Journal of Informatio n Security, 2010, 1, 68-73
doi:10.4236/jis.2010.12008 Published Online October 2010 (
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JIS
Sustainable Tourism Using Security Cameras with Privacy
Protecting Ability
Vacharee Prashyanusorn1, Yusaku Fuji2, Somkuan Kaviya1, Somsak Mitatha3, Preecha Yupapin3
1Innovative Communication Program, Krirk University, Bangkok, Thailand
2Gunma University, Kiryu, Japan
3King Mongkut’s Institute of Tech nology Ladkrabang, Bangkok, Thailand
Received September 26, 2010; revised October 12, 2010; accepted October 15, 2010
For sustainable tourism, a novel method of security camera operation is proposed. In the method, security
cameras, which encrypt the taken images and store them into the memory card inside, are used. Only when
crimes occur, the memory cards are taken out from the cameras and the images are decrypted with the key
and viewed by the city government and/or the police. When no crimes occur, images are overwritten by the
new ones after a week automatically without being viewed by anyone. By using the stand-alone cameras
without wiring to the control center, the installation cost and the operation cost are much lower than CCTV
cameras. By using image encryption, the privacy of the tourists is protected. Using this system, high density
installation of the security cameras with very low cost can be realized in encryption with image encryption
privacy protec t io n func ti on.
Keywords: Innovative Communication, Security Camera, Privacy, Safety, Sustainable Tourism,
Crime Prevention
1. Introduction
In the sightseeing places, security camera systems, such
as Closed-circuit Television (CCTV) system, are now
widely used and can be found in ordinary sho ps and citi-
zens’ houses. These systems sometimes play an impor-
tant role in reducing crime and identifying suspects.
However, many problems seem to arise with regard to
such security camera systems because of the fact that
they are introduced only for the benefit of the owners.
One problem is that an expensive high-end security
camera system is required for maintaining complete sur-
veillance of an owner’s property. The second problem is
that a typical system usu ally keeps watch only inside the
owner's property; therefore, it cannot be used for the
overall safety of the community. The third problem is
that if the system keeps a watch outside the owner’s
property, it could amount to invasion of the privacy of
neighbour. We argue that these prob lems can be solv ed if
the camera systems are introduced within an altruistic,
commun i t y-minded framework.
Recently, many security camera systems have been in-
stalled in some countries such as the United Kingdom
and the United States of America, by the national and the
local governments. Although, it is difficult to evaluate
the effectiveness of the security camera system in pre-
enting crime [1,2], which are obvious that they can cap-
ture images of any person or car passing within their
range. If a considerable number of security cameras are
installed without any dead angles on every road, then
every criminal who uses the roads can be captured and
However, a center-controlled real-time monitoring
system such as the typical systems costs a considerable
amount of money and cannot be introduced everywhere
without any dead angles. Therefore, we propose a new
concept according to which a community can effectively
prevent crime if some residents keep watch on what
happens around their houses with the aid of their own
home computers, cheap commercially available cameras,
and free software. Figure 1 shows the concept of the
e-JIKEI Network.
Many types of software applications for capturing
video images are available; however, we could not find a
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JIS
Figure 1. Concept of “e-JIKEI with privacy protection”.
free one that could be used to implement our concept.
Therefore, we have developed asoftware with the mini-
mum necessary functions and distributed it free of charge
through our website [3]. The software supports both Eng-
lish and Japanese languages. The software simply selects
relevant pictures and saves them to the hard disk [4].
This concept has been discussed from the viewpoints of
social science [5], homeland security [6] and e-Govern-
ment [7].
2. Personal Computer (PC)-Based System
Using Free Software
We have provided the first version of the free software
“Dairy EYE standard.” Its functions are very limited but
essential. The major features of the software are as fol-
• High stability: It can be run continuously for more
than 300 days.
• High operation of file storage: The file name and its
path express time an d location information.
• Minimum necessary storage: Simple picture selec-
tion software has been adapted. The software saves a
picture only when the difference between two consecu-
tive pictures exceeds the threshold.
• Automatic delete: Folders that are older than the save
period set by the owner are automatically deleted.
• Compatibility with many types of cameras: The
software can operate in the VFW mode (PC cameras and
USB video adapters) and the FTP mode (network cam-
• Simultaneous operation: The software can operate
several cameras connected to a PC.
• No Internet connection: Because of concerns related
to privacy, the function of con nection to the Internet was
disabled in the distributed version of the software. Even
in this case, the e-JIKEI Network can be formed, where
the word "Network" refers not to the Internet but to the
personal network of the residents.
We think that the e-JIKEI Network system should be
easily installed in a D.I.Y. (Do It Yourself) manner at a
low cost. Figure 2 shows the examples of camera set-
(a) e-JIKEI Camera (b) e-JIKEI Light
Figure 2. Prototype of the e-JIKEI camera and e-JIKEI
tings. In one case, an inexpensive network camera is in-
stalled outside a house. In the other case, an inexpensive
USB PC camera is installed inside a house by using ad-
hesive tape.
