### Paper Menu >>

### Journal Menu >>

Journal of Modern Physics, 2013, 4, 481-485 http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jmp.2013.44068 Published Online April 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/jmp) Method of Forming Stable States of Dense High-Temperature Plasma Stanislav I. Fisenko, Igor S. Fisenko Rusthermosynthesis, Moscow, Russia Email: stanislavfisenko@yandex.ru Received January 26, 2013; revised February 25, 2013; accepted March 7, 2013 Copyright © 2013 Stanislav I. Fisenko, Igor S. Fisenko. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons At- tribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is prop- erly cited. ABSTRACT The concept of gravitational radiation as a radiation of one level with the electromagnetic radiation is based on theo- retically proved and experimentally confirmed fact of existence of electron’s stationary states in own gravitational field, characterized by gravitational constant K = 1042 G (G-Newtonian gravitational constant) and by irremovable space-time curvature. The received results strictly correspond to principles of the relativistic theory of gravitation and the quantum mechanics. The given work contributes into further elaboration of the findings considering their application to dense high-temperature plasma of multiple-charge ions. This is due to quantitative character of electron gravitational radiation spectrum such that amplification of gravitational radiation may take place only in multiple-charge ion high-temperature plasma. In elaboration of the authors’ works [1-4], an essential instantiation of the concept of fusion plasma’s steady states formation (as the last paragraph outlines) and boundary conditions refinement in the electron’s stationary- states-in-proper-gravitational-field problem are appended to this article. Keywords: Gravity; Electron; Spectrum; Discharge; Fusion 1. Gravitational Radiation as a Radiation of the Same Level as Electromagnetic For a mathematical model of interest, which describes a banded spectrum of stationary states of electrons in the proper gravitational field, two aspects are of importance. First, in Einstein’s field equations is a constant which relates the space-time geometrical properties with the distribution of physical matter, so that the origin of the equations is not connected with the numerical limitation of the value. Only the requirement of conformity with the Newtonian Classical Theory of Gravity leads to the small value 4 8πGc 2 4πGc , where G, c are, respectively, the Newtonian gravitational constant and the velocity of light. Such requirement follows from the primary con- cept of the Einstein General Theory of Relativity (GR) as a relativistic generalization of the Newtonian Theory of Gravity. Second, the most general form of relativistic gravitation equations are equations with the term. The limiting transition to weak fields leads to the equation , where is the field scalar potential, is the source den- sity. This circumstance, eventually, is crucial for ne- glecting the term, because only in this case the GR is a generalization of the Classical Theory of Gravity. There- fore, the numerical values of 4 8πGc 0 and in the GR equations are not associated with the origin of the equations, but follow only from the conformity of the GR with the classical theory. From the 70’s onwards, it became obvious [5] that in the quantum region the numerical value of G was not com- patible with the principles of quantum mechanics. The essence of the problem of the generalization of relativis- tic equations on the quantum level was thus outlined: such generalization must match the numerical values of the gravity constants in the quantum and classical re- gions. In the development of these results, as a micro-level approximation of Einstein’s field equations, a model is proposed, based on the following assumption [1,2]: “The gravitational field within the region of localiza- tion of an elementary particle having a mass m0 is char- acterized by the values of the gravity constant K and of the constant that lead to the stationary states of the particle in its proper gravitational field, and the particle stationary states as such are the sources of the gravita- tional field with the Newtonian gravity constant G.” The most general approach in the Gravity Theory is C opyright © 2013 SciRes. JMP S. I. Fisenko, I. S. Fisenko 482 the