World Journal of AIDS, 2013, 3, 41-56 Published Online March 2013 ( 41
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from
Science to Practice of Efficacious HIV Prevention
Josefina J. Card, Emily N. Newman, Rachel E. Golden, Tamara Kuhn, Carmela Lomonaco
Sociometrics Corporation, Los Altos, USA.
Received December 14th, 2012; revised January 17th, 2013; accepted January 27th, 2013
This paper describes the development, content, and cap ab ilities of the online Global HIV Archive (GHA). With th e goal
of facilitating widespread adaptation and appropriate use of efficacious HIV prevention programs throughout the globe,
GHA has: 1) expanded and updated the search for HIV prevention programs originating in low-resource countries; 2)
identified those meritorious HIV prevention programs meeting established efficacy criteria of technical merit, replica-
bility, and positive outcomes; 3) prepared both implementation and evaluation materials from the efficacious programs
for public use; 4) developed interactive wizards or capacity-building tools to facilitate appropriate program selection,
implementation, and adaptation; 5) made the efficacious programs and accompanying wizards available to health prac-
titioners throughou t the globe in both printed and onlin e formats.
Keywords: HIV; Evidence-Based; Intervention; Prevention; Dissemination; International
1. Introduction
Despite promising developments in worldwide efforts to
address HIV/AIDS, the number of people living with
HIV continues to grow. According to the most recent
UNAIDS Report on the Global AIDS Epidemic, between
2001 and 2011, the number of people living with HIV
globally rose from 29.4 to 34 million. In 2011, an esti-
mated 2.5 million adults and children were newly in-
fected. More than 95% of people living with HIV/AIDS
reside in the middle- and low-resource regions of the
world. Sub-Saharan Africa, in particular, is home to more
than two-thirds (69%) of all infected adults and children.
The majority of infections worldwide are transmitted
heterosexually. In many regions, a significant proportion
of infections occur among sex workers, men who have
sex with men, and injection drug users [1]. Lack of ac-
cess to quality HIV prevention programs for at-risk and
vulnerable populations varies widely and contributes to
the continuance of the epidemic in low-resource coun-
tries [2]. With twelve (12) new HIV infections for every
six (6) individuals beginning an antiretroviral medication
regimen that potentially pr olongs life and prevents trans-
mission, access to proven HIV prevention remains a
pressing issue [3].
1.1. Efficacious Behavioral Prevention
Interventions Originating in Low-Resource
A large body of research has established the efficacy of
behavioral interventions in changing individuals’ risky
sexual or injection-related behavior in the United States
(US) [4-7]. Programs have been shown to change such
behaviors among heterosexual adults [8-12]; men who
have sex with men [13-16]; injection drug users [17,18];
young people [19]; and other high-risk populations
[20-23]. Overall, the efficacious US-based intervention
programs are theory-driven and culturally tailored and
emphasize development of cognitive, social, and techni-
cal competencies associated with reducing risk [5,21,24-
For many years, the dissemination of intervention in-
formation was limited to evaluation reports, literature re-
views, or meta-analyses in journal articles and book cha-
pters, sources not typically read by prevention practitio-
ners [28,29]. However, recent advances in HIV preven-
tion technology transfer—a process by which efficacious
interventions are identified by researchers, translated for
practitioner audiences, dissemin ated, an d re-implemented
[30-32]—are beginning to bridge the gap between re-
search and practice [31,33]. The Centers for Disease
*The Global HIV Archive was produced with funds provided by the US
ational Institute of Mental Health under Grant R44MH082675-02A1
(Josefina J. Card, PhD, Principal Investigator).
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. WJA
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions
Control and Prevention (CDC) has established Replicat-
ing Effective Programs (REP), a collection of replication
kits for theory-based interventions with demonstrated
efficacy in reducing HIV risk behaviors in the US [32,34].