3. E-JIKEI with Privacy Protection
We propose a new concep t regarding the manage ment of
security cameras, e-JIKEI with Privacy Protection, in
which those who own and manage images (owners) and
those who have the right to view these images (viewers)
are separated by means of the encryption of the images
[8]. On the basis of this concept, encrypted images are
transferred from an owner to a viewer only when both
the owner and the viewer consider it necessary, such as
in the case of crimes; then, the encrypted images are re-
stored for viewing by the viewer. By this method, the
images can be viewed only when absolutely necessary.
This concept has been proposed to prevent the risk of
privacy violation, as well as to reduce the unnecessary
psychological burden that third parties may be subjected
to, with the aim of promoting the placement of security
cameras throughout local communities.
By managing the security camera system using our
concept, it is possible to markedly reduce the negative
effects associated with the introduction of security cam-
eras, such as concerns over the violation of privacy,
without reducing the positive effects, such as crime pre-
vention at places other than those requiring high-level
security and constantly manned surveillance, i.e., most
communities, while providing recorded images to invest-
tigating authorities in the case of crime.
In a practical example carried out in Kiryu City,
Gunma Prefecture, a PC-based security camera system is
owned and managed by the owners of retail stores affili-
ated with the merchant association “Suehirocho Shoten-
gai Shinkokyokai,” and images are encrypted and stored
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JIS
in the system. To view the stored images, special soft-
ware installed in the PCs at the Police Department of
Kiryu City must be used. Only when the owners of the
retail stores and the police determine that it is necessary
to view these images, are the stored images transferred
from the owners of the retail stores to the police. Then,
the stored images are viewed by the police and used as
information for investig ations. The encrypted images that
are stored at retail stores are automatically deleted after
30 days if no incidents or accidents have occurred.
To prove that the software installed in the PC defi-
nitely encrypts the images with the cipher-key owned by
only the police, a paper on which the owner states the
purpose of the camera system and allows the investiga-
tions by the merchant association at any time is posted
near the cameras. Because the owners of retail stores
purely wish to safeguard their shopping street and the
customers, and do not intend to violate the privacy of
their customers, the installed system is ideal for them.
4. All-in-One System “E-JIKEI Camera”
In the experiments of the PC-based system, we have re-
alized that the PC-based system is not very user-friendly
since it is difficult for ordinary residents to maintain and
operate PCs. In the near future, when home auto mation is
widespread, this problem of PC o peration will be solved.
However, at this time, it is a serious obs tacle for the wide-
spread nationwide use of the e-JIKEI Network. There-
fore, we decided to develop an all-in-one system without
the use of a PC.
We have developed a prototype of security camera
systems “e-JIKEI Camera,” which can realize the con-
cept of “e-JIKEI with Privacy Protection.” Figure 3
shows the prototype of the e-JIKEI Camera. It only re-
quires an AC power supply and can be attached outdoors
just like a streetlamp. If it is mass produced, th e cost per
camera will be less than 200 USD. The features of the
developed camera are as follows:
1) It can realize the concept of “e-JIKEI with Privacy
2) All images are encrypted and stored in the mem-
3) To decrypt and view the image, both the special
software and the secret key are required.
4) It has a card-type memory of 16 GB, in which the
images for the last 1 week are recorded.
5) It can be p l aced outsi de .
6) It requires an AC power supply of only 100-240
7) The price of the prototype, the first 1000 pieces, is
500 USD/ pi e ce.
There are many types of security camera systems
available; however, a system with the above features
does not exist, except for the newly developed e-JIKEI
The e-JIKEI Camera is used for realizing our concept
of a security camera system in which those who own
images (owners) and those who have the right to view
the images (viewers) are separated by means of image
encryption. This concept was suggested with the aim of
preventing the risk of privacy violation, reducing the
unnecessary psychological burden that third parties may
experience, and promoting the placement of security
cameras in local communities.
In Kiryu city, Japan, a social experiment has been
conducted since 30 May 2009, in which eleven cameras
are installed on the poles of the street lamps in a residen-
tial area, as illustrated in Figure 3(b). Figure 4 shows
the location of the 11 e-JIKEI Cameras and the 411 street
lamps in the area, where 2218 homes are located. In the
experiment, the owner of the images is the PTA (Par-
ent-Teacher Association) of the Higashi Elementary
School, and the viewer is the Kiryu Police Station.
(a) Setting of e-JIKEI Camera (b) Setting of e-JIKEI Light
Figure 3. Examples of camera installation in walking street
in Pattaya City.
Figure 4. Locations of e-JIKEI cameras and street lamps.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JIS
Figure 5 shows the procedure for using the e-JIKEI
camera in the experiment. Before the experiment, we
explained the concept of e-JIKEI with Privacy Protection
to the residents of all the 2218 homes by circulating a
notice for th e same and in an explan ation meeting held at
the community hall. Our proposal for this experiment
was granted by the residents without any negative opin-
ions. During the first six months of the experiment, three
crimes were committed. In each case, the police asked
the PTA to provide the images, and the PTA decided to
grant the police request. During the experiment, many
residents expressed their opinion that the e-JIKEI Cam-
eras were very effective in improving the safety of the
community but the number of cameras was still very
small compared to the number of street lamps.