one which takes torsion into account and treats the gravitational field as a gauge field, acting on equal terms with other fundamental fields [6]. Complexity of solving this problem compels us to em- ploy a simpler approximation, namely: energy spectrum calculations in a relativistic fine-structure approximation. In this approximation the problem of the stationary states of an elementary source in the proper gravitational field will be reduced to solving the following equations: 22 0 2ee 2n ff K r 2 10 ll Kf r (1) 22 222 02 11 e 1 21ee n r rr ll lf KKr 2 e f (2) 22 22 2 02 11 e 21 e n r rr ll lfKKr 2 1e f (3) 1 1e 0 n rr 2 2 11 24rr (4) 10f 0 n fr (5) (6) 000 22 0 d1 n (7) r f rr (8) Equations (1)-(3) follow from Equations (9) and (10) 2 00ggK xx x (9) 1 2 RgR Tg , (10) after the substitution of in the form of i ,exp El Et fr 22 222222 ded dsindedSc trr lm Y into them and specific computations in the central-symmetry field metric with the interval defined by the expression [7] (11) The following notation is used above: E l f is the ra- dial wave function that describes the states with a defi- nite energy E and the orbital moment l (hereafter the subscripts El are omitted), , lm Y —are spherical func- tions, nn K Ec , 00 Kcm , 4πm 0 Condition (4) defines rn, whereas Equations (10) through (7) are the boundary conditions and the normali- zation condition for the function f, respectively. Condi- tion (4) in the general case has the form . ,r n RK ,RGr n. Neglecting the proper gravitational field with the constant G, we shall write down this condition as ,0RKr n, to which equality (4) actually corresponds. The right-hand sides of Equations (2) and (3) are cal- culated basing on the general expression for the energy- momentum tensor of the complex scalar field: ,2 ,, ,,,0 TK (12) The appropriate components T are obtained by summation over the index т with application of charac- teristic identities for spherical functions [8] after the sub- stitution of i ,exp lm Et frY into (12). In its simplest approximation (from the point of view of the original mathematical estimates) the problem on steady states in proper gravitational field (with constants K and ) is solved by [1]. The solution of this problem provides the following conclusions. 1) With the numeric values K 5.1 1031 N·m2·kg–2 and = 4.4 1029 m –2, there is a spectrum of steady states of the electron in proper gravitational field (0.511 MeV - 0.681 MeV). The basic state is the observed elec- tron rest energy 0.511 MeV. 2) These steady states are the sources of the gravita- tional field with the G constant. 3) The transitions to stationary states of the electron in proper gravitational field cause gravitational emission, which is characterized by constant K, i.e. gravitational emission is an emission of the same level as electromag- netic (electric charge e, gravitational charge mK). In this respect there is no point in saying that gravitational effects in the quantum area are characterized by the G constant, as this constant belongs only to the macro- scopic area and cannot be transferred to the quantum level (which is also evident from the negative results of registration of gravitational waves with the G constant, they do not exist). Existence of such numerical value denotes a phe- nomenon having a deep physical sense: introduction into density of the Lagrange function of a constant member independent on a state of the field. This means that the time-space has an inherent curving which is connected with neither the matter nor the gravitational waves. The distance at which the gravitational field with the constant К is localized is less than the Compton wavelength, and for the electron, for example, this value is of the order of Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JMP S. I. Fisenko, I. S. Fisenko 483 its classical radius. At distances larger than this one, the gravitational field is characterized by the constant G, i.e., correct transition to Classical GR holds. 