CDC also provides training and technical assistance to
support the implementation of evidence- based programs
through the Diffusion of Effective Behavioral Interven-
tions (DEBI) project [25,35,36]. Additionally, Califor-
nia-based Sociometrics Corporation, with funding from
the US National Institutes of Health, has established the
HIV/AIDS Prevention Program Archive (HAPPA) and
the Program Archive on Sexuality, Health and Adoles-
cence (PASHA). HAPPA and PASHA contain collections
of several dozen program packages that include every-
thing needed to replicate programs that have demon-
strated efficacy in preventing HIV or its risk-re- lated
behaviors among adults and youth in the US. They have
facilitated access by health practitioners to efficacious
programs and encouraged implementation and re-
evaluation of those programs at new sites [30,37,38]. As
a result of the successful dissemination by Sociometrics,
national scale-up efforts by CDC, and other efforts, the
efficacious HIV prevention programs in HAPPA and
PASHA are now being used in hundreds of sites around
the US.
No similar resources to date have been created for
health practitioners in the low-resource regions of the
world, where the need for efficacious behavioral inter-
ventions is even greater. Indeed, efforts to synthesize
information about HIV prevention programs that have
been implemented an d evaluated in low-reso urce country
settings have only recently begun. Nonetheless, several
reviews have identified programs that have shown posi-
tive results in reducing behavioral risks for HIV among
youth [39-41] and adults [42-45]. Kirby and colleagues
[40], for example, conducted a review focused on sex
and HIV education programs for youth in both high- and
low-resource coun tries that were based on written cu rric-
ula and were implemented among groups in school,
clinic, or community settings. The review identified 83
evaluations of curricula-based interventions for groups of
youth, 18 of which were from low-resource countries.
Likewise, Alford and colleagues [39] examined nearly
200 youth-focused programs in low-resource countries
and identified 10 with evaluations that showed signifi-
cant impact on sexual risk behaviors and sexual health
Existing reviews also highlight so me of the difficulties
that health practitioners in low-resource countries face in
identifying behavioral intervention programs and deter-
mining which of those might be efficacious for their
populations and contexts. The initial aim of the CDC
Prevention Research Synthesis (PRS) project, for exam-
ple, was to analyze and synthesize the efficacy of US-
based studies of HIV behavioral, social and policy inter-
ventions. In 1997, CDC expanded the scope of the PRS
project to include studies conducted outside of the US. In
a report summarizing PRS efforts to identify non-US-
based studies, Eke and colleagues [42] noted that de-
scriptions of HIV behavioral prevention studies in low-
resource countries were not easily accessible through
standard search strategies. Of the 1350 non-US-based
studies ultimately reviewed by the PRS project, only 50
described behavioral interventions, of which 18 met the
relevance and rigor criteria set by PRS. Likewise, a study
conducted by Bollinger and colleagues [43] examined
how HIV/AIDS prevention intervention s in low-resource
countries lead to behavioral change and how behavioral
change leads to reductions in HIV prevalence. They
conducted a systematic literature review of HIV/AIDS
prevention interventions in low-resource countries and
identified 186 studies that met their minimum criteria for
study design and thus could be used to draw conclusions
about the efficacy of the interventions. They noted, how-
ever, that the studies as a group suffered from methodo-
logical inadequacies including lack of or an inadequate
control group, limited follow-up, high attrition, self-re-
ported data, nonrandom allocation of study subjects, and
lack of internal validity.
The considerable efforts in the US to identify effica-
cious HIV behavioral intervention programs, archive
their materials, and make those materials available in
readily usable formats to health practitioners provides a
model for what could and should now be done for low-
resource countries. The aforementioned reviews have
collectively identified a group of studies that describe
interventions with positive results in low-resource coun-
tries. They served as the starting point for the innovative
resource forming the focus of the present paper, the
Global HIV Archive (GHA). Funded by the US National
Institute of Mental Health, GHA is: 1) expanding and
updating the search for HIV prevention programs that
have been implemented and evaluated in low-resource
countries; 2) identifying those that meet established effi-
cacy criteria; 3) archiving their materials for public use;
and 4) making the materials available to health practitio-
ners throughout the globe in both printed and online for-
1.2. Tools to Support Appropriate Program
Behavioral HIV prevention translation research in the US,
which focuses on development and validation of behav-
ioral prevention programs in researcher-controlled con-
ditions, has had many successes [46]. In particular, as
indicated above, a number of prevention interv ention s for
different target audiences in the US have shown positive
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. WJA
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions 43
effects in controlled efficacy trials. Translation research
that addresses the efficacy and dissemination of those
programs in practitioner-controlled “real world” settings
in the US has been less prevalent or successful.
