Creative Education, 2010, 2, 101-106
doi:10.4236/ce.2010.12015 Published Online September 2010 (
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. CE
Discovering Oneself and Discovering Ourselves
with the Help of Literature: Educational
Possibilities of Narrative
Alfredo Rodríguez-Sedano, Aurora Bernal Martínez de Soria, Miguel Rumayor
Department of Education, University of Navarra and University of Panamericana, Pamplona, Spain and Guadalajara, México.
Email: {arsedano, abernal},
Received May 12th, 2010; revised June 2nd, 2010; accepted June 10th, 2010.
Undoubtedly narrative in education has frequently been studied. Nonetheless, in this paper we want to explore the dif-
ferent educational possibilities offered by narrative in order to discover identity through tradition. MacIntyres thought
offers the categories of practice, tradition and narrative, in order to penetrate the central questions of personal identity
and communicability that we consider the most suggestive. Some authors understand narrative as a very accurate
means to access tradition and self-knowledge as well as to show the unity of human life and to vindicate the unity of
tradition that we can face and those elements that constitute our moral habitat.
Keywords: Education, Narrative, Identity, Tradition, Moral
1. Introduction
We can add to the well-known expression of Gadamer “a
comprehensible being is language” [1] another not less
famous from Spaeman “the wealth of reality only be-
comes unveiled through the language that links us to
others” [2]. Both judgments introduce the idea of what
else we could try from the educational perspective in
order to contribute to the solution of some relevant prob-
lems. Both theoreticians of education and educators—
those who apply their energies to practice—think about
the following paradoxical and peculiar stages of Post-
modernity. People use efficient elements of information;
nonetheless, they lose interest and motivation in under-
standing reality. People have access to communication
technology that facilitates establishing contacts over the
limits of space, and somehow over time; nonetheless,
isolation and anomie are the lived experience of many
people. It is paradoxical that our culture praises the value
of liberty, creativity and subjectivity, ignoring that the
number of problematic subjects, uprooted and lost among
novelties, which is proportionally increasing with that
These three situations hold an existential relationship
and have repercussions on educational stances. On the
one hand, it is easy to prove that people afflicted by these
negative conditions can not educate and are hardly edu-
cable. It is possible from the educational intervention to
help people to a better self-knowledge as well as to help
them to know others. In this way they could push for-
ward their interpersonal communication and through it
their social life, as well as their interest in reality. The
consideration of narrative by educational theorists illus-
trates the orientation that we should give to educational
practice in order to face the goals described above. In
this vein, we have to underline the ideas of a thinker,
MacIntyre; through his categories of practice, tradition
and narrative, we can access central questions of personal
identity and communicability [3].
In order to demonstrate all these points we will follow
these steps: a) understand tradition as a basic dimension
of identity; b) consider narrative as very efficient means
of accessing tradition and understanding who we are; c)
consider that traditions can only have influence on edu-
cational models through agents integrated into them in a
very committed way; d) narrativity in education is also
necessary in order to show people in an understandable
way the unity of human live as well as to vindicate as a
society the unity of traditions that we contact, and those
elements that constitute our nutritional moral habitat.
2. Identity and Tradition
Clearly the question of identity is one of the many as-
pects that underlie reading and narrative [4-6]. Above all
there is one idea of identity behind those aspects that
Discovering Oneself and Discovering Ourselves with the Help of Literature: Educational Possibilities of Narrative
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. CE
supports each different prospective. Frequently we call
identity that which the person chooses for herself with
hardly any conditional references where others can be
included. This notion of identity underlies liberty as an
absolute and produces isolation in individuals. Identity
can also be thought of as the result of rational construc-
tion through the generalization of values. In this matter
each individual is what she simply considers her inscrip-
tional group by age, beliefs, economical status, culture,
etc. Nonetheless, there is another possible interpretation
of identity, that one is related to origin.
We consider that identity has a reference to origin. It
is not established as something definitely given, as an
unchangeable fatum at the personal life that has as a
result a terrible and unavoidable design. Identity as a
start means a “departure point”. For its essential charac-
ter of coexistence and openness is the initial step of the
personal life and of the flourishing of a culture. On the
other hand the “Modern Identity”—using the expression
of Ch. Taylor—implies the consolidation of the close
individualism and fatally brings us to solipsism. Both A.
MacIntyre and Ch. Taylor, not participating in this cor-
rect notion of identity as origin, have considered and
censured the effects of Modern Identity in the mentioned
way. For Taylor [7] the derived influences of that idea
have produced an erosion of the traditional and common
links. Ch Taylor demands a reaffirmation of the proper
values of ordinary life, especially those directly related
to family life and work. This is the necessary path in
order to recover and to renew the true human spirit.
Taylor [7] also insists on the formational properties of
art and literature.
In another light, MacIntyre [8] recognizes tradition as
an essential dimension of personal identity that is con-
ceived as something received and developed at the heart
of a community, and which sustains the continuity of
subjects’ life as a “unity of search” [9]. In this conception,
tradition is not a dead weight; a heavy burden that we can
hardly bear, and that undermines and cuts the wings of
any innovation. Tradition is something given and for this
reason is a source for the possible changes carried out by
subjects within a community, made by responsibility and
solidarity. It is not a matter of reviving the dead tradition
but of updating dialogue with a living tradition which is
“the requirement of a real scientific progress: progress
that only occurs in a learning community” [10].
In order to keep speaking about identity it is necessary
to become closer to better clarify the meaning of com-
munity that which joins me to others and helps me dis-
cover who I am and what I am [11].
3. Narrative as Mean for Accessing into
There are numerous thinkers that underline from differ-
ent stances the dimension of narrative in human life [12].
Let us highlight some of the main contributions in order
to understand their educational relevance. In After Virtue
MacIntyre remarks a relevant aspect for self-knowledge;
he posits “human action as a narrative in action” [13].
Also in relation to that idea Barbara Hardy wrote “we
dream in narrative, we daydream in narrative, remember,
anticipate, we hope, despair, believe, doubt, plan, review,
criticize, build, learn hate and love by narrative” [14].
Using narrative through told stories supposes a way of
practically experiencing human actions [15].
Narrative as non-arbitrary model of knowledge has
been exposed, among others, by Mink. According to
Mink [16] there are in a general sense three ways of
a) The theoretical way (or hypothetical-deductive) that
goes from the universal to the particular through
which we can learn concrete things by way of ex-
b) The categorical way which explains reality through
the use of general and abstract notions (categories)
extracted from the observation of reality.
c) The configuring way in which the central category
is narrative. The configuring way is that which
composes a series of objects in a unique complex of
The tool used for this configuring operation is the
“narrative of the plot” (the Aristotelian mythos). Speak-
ing about comprehension, the plot is able to make “a
synthesis of the heterogenic”, since it allows the union in
intelligible unity of different elements, such as the ac-
tions with agents, the aims, means, initiatives, the non
undesired circumstances, etc [17]. The narrative mode is
presented as the best way of describing human action, as
the most suitable to describe human action with the
components that integrate it, its conceptual network [18].
Told stories make reference to a tradition. When narra-
tive is reached by means of those stories we have ex-
perience of human action. Exactly what connects tradi-
tion with action is narrative.
Narrative is what, in the end, gives us the “who” of the
action that is to say, what reveals the identity. In effect,
as H. Arendt [19] remembers, whenever we tried to de-
fine who man is we are tangled in a series of descriptions
that retract the answer because they say to us, in fact,
what man is. Man, continues Arendt [20]—see also
MacIntyre [13], reveals himself by his actions and speech,
but since the speech in action is narrative, the last word
on human identity, the understanding of himself and oth-
ers in relation to oneself, has a narrative form. Indeed, as
Den Heder and Fidyk affirm “Hannah Arendt suggested
that a life that is ‘‘specifically human’’ shares a story
with others” [21]. These considerations introduce the
Discovering Oneself and Discovering Ourselves with the Help of Literature: Educational Possibilities of Narrative
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. CE
category of narrative identity that together with theory
of narrative has been applied to educational practice
It is not strange that, for many theoreticians, narrative
has become a suitable category to describe those human
sciences in which the speech and temporality are implied
in some form. It is through the help of narrative that we
can access understanding of ourselves, that we can give
ethical value to actions in the framework of a narrated
life [13]. That History [24,25] can be understood with its
educational [26] implications, or even, as all critical [27]
speech must be understood at the end.
4. In search of Educational Tradition
In this context it can be argued that we live in a world
characterized by the diversity and rivalry of traditions
and some programs even try to do without any tradition.
Undoubtedly it is and was always in such a way. This
rivalry entails different educational models that compose
diverse visions of the educational process and the task of
the teacher. And this can provoke a certain disappoint-
ment insofar as we are not able to establish the real re-
quirement in a learning community: dialogue [28,29].