2. Spectral Lines Widening of the Radiation of Multiple-Charge Ions Figures 1 and 2 show characteristic parts of micropinch soft X-ray radiation spectrum. Micropinch spectrum line widening does not correspond to existing electromag- netic conceptions but corresponds to such plasma ther- modynamic states which can only be obtained with the help of compression by gravitational field [2,3], radiation flashes of which takes place during plasma thermaliza- tion in a discharge local space. Such statement is based on the comparison of experimental and expected parts of the spectrum shown in Figures 2(a) and (b). Adjustment of the expected spectrum portion to the experimental one (see [1]) was made by selecting average values of density ρ, electron temperature Te and velocity gradient U of the substance hydrodynamic motion. As a mechanism of spectrum lines widening, a Dop- pler, radiation and impact widening were considered. Such adjustment according to said widening mechanisms does not lead to complete reproduction of the registered part of the micropinch radiation spectrum. This is the evidence (under the condition of independent conforma- tion of the macroscopic parameters adjustment) of addi- tional widening mechanism existence due to electron excited states and corresponding gravitational radiation spectrum part already not having clearly expressed lines because of energy transfer in the spectrum to the long- wave area. That is to say that the additional mechanism of spectral lines widening of the characteristic electromagnetic ra- diation of multiple-charge ions (in the conditions of pla- sma compression by radiated gravitational field) is the Figure 1. Measured Fe He-δ line at 8.488 keV (broke n cur v e) compared to calculation (smooth curve), [9]. (a) (b) Figure 2. Experimental (a) and calculated (b) parts of a micropinch spectrum normalized for line Lyβ intensity in the area of the basic state ionization threshold of He-like ions. The firm line in variant (b) corresponds to density of 0.1 g/cm3, the dotted line—to 0.01 g/cm3; it was assumed that Te = 0.35 keV (see [1]). only and unequivocal way of quenching electrons excited states at the radiating energy levels of ions and exciting these levels by gravitational radiation at resonance fre- quencies. Such increase in probability of ion transitions in other states results in additional spectral lines widen- ing of the characteristic radiation. The reason for quick degradation of micropinches in various pulse high-cur- rency discharges with multiple-charge ions is also clear. There is only partial thermolization of accelerated plasma with the power of gravitational radiation not sufficient for maintaining steady states [4]. 3. Thermonuclear Plasma Steady States Generation The problem of controlled fusion realization is directly connected to obtaining steady state of dense high-tem- perature plasma. It can also be unambiguously stated that the present state of the art (retaining plasma by magnetic fields of various configurations, squeezing by laser radiation) does not solve the problem of dense high-temperature plasma retention for a time required for the reaction of nuclear fusion but only solving the problem of heating plasma to the state when these reactions can exist. In the offered method of forming dense-high temperature plasma steady states for nuclear fusion a new fundamental concept is Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JMP S. I. Fisenko, I. S. Fisenko JMP 484 used, namely retaining plasma by radiated gravitational field as radiation of the same kind as electromagnetic: heating and exciting gravitational radiation and its transit into a long-wave part of the spectrum with consequent plasma compression in the condition of radiation block- ing and increasing [4]. Forming and accelerating binary plasma with multi- valent ions by accelerating magnetic field in a pulse high-current discharge. Of interest, there are two modes of the installation op- erations depending on the work gas composition [11]. Injection of binary plasma from the space of the ac- celerating magnetic field: 1) A composition with hydrogen and (for example) xenon providing for achieving steady states of plasma with consequent realization of thermonuclear reactions for compositions of (d + t) + multi-charge atoms type. Exciting stationary states of an electron in its own gra- vitational field in the range of energy up to 171 keV with following radiation under the condition of quenching lower excited energy levels of ion electron shell of a hea- vy component (including quenching excited state of elec- trons directly in nuclei of small sequential number as car- bon) when retarding plasma bunch ejected from the space of the accelerating magnetic field. Cascade transitions from the upper levels are realized in the process of gravi- tational