Practitioners and researchers have long recognized the
importance of ensuring that programs address the cultural
backgrounds and developmental levels of their target
populations, as well as their agency and community con-
texts [47,48]. But US practitioners often experience dif-
ficulty determining how to adapt empirically-validated
programs for their contexts [28,49]. The questions of
when, what, and how to adapt are increasingly being ad-
dressed in the literature on HIV prevention and related
fields [50-59]. There is general consensus that adaptation
should maintain fidelity to the program’s core compo-
nents—defined as “those features in the intent and design
of an intervention that are responsible for the efficacy of
the intervention” [28, p. 90] while permitting flexibility
to tailor non-core elements to new contexts. Methods for
identifying core components have been proposed, but
science-based, practitioner-focused tools to help practi-
tioners apply the concepts of fidelity and flexibility to
their work are lacking [49,57]. Modifications are made to
adapt, alter or delete program content, scope and/or de-
livery method to accommodate for real-world circum-
stances (time constraints, varying population or setting
needs or unavailability of organizational resources) and
many are done without guidance for how these changes
affect fidelity, core elements and desired outcomes [27,
The lack of tools for practitioners in low-resource
countries is an even greater issue. Once demonstrated
efficacious behavioral intervention programs become
available to health practitioners in low-resource co untries,
there is a considerable need for a program adaptation tool
that will build their capacity to tailor the programs to
diverse contexts. Without such a tool to guide them,
practitioners may make changes to the core components
that will limit the efficacy of their adaptations, or even
have an undesired effect on target population behaviors.
GHA addresses this gap by deve loping two versions of a
Program Adaptation Toolkit: a customized version ac-
companying each GHA program package (developed in
collaboration with the original program developer), as
well as a stand-alone version for use with efficacious
programs acquired elsewhere, such as from the original
developer, from a federal agency, or from a commercial
publisher. The GHA Program Adaptation Toolkit builds
the user’s capacity to adapt an empirically-validated
program for the local context and target population.
When a number of empirically-validated behavioral
intervention programs become known by health practi-
tioners in low-resource countries, they will have choices
as they consider how best to address their community’s
needs. Since those health practitioners may have limited
access to scientific journals and evaluation reports, other
vehicles are needed to provide information to help in
choosing interventions that work in various contexts [50].
GHA has developed an online search tool that facilitates
the identification and obtaining of additional information
about the necessary resources to implement these vali-
dated behavi or al inte rventions.
With increased emphasis on evidence-based intervene-
tions (EBIs), public health has sought to understand how
setting and provider infrastructure and other capacity-
related factors both facilitate and challenge successful
EBI implementation [61-63]. These capacity issues with-
in organizations and across the prevention workforce
have long been recognized by the World Health Organi-
zation (WHO), World Bank, the Gates Foundation and
other NGOS, as a key area to strengthen the response to
global health epidemics such as Avian bird flu; SARS;
malaria; and HIV/AIDS [64]. Even the Millennium
Goals identified improving programs through capacity
building as a necessary component to fulfilling its goals
Initiatives meant to scale up HIV prevention services
in low-resource countries have recognized the complex-
ity of program and service delivery and its associated
challenges, including program management and over-
sight which tend to vary widely in each setting within
and across country contexts [66]. The efforts to reinforce
and build capacity in these countries are uneven; with
some countries making strides and others falling behind
[67,68]. Building workforce capacity in the context of
HIV prevention is ongoing and at times, daunting with
more resources and tools needed to strengthen systems,
infrastructure and the workforce [63]. According to
Theobald and colleagues [69], concentrated, resource-
intensive efforts to increase capacity to provide services
and implement programs have been and are underway in,
for example, HIV in Kenya [70] and tuberculosis in Ma-
lawi [71] but the need is far greater than this approach
can accommodate. Effective capacity-building resources
that are practical, easily scalable, interactive and cus-
tomizable are either not available or widely accessible.
Moreover, science-based, practitioner-focused tools to
help practitioners apply concepts such fidelity with a
level of flexibility to program implementation are also
lacking [49,57]. HIV prevention resources accessible
through the web and mobile devices can increase oppor-
tunities for the dissemination of prevention and capacity
building resources to practitioners in low-resource coun-
tries [50,72-77]. These combined resources help to bol-
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The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions
ster widespread dissemination of appropriate empirically-
validated interventions to new, practitioner-controlled
service delivery sites.