Recently, we held a discussion with the residents, PTA,
and police. The residents and the PTA provided the fol-
lowing opinions about the installed system:
1) It seems very effective in improving the safety of
the community.
2) Number of cameras is very small.
3) Privacy violation seems to be perfectly prevented.
4) The cost is comparable to that of the usual street
lamps and therefore affordable.
(a) Picture taken by e-JIKEI Camera-1
(b) Picture taken by e-JIKEI Camera-5
Figure 5. Pictures taken by the cameras.
The police had the following opinions:
1) The reliability of the system is very high. (There
has been no trouble for more than six months now.)
2) The quality of the images is acceptable but can be
3) We hope this camera system spreads all over the
If our concept on the security camera system with pri-
vacy protection is accepted by society, then a consider-
able number of cameras, which is comparable to the
number of streetlamps, will be introduced in communi-
ties throughout the country and the world. Then, every
street will be watched by numerous cameras, and photo-
graphs of suspects can be provided to the police once a
crime occurs in a community.
In the current all-in-one security camera in the e-JIKEI
Network, the camera has to be opened to remove the
memory card. However, this inconvenience is preferred
from the viewpoint of privacy protection, especially in
the initial stage of the society’s gradual acceptance of our
concept. Howeve r, in the near futu re, the cameras will be
connected to the Internet after the information security
system between the owners and the viewers is estab-
lished. Thereafter, online operations of solving crime,
such as the rescue of kidnapped child CCTV camera
system [11,12] is suitable for the real time monitoring of
the very important points. However, the cost of installa-
tion/maintenance/operation is high, Then the number of
the cameras are strictly limited due to such, can
be implemented.
5. Discussions
Comparing to the existing the CCTV camera system in
Pattaya City, the e-JIKEI Camera has the following fea-
1) Low installation cost: The wiring to the control
room and control room itself are not necessary. Only AC
power supply is required.
2) Low maintenance/operation cost: The memory
cards of the cameras are only taken, when the city gov-
ernment thinks that necessary.
3) Privacy Protection: Only crime occurs, only the
certain officers of the city government can view the im-
In the case of the Pattaya City, we propose that the
combination the existing CCTV system and the e-JIKEI
Cameras. 300 pieces CCTV system watches for only the
very busy points, and the huge number of the e-JIKEI
Cameras watch the dead-angle of the CCTV in the busy
area. In addition, if a huge number of the e-JIKEI Cam-
eras are installed to the quiet residential area, the safety
of the whole city will be increased significantly.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JIS
If the memory capacity is sufficiently large, the selec-
tion of images, in which only the images that are suffi-
ciently different from the previous ones are saved, is not
necessary. If the memory capacity is small and memory
needs to be conserved, then the selection of images is
useful. However, in general, there is no selection algo-
rithm that has a zero failure rate with respect to the se-
lection of necessary images. If all the images are saved
without image selection, then the failure of saving a n ec-
essary image is prevented. In addition, without this se-
lection, the CPU power can be saved.
At this moment, only the software and programmable
stand-alone camera devices, which do not connect to the
Internet, have been developed. If the system of security
cameras connected to computers and to the Internet
spreads nationwide, a very powerful and flexible social
structure can be formed. In addition, the software in-
stalled in each system can be easily upgraded. This
means that this social structure can lead to very interest-
ing research subjects and applications for software re-
search, such as research involving image processing,
security systems, and artificial intelligence.
If the security cameras are to be connected to the
Internet, the protection of the privacy of the ordinary
citizen has to be considered very seriously. A different
social structure, including increased social awareness and
a revised legal system, will be required for the society; in
this structure, every outdoor location will be monitored
by security cameras, but the privacy of ordinary citizens
will be highly protected, being understood and accepted.
If the appropriate legal, social, and administrative sys-
tems are established, most residents will allow appropri-
ate third parties, such as the police department and the
city hall, to access their PCs and the saved information
through the Internet in the case of a community emer-
gency. In such a case, it will be necessary to ensure that
the access rights to the images saved on the PCs can be
separately, strictly, and flexibly defined and given to the
appropriate third parties by the owner of each system.
If the security cameras are connected to the Internet
and can be accessed by the police in the case of serious
crimes, the real-time chasing of criminals and rescue of
kidnapped children will be possible. A single control
station manned by the police, where many operators can
access images from cameras spread throughout the na-
tion, is required to realize such a social system.
6. Conclusions
We are asking citizens to compare the responsibility of
watching what happens aro und their houses with the risk
of violation of their privacy. In the meanwhile, we are
trying to increase the advantages of the security camera
such as crime prevention and identification of suspects
and to reduce its disadvantages such as violation of pri-
vacy. We are now commencing tests to assess the true
contribution of our concept toward the realization of a
safer and more comfortable community.
7. Acknowledgements
The Japanese team was supported by the research aid
fund of the Research Foundation for Safe Society and the
Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (B) 21300268
(KAKENHI 21300268).
The authors would also like to give their acknowl-
edgement to Pattaya City Council, Chonburi, Thailand
for the research facility under the tourism with safety and
privacy project.
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