esis factors. This dose of aspirin was chosen because we originally wanted to study the potential effects of aspirin and EPA + DHA on platelet function [19]. It remains possible that other doses of aspirin, or ingestion of aspirin for longer time points, might affect some of the inflammatory cytokines or proangiogenesis factors measured. Alternatively, while the clearance of many cytokines and angiogenesis factors occurs quickly with half-lives of <3 hours, it is possible that the effects of aspirin on molecules with longer half-lives could be detected in studies with longer periods of aspirin use. In addition, the data in this study should be cautiously interpreted as the number of participants was relatively small. Their age was also quite low and they were quite healthy, limiting the ability to predict the process of atherosclerosis and clinical events. Thus, different results could be found in a much larger cohort with older, or diseased, participants. In addition, we were not able to determine if the angiogenesis stimulating factors of cigarette smoking [20] and endothelial progenitor cells [21] influence the effects that EPA + DHA or aspirin had on the pro-angiogenesis molecules that we measured. Future studies will be needed to investigate these possibilities.

In conclusion, our findings support the idea that the ω3 fatty acids EPA + DHA have anti-inflammatory and anti-angiogenesis effects in vivo, which may contribute to the beneficial effects of fish oil supplementation in susceptible human subjects who take or do not take aspirin.

5. ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

We are indebted to Mary Rose Burnham, PhD, and Kelly Keating, PhD, of the Albany College of Pharmacy, for their assistance with improving the quality and grammar of the text. We are indebted to Kelly Thevenet-Morrison, MS, of the University of Rochester for her assistance with improving the quality of the figures.

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NOTES

*Financial Support: this publication was made possible by Grant Number KL2 RR 024136 from the National Center for Research Resources (NCRR), a component of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), and the NIH Roadmap for Medical Research. Its contents are solely the responsibility of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official view of NCRR or NIH. Information on NCRR is available at http://www.ncrr.nih.gov/. Information on Re-engineering the Clinical Research Enterprise can be obtained from http://nihroadmap.nih.gov/clinicalresearch/overview-translational.asp. LK is supported through a Canadian Institutes of Health Research (CIHR) grant number: MOP-67121.

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