In response to these needs, GHA has developed a set
of tools and interactive smartphone and online wizards to
support selection, implementation, and adaptation of ef-
ficacious HIV prevention interventions.
2. Methods
HAPPA and PASHA, the two successful collections of
efficacious, US-based HIV and pregnancy prevention
programs at Sociometrics, have used a systematic proc-
ess to identify, review, and select programs for inclusion
in the collections. The process ensures that: 1) each col-
lection only includes efficacious programs proven by
scientific methods to produce positive result(s) in HIV-
related outcomes; and 2) selected programs will be rep-
licable in other settings and contexts. The GHA adapted
this successful protocol in pulling together its collection
of efficacious global HIV prevention programs. Figure 1
provides an outline of th is process.
Step 1: Establishment of scientist expert panel
A select group of HIV preventio n researchers with ex-
perience working in low-resource countries formed the
Figure 1. Process of program inclusion in the GHA.
GHA Scientist Expert Panel, tasked to review and select
programs for inclusion in the collection. During the first
round of program selections, in 2008, the panel members
were: Dr. Don Des Jarlais (Beth Israel Medical Center,
US); Dr. Seth Kalichman (University of Connecticut,
US); Dr. Donald Morisky (University of California, Los
Angeles, US); Dr. Susan Pick (Instituto Mexicano de
Investigación de Familia y Población, Mexico); Dr.
Quarraisha Abdool Karim (Columbia University, US);
and Dr. Carlos Cáceres (Cayetano Heredia Peruvian
University, Peru). A second selection round was con-
ducted in 2010. Drs. K alichman , Pick, and Abdo ol Kari m
stepped down from the panel this second round and were
replaced by Dr. Jesse Mbwambo (Muhimbili University
College of Health Sciences, Tanzania) and Dr. Suniti
Solomon (Y.R. Gaitonde Center for AIDS Research and
Education, India).
Step 2: Delineation of criteria for program efficacy
The selection criteria created for HAPPA, our archive
of domestic HIV/AIDS prevention programs, served as a
starting point for the development of the GHA’s selection
criteria. We revised the HAPPA selection criteria to re-
flect the unique challenges of implementing and evaluat-
ing programs in low-resource countries. Thus, the final
selection criteria included less stringent follow-up time
period requirements (3 months for the GHA, versus 6
months for HAPPA) while still meeting strict evaluation
standards. Tab le 1 gives the GHA program selection cri-
teria which were reviewed and approved by the Scientist
Expert Panel at the outset of the project.
Step 3: Identification of candidate programs
To identify candidate programs for the GHA, we con-
ducted extensive searches of relevant English language
scientific literature, contacted intern ational fund ing agen-
cies and development organizations, and requested input
from the Scientist Expert Panel. Specialized search stra-
tegies were also utilized, including the review of final
reports to funding agencies, searches of international da-
tabases such as EMBASE (European medical citations),
and the review of an international register compiled by
the Cochrane Collaborative Review Group.
Step 4: Preparation of briefing materials on candidate
To facilitate the Expert Panel’s review process, we
then created briefing documents for each candidate pro-
gram meeting the criteria in Ta ble 1. These briefing do-
cuments provided a 4 - 6 page summary of the inter-
vention (e.g., theor etical foundation, history, target popu-
lation, content, and procedures) and the evaluation me-
thods and findings. Expert Panel members were also pro-
vided with a copy of the scientific paper(s) or report(s)
on which the summary was based.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. WJA
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions 45
Table 1. Global HIV archive selection criteria.
1. Technical Merit: Scientifically rigorous evaluation with
appropriate design and methods; comparis on o r control group; and
follow-up assessment that oc cu rred a minimum of three months
after the end of the intervention.
2. Replicability: The ability of the program content to be widely
disseminated across populations and settings.
