro
compared with their glucocorticoid-sensitive asthmatic
counterparts [17]. IL-10 is an important alternative
therapeutic candidate for the treatment of asthma and
clinical trials using recombinant IL-10 showed that it is
well tolerated [8]. However a major disadvantage of us-
ing IL-10 is that it has a relatively short half-life in vivo
[8,18]. Thus, therapeutic treatment with EFD BCG that
induced IL-10-secreting Tregs [9] long term homing in
spleen and that deliver immuno-regulatory signals fol-
lowing challenge with allergens seemed a more attractive
strategy. Indeed, we found high levels of IL-10 in the
sera and BAL fluids of EFD BCG treated mice as com-
pared to those PBS-treated in the model of chronic aller-
gic asthma after 1, 2 or 3 OVA-challenges.
In mice models, live and HK BCG suppressed airway
eosinophilia largely through IFN-γ production [19-21]
and HK Listeria prevented allergy through induction of
Tregs producing IFN-γ and IL-10 [22]. We have previ-
ously shown [11] that lung explants of EFD BCG treated
mice produced less IFN-γ and more IL-10 than those of
mice treated with live or HK BCG; in the present study
we observed an increase of both cytokines after EFD
BCG as compared to PBS treatment particularly after 3
OVA challenges.
The increased levels of IFN-γ shown in this study
could be due to the model of asthma studied (chronic vs.
acute), the mouse strain (BALB/c vs. BP2 more Th2
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Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJRD
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e) (f) (g)
Figure 4. EFD BCG treatment reduces lung inflammation in a chronic model of asthma. (a)-(d) Inflammatory cells in BAL of
EFD BCG-treated mice after 1, 2, or 3 OVA-challenges. Lung histological sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin from
mice treated after 3 OVA challenges are shown (e) PBS-treated and PBS-challenged control mice, (f) PBS-treated and
OVA-challenged mice, (g) EFD BCG-treated and OVA-challenged mice. **P < 0.01, ***P< 0.001.
prone) and finally the compartment chosen for the dos-
age (serum and BAL vs. lung explants). The various
models of acute or chronic inflammation in which mice
were EFD BCG treated [9,15], we have always observed
an increased expression of T-bet, which is the transcrip-
tion factor signature of Th1 immune response, in com-
parison with PBS-treated mice [23]. In this study we ob-
served sustained levels of IFN-γ after EFD BCG treat-
ment compared to PBS-treated mice, suggesting that de-
spite its immunoregulatory properties EFD BCG treat-
ment could maintain an efficient immunocompetence of
the host via the Th1 arm of immunity.
Inhibitors of NF-κB have shown efficacy in animal
models of inflammatory diseases, however these drugs
have been associated with side effects and toxicity [16].
We have previously shown that EFD BCG blocks NF-κB
translocation to the nucleus [9] without known side ef-
fects even when administered at high doses (manuscript
in preparation). It has been shown that activation of
PPAR-γ in dendritic cells inhibits eosinophilic airways
[24] and lead to inhibition of NF-κB activation [25].
Thus EFD BCG a strong inhibitor of NF-κB and enhan-
cer of PPAR-γ expression, even if the treatment occurred
after established inflammation, could be an effective
treatment in chronic asthma.
A study showed that the number of Tregs was de-
creased in lungs but not in peripheral blood of asthmatic
children, and they were restored following inhalation of
corticosteroids [26]. However, treatment with corticos-
teroids has been also shown to inhibit induction of IL-10
and development of Tregs [17].
Improved care of severe refractory asthma is a major
unmet medical need calling for novel therapeutic options
ontrolling airway inflammaton over a long period of c
(a) (b)
(c) (d)
(e) (f)
Figure 5. EFD BCG reduces inflammatory cytokines in BAL and sera in a chronic model of asthma. OVA-sensitized mice (6
per group) were PBS- or EFD BCG-treated after 1 (a), (b) 2 (c), (d) or 3 (e), (f) OVA-challenges and, cytokines were meas-
ured in BAL and sera collected 24 hours after the last OVA-challenges. Control mice were OVA-sensitized, PBS-treated after
3 OVA challenges and PBS-challenged (e), (f).
(a) (b)
Figure 6. EFD BCG increases Foxp3, PPAR-γ and reduces GATA-3 and NF-κB transcription factors in a chronic model of
asthma. (a) T-bet, GATA-3 and Foxp3 transcription factor expression in lung cell extracts from PBS- or EFD BCG-treated
mice after 1, 2, or 3 OVA challenges. Each band represents lung protein extracts of 2 mice; (b) NF-κB and (c) PPAR-γ tran-
scription factor expression in nuclear lung cell extracts from PBS- or EFD BCG-treated mice after 1, 2, or 3 OVA-challenges
6 mice per group). **P < 0.01, ***P < 0.001. (
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJRD
time. EFD BCG could be such an alternative treatment
press their sincere thanks to
[1] W. W. Busse, E. Wenzel, “Patho-
since it reduces lung inflammation through long-term
homing of Tregs, IL-10 and IFN-γ production and NF-κB
5. Acknow
The authors would like to ex
Dr. Mohamad Abolhassani for his kind help with the
Western-Blots and AHR. We thank Dr. Michel Huerre
for lung histology.
S. Banks-Schlegel and S.
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Supplementary Figure 1. Protocol of OVA sensitization and chal-
lenges in a chronic model of asthma (time in days).
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJRD