Chinese Studies
2013. Vol.2, No.2, 92-95
Published Online May 2013 in SciRes (
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Factor Analysis of Satisfactory Degree on Improvement of Rural
Latrines in Shanxi Province—A Perspective of Social Gender
Zhou Xionghong, Shao Zirui, Liu Xue
Department of Public Management, Tongji University, Shanghai, China
Received December 7th, 2012; revised February 27th, 2013; accepted March 14th, 2013
Copyright © 2013 Zhou Xionghong et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons
Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the
original work is properly cited.
Through exploring the titled research topic and examining the influence of social gender, we suggest
some adjustments to a project of toilet amelioration. The approach of factor analysis was used to analyze
448 rural villagers’ questionnaires collected in an investigation in Shanxi province. Most rural villagers
are satisfied with the said project. Women’s satisfaction level with regard to the convenience and diseases
control is lower than men’s. But their satisfaction with the objective factors of the toilet itself is higher
than men’s. Policy-making should consider the needs of these two different groups.
Keywords: Toilets Amelioration Project; Satisfactory Level; Factor Analysis
Along with the development of the current rural toilet reform
project, farmers’ (final beneficial group) evaluation of the re-
form directly influences government’s support to the sanitation
work of toilet reform and confirmation on the capability in the
government. To ensure social gender equality, it is important to
analyze levels of public satisfaction with sanitary toilet from
the perspective of social gender and to discuss the difference
between male and female rural citizens with regard to the dis-
tribution of sanitary resource and phenomenon cognition. This
paper reports on an investigation we carried out in northwest
China to study public satisfaction with available sanitary facil-
ity (sanitary toilet). A comparative analysis is conducted on
different gender samples’ satisfaction with sanitary resource
with its theoretical and practical implications evaluated.
Theoretical Basis
Social Gender
The present paper comparatively analyzes men’s and
women’s understanding of resource allocation the purpose is
twofold, namely, to discuss social gender’s role in economic
growth, poverty reduction, and efficiency development, and to
explore how to accomplish gender fair. A study by World Bank
in 2006 shows that the equality between men and women will
quicken economic development, improve peoples’ physical and
mental health, and to reduce poverty faster (Word Bank, 2006).
Of all the eight United Nations Millennium Development Goals
(MDGs), at least 7 are directly related with gender. Due to the
long-term influence of gender discrimination, women, relative
to men have fewer rights in decision-making when it comes to
health resource allocation and health resource availability. Ac-
cording to WHO’s 2000 annual “World Health Report”, China
ranks 188th of all the world’s 191 members in the equity of
financing for health systems (MeMichael, 1998). Joan, a theo-
rist concentrate on feminism made the definition of social gen-
der. It is said gender is a part of many social relationships, and
it is a basic way to present the relationship of power. Social
gender refers to four interrelated aspects including variety
forms of culture symbols; normative concept for explaining the
symbolic significance; political and Historical Construction of
social organization (Scott, 1986). In short, social gender em-
phasizes the social construction of gender. Culture and society
make a difference in gender differentiation. This is a sociologi-
cal term which often used to study the social phenomenon be-
tween two gender groups. Based on the theory of social gender,
this study investigates the degree of public satisfaction with the
availability of health facilities (wash room) in undeveloped
Northwest China. Gender samples’ degrees of satisfaction with
the health resources are compared in the project.
Basic Principle and Mathematical Model of Factor
Factor Analysis method was first introduced by psycholo-
gists. The method aims to explain human behavior and ability
by extracting common factors to represent different characters
and behavior orientations. Specifically, it examines internal
depen- dencies of many variables are studied and, in so doing,
explores basic structure of observation data. And there are some
abstract variables that represent the basic data structure. These
variables, known as “factors”, can reflect the main information
of many variables (Fu Jianhua & Fan Jinli, 2008). This method
also solves the multi-collinearity among variables without los-
ing the main information. Factor analysis is briefly described as
Suppose there are n variables X1, X2,···, Xn, The observation
results of n variables in p samples form one p × n order original
11 121
21 222
pp pn
Usually, in order to eliminate the difference among variables
in dimension, the matrix shall be standardized. It is supposed
that standardized variables are Z1, Z2, ···, Zn. The n variables
can be converted and represented by n new standardized vari-
ables, factors F1, F2, ···, Fn in linear pattern. That is:
112 2 1,2,,
jj jjnnj
aF aFaFe jn 
In the formula, the matrix constituted by aiji, j = 1, 2,···, n
is factor loading matrix, ej is the error term. It is supposed that
the n factors in the above formula are ordered in accordance
with the variance contribution rate from large to small. Usually
the first m factors are selected. The cumulative contribution rate
of these factors is more than 80%. So, the equation can be writ-
ten as:
112 2
jj jmmj
aFaFaFe 
The last (n m + 1) monomials are omitted. In order to make
the relationship between the factors and variables clearer, fur-
ther factor rotation can be finished accordingly. Some factors
are given more important meaning according to the rotation
results, then the phenomenon is analyzed and evaluated in-
This paper intends to classify indexes into two systems,
namely satisfaction system and importance system. Layered
index evaluation and calculation models are established ac-
cordingly. The weight of indexes at each layer is calculated.
Then the comprehensive indexes at layers are calculated, the
formula to calculate importance and satisfaction is obtained,
and the scores of importance and satisfaction of samples are
calculated according to the above formula. In this study, the
scores and gender will be compared at this point. And we will
examine the influence of different genders on satisfaction and
importance of washing room change. The SPSS15.0 is used as
an analytical tool.
Object and Method
Investigation Object
This project selected three counties in Shanxi Province (i.e.
Fengxiang 凤翔 County, Qianyang千阳 County, and Xixiang
西乡 County), where we distributed questionnaires. 456 ques-
tionnaires were issued, 448 were collected, resulting in an ef-
fective rate of 98.25%.
Content of Questionnaire
The content mainly consists of two parts. The first is demo-
graphic information, which includes interviewee’s gender, age,
and education level. The second part tests samples’ satisfaction
with sanitary toilet, including villagers’ satisfaction with the
current toilet location, sanitary status, convenience, and elusive
aspects. Used as a measuring tool is 5-level Likert scale with
values 1) very unsatisfied, 2) unsatisfied, 3) common level, 4)
satisfied, and 5) very satisfied.
Statistical Analysis
Interviewees were tested randomly. Uniform guidance was
applied. Questionnaires were filled in secret ballot. Relevant
data analysis was completed by SPSS15.0. The statistical ana-
lytical method mainly included factor analysis.
Result and Analysis
Basic Status of Interviewees
Among 448 farmer households in this investigation, there are
254 men and 194 women. Here is the crossing distribution table
of samples’ age and culture level.
Education (%)
Age (%) Illiteracy Primary
High school
or above Total
16 0.72 0 0 0 0.72
17 - 25 0.72 1.46 2.16 1.44 5.76
26 - 44 0 10.07 20.86 4.32 35.25
45 - 59 6.47 13.67 16.55 9.35 46.04
60 5.04 5.05 0 0.72 10.79
Total 12.95 30.25 39.57 15.83 100.00
Evaluation of Villag ers’ Satisfactio n wit h Toilet s
Amelioration Project
Reliability and Validity of the Questionnaire
As the reliability analysis shows, the overall Cronbach α re-
liability coefficients of questionnaire is as high as 0.937,
indicating that the consistency and reliability of this question-
naire is in a good level. In term of validity analysis, the KMO
value of the questionnaire is 0.958, higher than 0.7. And the
value of Bartlett’s test is 0.000, rejecting the null hypothe-
sis.The above results show the sufficient condition to factor
KMO and Bartlett’s Test
Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin Measure of Sampling Adequacy 0.958
Approx. Chi-Square 3977.289
Df 78
Bartlett’s Test of Sphericity
Sig. 0.000
The Analysis of Satisfaction Factors to Toilets Amelioration
Factor analysis usually explores the basic structure of
observed date along with an examination on the internal
dependency between numbers of variables, and chooses a few
abstract variables to represent the basic data structures (Lin
Haiming, 2006)
These abstract variables, known as “factors”, can reflect the
main message of original variables. Table 1 shows the most
important part of the results, namely total variance explained.
Factors can be selected in accordance with the characteristic
root higher than 1 in principle. And they can also be determined
in accordance with actual situation and research standards. Two
common factors can be selected after rotation showed by Fig-
ure 1. The characteristic roots of the first common factor is
6.944, the variance contribution rate is 53.415%. If we select
the second common factor, the characterized root is 2.076, and
he variance contribution rate is 15.971%. Then the cumulative t
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 93
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Table 1.
Total variance explained.
Component Initial Eigenvalues Rotation Sums of Squared Loadings
Total % of Variance Cumulative % Total % of Variance Cumulative %
1 8.158 62.757 62.757 6.944 53.415 53.415
2 0.862 6.629 69.386 2.076 15.971 69.386
3 0.667 5.132 74.518
4 0.625 4.806 79.324
5 0.421 3.239 82.563
6 0.411 3.158 85.722
7 0.337 2.593 88.315
8 0.333 2.560 90.875
9 0.295 2.270 93.146
10 0.278 2.141 95.286
11 0.232 1.783 97.069
12 0.205 1.575 98.645
13 0.176 1.355 100.000
Table 2.
Component matrix.
0-1011-20 21-30 31-40大于40
1 2
1. Odor and mosquitoes (X1) 0.6520.416
2. The secretiveness of latrine (X2) 0.6340.494
3. The shorter distance between toilet and house (X3) 0.6490.483
4. The convenience of guests to use the toilet (X4) 0.7570.373
5. The hygiene condition of latrine (X5) 0.7470.365
6. The prophylaxis of diseases (X6) 0.7480.273
7. The odor around the house (X7) 0.6930.310
8. The convenience of children to use the toilet (X8) 0.8100.217
9. The convenience to use the toilet at night (X9) 0.8580.209
10. The convenience to use the toilet at night
on rainy day (X10) 0.840 0.198
11. Toilet cleaning convenience (X11) 0.8240.133
12. The convenience for aged people to use
the toilet (X12) 0.860 0.139
13. The location for toilet (X13) 0.1070.903
Figure 1.
The distribution of satisfaction degree.
variance contribution rate is 69.386%. In order to explain the
variables, this article intends to select two common factors.
In order to facilitate the interpretation and analysis of princi-
pal component to the practical problems, we need to rotate the
factor loading matrix with data analysis, and thereby reflect the
load of influence factors on each factor and the meaning of
different factor represented. The results of maximizing devia-
tions orthogonal rotation of factor loading matrix are shown in
Table 2. The two factors can be explained significantly by the
following indicators: Factor 1 by the index 5-7, 9-13, which
belong to the evaluation factors of convenience and the pro-
phylaxis of diseases; and Factor 2 by thes index 1-4 and 8,
which belong to the evaluation factors of the objective condi-
tion of the toilets.
examined comprehensive scores in order to get the compre-
hendsive evaluation of the farmers’ satisfaction with the sani-
tary latrines.
The calculation formula for common factors can be drawn by
factor loading matrix:
11 1213
0.107 0.6520.6340.649
0.757 0.747 0.748
0.693 0.8100.858
0.840 0.8240.860
 
 
 
The Overall Evaluation of the Farmer’s Satisfaction
Considering the different impact of each factor on satisfac-
tion, we determined weights of various indicators, and then
11 1213
0.903 0.4160.4940.483
0.373 0.365 0.273
0.310 0.217 0.209
 
 
Let us choose the proportion of each factor’s variance con-
tribution in the total variance of two factors as weights, then
sum weighted.
53.415 15.97169.386FFF (3)
The comprehensive score of each sample’s satisfaction have
been got according to the simultaneous Equations (1)-(3). The
highest score is 40.53, the lowest score is 0.29. The satisfaction
scores are divided into five intervals: 0 - 10, 11 - 20, 21 - 30, 31
- 40, over 40.
As shown in the graph above, satisfaction scores is mainly
between 21 and 40. The proportion of the scores more than 40
is only 1.6%, and the proportion of the scores less than 10 is
only 2.7%. Therefore, the distribution of lavatories satisfaction
in Shaanxi Province presents a normal distribution and high
scores offset trend. The total satisfaction degree is relatively
Analysis of Gender Dimension of Farmers’
Based on the overall satisfaction scores, gender characteris-
tics are analyzed. The impact of gender on satisfaction, as the
results show, is statistically significant ( = 22.178, p =
0.086). In order to compare the difference and relation among
villagers of different sexes, cross analysis is conducted to study
the satisfaction intervals and gender. The results show that the
degree of male satisfaction is more than 30, accounting for
26.77%, while that of female satisfaction is 28.09%, about 2
percentage more than males’. After the toilets amelioration
project, the female satisfaction was slightly higher than males’.
At the same time,
female satisfaction with convenience and the
prophylaxis of diseases is lower than its male counterpart, but
higher than male satisfaction with the objective factors of the
toilet itself. Therefore, women can be said to be more con-
cerned about the influence of toilet improvement on indirect
factors, such as living condition and convenience, while men
more concerned about the influence of toilet objective condi-
The Comprehensive Evaluation of Villagers’
Satisfaction with Toilets Amelioration
According to the above analysis, comprehensive scores of
villagers’ satisfaction with toilets amelioration are mainly be-
tween 21 and 40, which present a normal distribution. In addi-
tion, the total scores tend to be relatively high; indicating that
toilet reform basically reached the required effect. Toilet reform
promoted villagers’ sanitation with the improved cognition.
Meanwhile, villagers’ demand and satisfaction are directed
more to toilet convenience than to all other factors in the re-
Evaluation on Gender Influencing Factors for Toilet
Reform Satisfacti on
Observed in the comprehensive scoring evaluation on satis-
fac- tion factor analysis are higher scores among women in both
aspects than among men. This indicates that women and men,
due to their gender difference, perceive the sanitation im-
provement differently. One explanation could be that previ-
ously, due to the physiological conditions of the toilet, women
who used the toilet were vulnerable to invasion and severe
sanitation problems. By that we mean women’s privacy was
invaded; and women were more prone to fall victim to intes-
tines problem than men. That is why, after the improvement of
the environment, the improved sanitary conditions were sig-
nificantly better received among women than among men.
Specifically, among men, a higher degree of satisfaction with
the objective conditions of toilet is observed. In addition,
women show higher satisfaction with indirect advantages of
toilet reform (including disease reduction) and stronger under-
standing of the importance of the reform than men. This could
mean that during the process of toilet reform, men and women
paid attention to different aspects. Whereas men paid more
attention to visual and direct changes caused by the reform,
women paid more attention to indirect advantage and im-
provement in their feelings what this confirms to us is that dur-
ing a reform like this one, we should take into consideration of
the demand of both gender groups when we do specific works
(Zhou Xianghong & Zhou Tingting, 2008).
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MeMichael, A. J. (1998). The role of epidemiologists in eradication of
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Zhou Xianghong周向红, & Zhou Tingting周婷婷 (2008). Huanjing
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