radiation energy transit to long-wave range. Fusion reaction creating helium generates neutrons 23 4 1 112 0 HH He17.6MeVn and was embodied in the well-known Teller-Ulam design with radiation implosion. An application of the compression-by-the-radiated- gravitational-field design, unlike the Teller-Ulam design, is not limited by the minimum discharge power attendant to the usage of a plutonium nucleus. This means both a feasibility of this fast fusion reaction a steady mode for low-power discharges, and (under certain conditions) a feasibility of explosive energy release without the use of fissile elements (like plutonium and uranium) for high- power discharges. The sequence of the operations is carried out in a two- sectional chamber of MAGO installation (Figure 3, de- veloped in Experimental Physics Research Institute, Sarov, [10]; the structure of the installation is most suit- able for the claimed method of forming steady states of the dense high-temperature plasma) with magnetody- namic outflow of plasma and further conversion of the plasma bunch energy (in the process of quenching) in the plasma heat energy for securing both further plasma 2) A composition with hydrogen and carbon providing thermonuclear reactions of carbon cycle in plasma steady Figure 3. Outline drawing of the discharge chamber (MAGO chamber) and X-ray diagnostic system. Copyright © 2013 SciRes. S. I. Fisenko, I. S. Fisenko 485 state mode, including energy pick-up in the form of elec- tromagnetic radiation energy CNO cycle is a set of fusion reactions resulting in con- version of hydrogen into helium using carbon as a cata- lyst. In a compact notation, this cycle would be written as 12 1313 15 1512 Cp, NeCp OeNp, C 14 , Np, The 15 12 N p, C reaction rounds the cycle out. The net result is that four protons turn into an -particle— 4He nucleus with no neutrons among end products of the cycle. Producing one helium nucleus releases 25 MeV, the produced neutrinos carry away about 5% more of that energy. A peculiarity of such fusion reaction cycle is that it occurs in natural conditions of astrophysical objects. At the same time, e.g. the design features of MAGO facility allow achieving such a volt-ampere characteristics (VAC) mode that boosts the speed of carbon cycle reactions. An implementation of carbon cycle in the gravitational com- pression design may possibly become a basic design to form steady states of the thermonuclear plasma, bearing in mind low abundance of hydrogen and lithium isotopes that react with no neutrons being produced either. REFERENCES [1] S. I. Fisenko and I. S. Fisenko, “Gravitational Interaction on Quantum Level and Consequences Thereof,” The Old and New Concepts of Physics, Vol. 6, No. 4, 2009, pp. 495-521. [2] S. I. Fisenko and I. S. Fisenko, “The Discrete Energy Spectrum of the Gravitational Radiation in the Relativis- tic Theory of Gravitation,” International Journal of Theo- retical and Applied Physics (IJTAP), Vol. 2, No. 2, 2012, pp. 32-39. [3] S. I. Fisenko and I. S. Fisenko, “Concept of a Thermonu- clear Reactor on the Principle of Gravitatational Confine- ment of High-Temperature Plasma,” Applied Physics Re- search, Vol. 2, No. 2, 2010, pp. 71-77. [4] S. I. Fisenko and I. S. Fisenko, “Gravitational Radiation of the Relativistic Theory of Gravitation,” British Journal of Science, Vol. 2, No. 1, 2011, pp. 1-20. [5] C. Siravam and K. Sinha, “The Concept of ‘Strong’ Grav- ity,” Physics Reports, Vol. 51, No. 3, 1979, pp. 112-123. [6] D. D. Ivanenko, et al., “Gauge Theory of Gravity,” MGU Publishing House, Moscow, 1985, pp. 71-73. [7] L. D. Landau and E. M. Lifshitz, “Field Theory,” Pub- lishing House “Nauka”, Moscow, 1976, pp. 451-457. [8] D. A. Warshalovich, et al., “Quantum Theory of Angular Momentum,” Publishing House “Nauka”, Leningrad, 1975, pp. 282-285. [9] M. G. Haines, et al., “Viscous Heating at Stagnation in Z- Pinches,” Physical Review Letters, Vol. 96, No. 7, 2006, pp. 075003-075008. [10] O. M. Burenkov, Y. N. Dolin, P. V. Duday, V. I. Dudin, V. A. Ivanov, A. V. Ivanovsky, G. V. Karpov, et al., “New Сonfiguration of Experiments for MAGO Program,” XIV International Conference on Megagauss Magnetic Field Generation and Related Topics, Maui, 14-19 October 2012, pp. 95-99. [11] S. Fissenko and I. Fissenko, “Method of Forming Stable States of Dense High-Temperature Plasma,” PCT Gazette, No. 46, 2005, p. 553. Copyright © 2013 SciRes. JMP |