This situation transcends the social scope. Traditions can
only have influence on educational models through
agents who integrate themselves into them in a more or
less committed way. This requires that tradition be em-
bodied in all practice.
In this light MacIntyre [13] suggests the convenience
of integrating the different practices as a means of reach-
ing a full human development as well as abandoning the
perplexity that is trapping us. These practices entail four
Coherency: there must be activities with consistent
rational and foundational structures.
Complexity: enough to give certain enrichment to
the participants.
Sistematicity: that is to say, it is not sufficient to
have sporadic activities. Some structure and inter-
dependency must have been reached.
Cooperation : There must be activities with enough
participant cooperation.
Every practice thought in this way entails internal
goods that MacIntyre calls models of excellence that
suppose an ideal of future. Every practice has proper
goods, entails learning and is also rooted in the past.
These internal goods have the possibility, within the
practice, to manage the conduct of those who are partici-
pating in it, being specified in a concrete order and in
internal rules.
Thus, what is a luminous signal of a good practice is
that those goods, internal and specific to this activity,
which are only well understood insofar as they are prac-
tical, grow systematically, becoming deeper and more
attainable. Increasingly they bond among participants
and extend to others as well as to different practices. This
is the measure of the good state of a practice. It is not
enough to have a practice but it is also necessary to have
a moral order, thus for MacIntyre “moral order is the
indicative of a good practice (…) the practice would
flourish in societies with very different codes, not so in
societies where virtues are unvalued. Nonetheless, other
practices would flourish in institutions and with technical
skills valid for unified purposes” [13]. Practices are re-
lated to every type of social collaboration; therefore, they
also include the relation of collaboration that is produced
in education. It is well known that MacIntyre has been
critiqued for his idea when he speaks of teaching as a
practice [30].
Why do we insist on this integration of diverse prac-
tices? For MacIntyre [8] the integration of diverse prac-
tices entails a fruitful collaboration between educators
and the educated at the heart of the practice itself, the
right place where the distinction can be learnt between
the following:
a) The distinction about what is really good and what
seems good for the student.
b) The distinction between what is good for me, in my
particular learning level, and what is always good.
These practices should be maintained throughout life
regardless of the degree of maturity of students at the
scope of the practices. But a key element for those prac-
tices to be effective in the educational process requires
authority. It is a rational teaching authority, and authority
worth trusting that comes from a self-rational knowledge
[31]. Departing from this authority, we should accept that
intellectual and moral habits are necessary to be a good
and autonomous educated citizen [8]. Authority that is
reflected in the virtues that belong to tradition is repre-
sented by the teacher. It is not really recognized by the
student till the educator has not internally incorporated
them at least in a partial way.
The recognition of authority is especially relevant in
two moments of the educational process.
a) When it happens before comprehension. It is through
trust in authority that one can be introduced to tradi-
b) In the process of understanding we follow a teacher
that helps us to move on to higher degrees of intel-
ligibility, thus “we can never do this in our mortal
life without the authorized testimony of someone
that consists of leading us further from where we
were” [8].
The necessity of authority is fundamental during the
learning process. Authority is also a permanent condition
as far as learning is necessary during the whole life [32].
Discovering Oneself and Discovering Ourselves with the Help of Literature: Educational Possibilities of Narrative
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. CE
The importance of educational practices drives us to
give value to tradition and authority. In doing so, the
educational value of community takes a relevant dimen-
sion as a political scope that could bring a tradition, with
enough extension to place the different practices in a
concrete human group. MacIntyre is speaking about dif-
ferent social habits, where not only intrinsic criteria can
be learnt in a practice but also how to conjugate different
practices in a more complex social scope. There is in
human beings a tendency for history, for narrating, for
sharing stories that represent the individual experiences,
in this way are made interpretations that reflect moral
commitments established by a society or by that which
wants to be a society. This is one of the most powerful
ways to produce social unity as well as to look for the
unity of every individual.
In this light, Grisez and Shaw [33] point out “when we
determine ourselves through commitments we shape our
lives, our way of looking at things, we determine the
significance of the experience that we will have. In such
a way, we really create situations in a moral way, since
we give to events that happen in our lives and in the
world the only meaning they have for us”.
The ideal community is, for MacIntyre, the one that
carries out a coherent tradition and that in addition is able
to make its position rationally explicit, as much in its
interior to those who share the project of the community,
as towards the outside, to the rival traditions from which
it is distinguished. This happens without excluding or
discriminating from the beginning the incorporated
achievements of those different traditions from such
community. In this sense the tradition to which MacIntyre
is referring is that where a healthy realism in education is
possible: “Tradition of virtues”.
5. Narrativity in Education
The previously indicated thing to obtain this element is
developed by MacIntyre in his work After Virtue, when
affirming the importance of narrative in human life and
in the development of people. Both elements are closely
tied in the scope of education.
MacIntyre states in his own experiences as a child the
importance of narrative in education. For him “telling
stories is a key issue for educating in virtues” [13]. In
fact, he attributes a decisive role in formation to stories in
general and particularly to the Gaelic sagas as transmit-
ters of a distinctive tradition, in many ways in opposition
to the dominant tradition of modern societies, shedding
light “these narratives supply, adequately or not, the his-
torical memory of societies where finally they were fixed
in writing. More than that, they give the moral ground of
the contemporary debate in classic societies, the vision of
a moral order partially or completely transcended, whose
beliefs and concepts were still partially influential, and
gives also an illuminating contrast to the present time”
MacIntyre emphasizes the importance and the necessity
of narrative and the communication of proper stories of a
concrete tradition during the first stages of education. In
some way MacIntyre goes to his personal experience.
The stories that we heard when we were children allow
us to learn what a parent and a child are, and what kind
of society we live in, etc. If we deprive children of these
narratives, they could not distinguish nor wander a world
presented as unknown for us [13].
Narrativity in education is seen as a necessary tool to
show the unity of human life in an intelligible way, but
also to claim the unity of traditions through which we
make contact, or those which constitute our nutritional
moral habitat.
Then education is taken as a promise of a novelty and
the new beginnings with each person keeping the possi-
bilities of the world that is coming from the past. This
also requires from every educator to learn how to organize
teaching time. Think about the rhythm of learning as well
as the maturity of the students. Make students, when they
are able to do so, think about their rhythm of learning.
For each student, reaching that goal means learning how
to organize their lives, which entails making an election
of priorities.
Thus, helping students reflect on goals supposes un-
derstanding who we are, when, and where we are going.
Then narrative is manifested as an efficient help for the
proper goal of education: to be happy [34], insofar as it
allows us to discover who and how we are. From the old
times human beings have used told stories as an efficient
means for moral education; therefore, we consider that
this method is still very useful today [35,36].
In a different way Geneviève Patte [37], discloses an
slogan that succeeded even among teachers “let them
read!”, proposing leading students with respect but taking
into account that “the child has to be conscious that she is
living a decisive time where every book has to be “too
good to miss”; books and stories that could play an
essential role in the development of her personality, of
her affective and intellectual life”.
Nonetheless it is true that for students, being only part
of one tradition, there is a time when she faces other cul-
tures that, in many cases, would be differing versions of
her own tradition [38,39]. This is the moment for dialectic
and rational discussion, where narrative has its imitation
in drama. The importance of dramatic narratives is cru-
cial as an example of attitudes that must be adopted in
the situation of conflict among cultures that is brought
throughout the dialectic among traditions. For a good
solution of this possible conflict, MacIntyre [40] takes
Discovering Oneself and Discovering Ourselves with the Help of Literature: Educational Possibilities of Narrative
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. CE
into account the necessity and fecundity of this phase,
foreseeing and nourishing through the help of narrative
models of historical character.
With the passage of time narrative has to be applied to
one’s own life and to autobiography. It happens to be a
necessary genre to give unity to one’s own life project
and to make it intelligible to the eyes of those who sur-
round us, sharing or not the tradition in which we live.
To reach this goal we need a narrative of the context in
which we located ourselves, otherwise the autobio-
graphical story could not be possible either.
In the end, the ideal story which MacIntyre advocates,
as we indicated in the beginning, is the one of a search:
that in which each person is committed to the truth. The
search for human life is obtained as a whole. Indeed that
search becomes total and intelligible because it is able,
albeit always in a limited way, to give a coherent expla-
nation of truth as well as of the good that we pursue. As
MacIntyre exposes by means of narrative we can dis-
cover and give an answer to the great questions that are
posed by human beings: who am I and what am I?
Discovering oneself and discovering ourselves. The
answer to this question that we considered at the begin-
ning is expressed in a very clear way by MacIntyre
[41,42] “people at certain moments of their lives often
discover and the crucial word is discovered that their
lives have taken a narrative form independently of any-
thing they wanted. And this discovery that in their lives
has a narrative form, looking back can rather be under-
stood as a movement in one direction rather than in an-
other. Is not the discovery that the rest of their life is
predetermined, but a discovery that there are objective
limitations coming from the past in the options that what
one can do, and in the meaning of those options. The
problem with social constructivism is that it does not
recognize the necessary objectivity of social orders”.
6. Conclusions
According to McIntyre tradition is an essential dimension
of personal identity. One way of growing in
self-understanding is by expressing in narrative form
those contradictions, experiences, states of mind, and
moods that connect me to others and help me to discover
who and what I am. In this vein, a task of the first im-
portance in the intellectual life is the narrative articula-
tion of one’s autobiography, whether of one’s past life or
of one’s most intimate aspirations for the future, in the
context of a community of learning. This is the way one
becomes effectively the author of one’s own life, discov-
ering what connects me to others and discovering who I
What we understand about ourselves is the result of a
narrative articulation of the events that we have lived.
But we only grasp the true meaning of lived events when
we compare what we were with what we could have been.
This last idea, the possible, we can know, even if we
have not lived it, through fictional stories. With the con-
nection between the historical and the fictional, our per-
sonal identity – which is, in the end, a narrative – is
finally built up.
Therefore it is no surprise that for many theoreticians,
narrative has become a category well-suited to describe
those human sciences which involve, in one way or an-
other, discourse and temporality. It is through narrative
that one attains an understanding of oneself, gives value
to those actions framed by a narrated life, grasps the
meaning of history, and discovers one’s personal identity.
[1] H.-G. Gadamer, “Verdad y Método,” Traducido por Ana
Agud Aparicio y Rafael de Agapino, Sígueme, 1991.
[2] R. Spaemann, “Ética: Cuestiones Fundamentales,” Ver-
sión Española y Prólogo, José María Yanguas, Eunsa,
[3] A. MacIntyre and J. Dunne, “Alasdair MacIntyre on Edu-
cation: In Dialogue with Joseph Dunne,” Journal of Phi-
losophy of Education, Vol. 36, No. 1, 2002, pp. 1-19.
[4] K. C. MacLean, M. Pasupathi and J. L. Pals, “Selves Creat-
ing Stories Creating Selves: A Process Model of Self-De-
velopment,” Personality and Social Psychology Review,
Vol. 11, No. 3, 2007, pp. 262-278.
[5] M. J. Chandler and T. Proulx, “Identity and Story: Creating
Self in Narrative,” Journal of Applied Developmental
Psychology, Vol. 28, No. 3, 2007, pp. 277-282.
[6] W. T. Kraus, “The Narrative Negotiation of Identity and
Belonging,” Narrative Inquiry, Vol. 16, No. 1, 2006, pp.
[7] C. Taylor, “Sources of the Self: The Making of the Mod-
ern Identity,” Cambridge University Press, Cambridge,
[8] A. MacIntyre, “Three Rival Versions of Moral Enquiry:
Encyclopaedia, Genealogy, Tradition,” Duckworth and
University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, 1990.
[9] S. Sayers, “Identity and Community,” Journal of Social
philosophy, Vol. 30, No. 1, 1999, pp. 147-160.
[10] A. Llano, “Presentación,” en MacIntyre, A., Tres
Versiones Rivales de la ética. Encyclopaedia, Genealogía
y Tradición, Traducción de Rogelio Rovira, Rialp, 1992.
[11] M. Papapstephanou, “Education, Subjectivity and Com-
mnity: Towards a Democratic Pedagogical Ideal of
Symmetrical Reciprocity,” Educational Philosophy and
Theory, Vol. 35, No. 4, 2003, pp. 395-406.
[12] P. Verhesschen, “The Poem’s Invitation: Ricoeur’s Con-
cept of Mimesis and its Consequences for Narrative Edu-
cational Research,” Journal of Philosophy of Education,
Vol. 37, No. 3, 2003, pp. 449-465.
[13] A. MacIntyre, “After Virtue: A Study in Moral Theory,”
Discovering Oneself and Discovering Ourselves with the Help of Literature: Educational Possibilities of Narrative
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. CE
Duckworth and University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame,
[14] B. Hardy, “Towards a Poetics of Fiction: An Approach
through Narrative,” Novel, No. 2, 1968, pp. 5-14.
[15] P. Kemp, “Mimesis in Educational Hermeneutics,” Edu-
cational Philosophy and Theory, Vol. 38, No. 2, 2006, pp.
[16] L. O. Mink, “History and Fiction as Modes of Compre-
hension,” New Literary History, No. 1, 1970, pp. 541-
[17] P. Ricoeur, “De l'interprétation, en Du texte à l'action.