3. Positive Outcomes: Demonstrated positive impact on one or more
of the following HIV-related behaviors and/or HIV infect ion rates
for one or more subgroups of persons :
Sexual Risk Behaviors
Postponeme n t o f se x ua l i nt ercourse
Decreased frequency of sexual intercourse
Decreased number of sexual partners
Decreased frequency of sexual intercourse with partners who
engage in high-risk behaviors (e.g., injecti on drug use,
commercial sex work, male-male sex)
Decreased number of HIV-risk sexual part ners (e.g., injection drug
users, commercial sex workers, gay and bisexual men)
Increased use of effective HIV/AIDS prophylactics at first sex ual
Increased use of effective HIV/AIDS-prophylactic methods at
most recent sexual contact
Increased consistent use of effective HIV/AIDS-pr ophylactic
methods at every sexual contact
Substitution of lower-risk for higher-risk sexual behaviors
Increased performance of other sex-related HIV/AIDS prevention
behaviors (e.g., inc reased condom carrying)
For HIV+ individuals, decreased sexual behaviors with HIV-or
unknown HIV status partners
Drug Injection Risk Behaviors
Abstinence from injection dr u g us e
Reduced frequency of i nj ec ti on d rug use
Increased seeking of drug abuse treatment
Reduced sharing of drug injection equipment
Reduced syringe-mediated drug sharing
Reduced re-use of needles
Increased use of sterile needles
Increased disinfecting of needles
Increased use of sterile water
Pre-and Perinatal Transmission Risk Behaviors
Increased contraceptive use among HI V+ females
Decreased pregnancy among HIV+ fem ales
Decreased births among HIV+ females
Decreased births of HIV+ newborns
Antiretroviral Therapy (ART) adherence (Among HIV+ Persons)
Increased ART adherence
STI/HIV Infection Rates
Decreased STI/HIV infection rates
Viral Load (Among HIV+ Persons)
Decreased viral load
Step 5: Selection of promising programs by scientist
expert panel
Expert Panel members reviewed each candidate pro-
gram’s briefing document to decide on a priority score
for the program’s inclusion in the archive. Inclusion pri-
ority scores were allowed to range from 1 (low) to 10
(high). Panelists were instructed that scores ranging from
1 - 6 would indicate insufficient evidence of program
efficacy and would be interpreted as “do not include in
GHA”. In contrast, scores from 7 - 10 would indicate that
the program had a satisfactory level evidence of efficacy
and should thus be included in the GHA. Programs as-
signed a panel mean score 6.5 and median score 7
comprised the final set of programs selected for inclusion
in the archive.
Step 6: Acquisition of selected programs
If a program passed the above Expert Panel selection
process, we contacted the developer(s) and/or imple-
menter(s) of the programs to obtain permission to include
the program in the archive and to acquire the program’s
implementation and evaluation materials for public dis-
tribution by the GHA.
Step 7: Preparation of GHA program packa ges
We then packaged the program’s implementation and
evaluation materials in a user-friendly way to facilitate
the program’s “turn-key” implementation and cost-ef-
fective replication in a new setting, augmenting the pro-
vided information when helpful, in collaboratio n with the
original developer. The resultant GHA “program pack-
age” or “replication kit” contains a complete set of im-
plementation materials such as facilitator manuals, work-
books, handouts/w orksheets and media resources such as
videos or PowerPoint presentations. All GHA program
packages contain a Customized Adaptation Handbook, a
step-by-step guide to making adaptations to the program
when resources, populations, settings and other contex-
tual factors differ from the original program. GHA pro-
gram packages also contain two program evaluation re-
sources: 1) the original evaluation questionnaire(s) used
to assess the program’s efficacy; and 2) a generic Evalua-
tion Resource Guide containing questionnaires, with
strong psychometric properties, applicable to evaluating
international HIV/AIDS programs’ efficacy.
Program materials, if obtained in a language other than
English, were translated into the English language by a
professional translator. All GHA program packages are
available in English; if program materials were provided
to GHA in another language, the original-language mate-
rials are also available as a supplement to the complete
program package.
Due to the GHA’s international target audience, repli-
cation kits may be downloaded from the GHA website,
with file sizes decreased or limited at every opportunity
to prevent lengthy download times for those connecting
through low bit rate internet conn ections. GHA programs
may be obtained electronically through cost-effective
subscriptions and licenses allowing organizations to ac-
cess and use more than one program at a time. Technical
assistance is provided from Sociometrics with the pur-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. WJA
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions
chase of any GHA program or subscr iption license. Com-
prehensive training either online, asynchronous, or face-
to-face is also available for organizations needing addi-
tional implementation preparation.
Step 8: Review of GHA program packages by the ori-
ginal develo per(s)
To ensure that we remained faithful to the original
program through our interpretation and editing of pro-
gram documents, the original program developers were
asked to review the final GHA program package prior to
announcement of the program’s public availability. De-
velopers were provided with their choice of a hard-copy
box containing all programs and evaluation materials, or
access to online program files to review. They provided
written confirmation of their approval of the final GHA
Step 9: Usability testing of prototype
To ensure program packages were engaging, relevant,
and user-friendly, the first prototype box was reviewed
by thirty HIV prevention professionals working in dif-
ferent countr ies around the world. The prototype program
package and subsequent program packages were revised
or developed based on feedback received during usability
testing. Suggested changes focused on simplifying “aca-
demic” language in program manuals, providing more
implementation guidelines, re-formatting manuals to in-
clude more color and bullet points, adding examples of
worksheets, and providing country-specific examples of
adaptation strategies.
Step 10: Capacity-Building wizard creation
To increase users’ capacity to successfully select, im-
plement, and adapt efficacious HIV prevention programs
in GHA, we created four online interactive “wizards”
covering implementation challenges such as budget pre-
paration, capacity self-assessment, dissemination of re-
sults of program implementation and evaluation, and
adaptation of the program to a new setting or local con-
Step 11: Creation of a GHA website
We then cr e at ed a GHA website housing both the GHA
programs and interactive wizards. In creating the website
we had t he f ol lowing goals and design criteria in mind: 1)
increasing dissemination and implementatio n of the GHA
programs by organizing the GHA contents in accordance
with: best practices in web-design, recommendations
stemming from an environmental scan of the HIV pre-
vention field, and user testing of GHA prototypes; 2)
supporting GHA-specific program implementation th-
rough the development of complementary capacity-buil-
ding tools; 3) reaching a wide audience from various
regions in the world, through implementation of simple
navigation and minimal text, availability in multiple lan-
guages, and a mobile version of the site; and 4) building
the site using scalable design and technological infra-
structure for ease of future expansion.
3. Results
3.1. The GHA Efficaci ous HIV Prevention Program
3.1.1. Collaboration with the GHA Scientist Expert
Forty-two programs (21 in 2008 and 21 in 2010) were
presented to the GHA Scientist Expert Panel for consi-
deration for inclusion in GHA. Of these 42 programs, 23
(14 in 2008 and another 9 in 2010) were given scores
indicating high priority for inclusion in GHA, based on
the criteria described in Table 1 : scientific merit of the
evaluation, replicability of the program in other contexts,
and positive outcomes. Ta b l e 2 provides a list and brief
description of the 23 programs approved for inclusion in
GHA. The program developer name(s), the country in
which the program was found efficacious, and the aver-
age priority score assigned by the GHA Scientist Expert
Panel are also given in Ta b l e 2 . Tab l e 2 shows that the
highest average priority score assigned by the Scientist
Expert Panel was 7.9. Reservations expressed by the
Panel (reasons for not giving any program a score of 8, 9,
or 10) focused primarily on: study methodology (insuffi-
cient sample size, over-reliance on self-reports, or clini-
cal outcomes not assessed); replication or generalizabil-
ity potential; effect size; and maintenance/sustainability
of effects. Of the 23 programs approved for inclusion in
GHA, 12 were originally developed for use in Africa
(Angola, Cameroon, Kenya, Mozambique, Nigeria,
South Africa, Tanzania, Trinidad, and Uganda) and 6 for
use in Asia (China, Indonesia, and the Philippines). Four-
teen had an American developer, working in collabora-
tion with local implementers and HIV researchers.
3.1.2. Collaboration with Devel opers of Selected
We attempted to contact all the developers of the 23
Panel-Selected programs in Table 2 to solicit their coop-
eration in making their program and evaluation materials
available in polished form for public use. We were suc-
cessful in obtaining the cooperation of 11 of these de-
velopers (the remaining 12 developers could not be
reached, did not send program materials, or did not wish
for the program to be included in the archive). Tab le 3
gives the ten programs whose program and evaluation
materials are now part of GHA (the 11th program was
deemed by project staff to be too “sexist” to include
without major modification that threatened the integrity
of th e original program). Of the ten programs in GHA, the
majority (six) are community-based; two are clinic
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. WJA
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. WJA
Table 2. HIV prevention programs selected as “Effective” by scientist expert panel.