Essais d'herméneutique II,” Seuil, 1986.
[18] P. Ricoeur, “Soi-Même Comme un Autre,” Seuil, 1990.
[19] H. Arendt, “La Condición Humana,” Introducción de
Manuel Cruz; Traducción de Ramón Gil Novales, Paidos,
[20] H. Arendt, “Hombres en Tiempos de Oscuridad,” Trad-
ucción Claudia Ferrari, Gedisa, 1992.
[21] K. D. Heyer and A. Fidyk, “Configuring Historical Facts
through Historical Fiction: Agency, Art-in-Fact and
Imagination as Stepping Stones between Then and Now,”
Educational Theory, Vol. 57, No. 2, 2007, pp. 141-157.
[22] S. D. Franzosa, “Authoring the Educated Self: Educa-
tional Autobiography and Resistance”, Educational The-
ory, Vol. 42, No. 4, 1992, pp. 395-412.
[23] S. Farquhar and P. Fitzsimons, “Introduction. Philosophy
of Early Childhood Education,” Educational Philosophy
and Theory, Vol. 39, No. 3, 2007, pp. 225-228.
[24] P. Ricoeur, “Temps et récit,” Seuil, 1983.
[25] I. Olábarri, “New History: A Longue Durée Structure,”
History and Theory, Vol. 34, No. 1, 1995, pp. 1-29.
[26] K. Hawkey, “Could You Just Tell Us the Story – Peda-
gogical Approaches to Introducing Narrative in History
Classes,” Curriculum Inquiry, Vol. 37, No. 3, 2007, pp.
[27] G. Steiner, “Presencias Reales, Hay Algo en lo Que
Decimos?,” Destino, 1991.
[28] S. Rice, “Teaching and Learning through Story and Dia-
logue,” Educational Theory, Vol. 43, No. 1, 1993, pp.
[29] J. Russell, “Consciousness in a Community of Inquiry,”
Journal of Moral Education, Vol. 31, No. 2, 2002, pp.
[30] J. Dunne, “Arguing for Teaching as a Practice: A Reply
to Alasdair MacIntyre,” Journal of Philosophy of Educa-
tion, Vol. 37, No. 2, 2003, pp. 353-369.
[31] K. Wain and K. MacIntyre, “Teaching, Politics and Prac-
tice,” Journal of Philosophy of Education, Vol. 37, No. 2,
2003, pp. 225-239.
[32] T. McLaughlin, “The Educative Importance of Ethos,”
British Journal of Educational Studies, Vol. 53, No. 3,
2005, pp. 306-325.
[33] G. Grisez and R. Shaw, “Ser Persona: Curso de ética,”
Versión Española, Realizada por Manuel Alcázar García,
Rialp, 1993.
[34] F. Altarejos, “Dimensión ética de la Educación,” Eunsa,
[35] A. Cain, “Becoming Good: Demonstrating Aristotle’s
Theory of Moral Development in the Act of Reading,”
Journal of Moral Education, Vol. 34, No. 2, pp. 171-183.
[36] D. Carr, “On the Contribution of Literature and the Arts
to the Educational Cultivation of Moral Virtue, Feeling
and Emotion,” Journal of Moral Education, Vol. 34, No.
2, 2005, pp. 137-151.
[37] G. Patte, “Laissez-Les Lire,” Enfance Heureuse, 1987.
[38] J. Cohen, “Deliberation, Tradition, and the Problem of
Incommensurability: Philosophical Reflections on Cur-
riculum Decision Making,” Educational Theory, Vol. 49,
No. 1, 1999, pp. 71-89.
[39] D. Resnick, “What Could Be Better Than This? — Con-
flicting Visions of the Good Life in Traditional Educa-
tion,” Journal of Philosophy of Education, Vol. 40, No. 3,
2006, pp. 391-403.
[40] A. MacIntyre, “Are Philosophical Problems Insoluble? —
the Relevance of System and History,” Philosophical
Imagination and Culture Memory: Appropriating His-
torical Traditions, Duke University Press, Durham, 1993,
pp. 65-82.
[41] A. MacIntyre, “Interview with Alasdair MacIntyre,” Ki-
nesis, Vol. 20, No. 2, 1994, pp. 34-47.
[42] D. P. Mc Adams, “The Problem of Narrative Coherence,”
Journal of Constructivist Psychology, Vol. 19, No. 2,
2006, pp. 109-125.