Program Name Country Description Mean Score Acquired
for GHA
1. Primary School Action for
Better Health Program Kenya
Teachers and administrators from primary schools are
trained to incorporate sexual and reproductive health
education into school curricula and co-curricular
activities [78,79].
2. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol
Risk Reduction
Counseling Intervention South Africa
STI clinic patients receive a behavioral risk reduction
counseling intervention addressing HIV risk, HIV
testing, motivation to change behaviors, and sexual
communication skill building [80-82].
3. Intervention to Improve
Behavior and Prevent STIs
Among Nigerian Youth
STI treatment-seeking behavior among youth is
addressed through peer education, public lectures,
health clubs in the schools, and training of STI
treatment providers [83].
4. Social Network Intervention Bulgaria Leaders of Roma (gypsy) men’s social networks
counsel members about STI/ HIV risk reduction [84].7.7
5. Community-Based Sex
Education and Reproductive
Health Service Program China Unmarried youth are provided counseling, through a
youth health counseling center, and ser vices related to
sexuality and reproduction [85]. 7.6
6. Nyeri Youth Health Project Kenya
Adult counselors are nominated by young people and
parents to provide youth with sexual and reproductive
health information and referrals for services during
organized activities. Counselors organize activities
such as discussion groups, role plays, and drama
performances with youth [86 ].
7. Modified Directly Observed
Therapy (mDOT) Program Mozambique
This clinic-based program provides individuals living
with HIV directly observed therapy of HI V
medications through a peer supporter and
counseling/social support [87, 88].
8. Entre Nous Jeunes Program Cameroon
Youth peer educators work in their community to
deliver reproductive and sexual health information,
distribute educational materials, and refer youth to
health services [89].
9. Mema Kwa Vijana Program Tanzania
This multifaceted adolescent sexual and reproductive
health program includes a set school curriculum
delivered to primary school students; provision of
youth friendly health services; community-based
condom and distribution by youth; and
community-wide activities [90-93].
10. HIV/AIDS Warriors
Program Angola Trained, local, civilian facilitators deliver five HIV
prevention sessions to groups of soldiers to increase
safer sex behaviors [94]. 7.1
11. TeenSTAR Program Chile
The local clinic provides youth with pregnancy
prevention and STI services and information through
a curriculum about reproductive health, postponing
sex, gender issues, and drug/alcohol use [95, 96].
12. Peer Education for
Taxicab/ Tricycle Drivers Philippines
Peer educators deliver a community-based program
to increase knowledge of HIV/AIDS and positive
attitudes towards condom use among members of a
“bridge population” [97].
13. Culturally Adapted
Intervention for Youth
Living with HIV Uganda
Nurses deliver a program focused on physical
health/nutrition, mental health, reducing HIV
transmission, and HIV stigma to youth living with
HIV in their homes and at a clinic [98, 99].
14. Family AIDS Education
and Prevention Program
Through Imams Uganda Imams and their assistants deliver HIV/AIDS
education to their community members and religious
groups [100]. 6.5
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions
Program Name Country Description Mean Score Acquired for GHA
15. Voluntary HIV Counseling
and Testing for
Individuals and Couples
Kenya, Tanzania and
Voluntary HIV counseling and testing (VCT) is provided to
individuals and partners to reduce unprotected sex
[101,102]. 7.8
16. Intervention with
Microfinance for AIDS
and Gender Equity
(IMAGE) Program
South Africa
The program targets structural factors relat ed t o HIV
transmission including poverty, gender ine qualities, and
intimate partner viol en ce through a group-based
microfinance progr a m and delivery of a gender and HIV
curriculum for wom en [103,104].
17. Bali STD/AIDS Study Bali, Indonesia
Female sex workers receive education about STIs and
testing and treatment for STIs. Condoms and printed
educational materials are also distr ibuted among sex
workers and their clients [105,106].
18. Voluntary Counseling and
Testing (VCT) Program China Voluntary counseling and testing for STIs/HIV provided
for female sex workers [107]. 7.3
19. Community-based Directly
Observed Therapy (C-DOT)
Program Lima, Peru
Trained community members, “DOT Workers,” visit
individuals living with HIV to monitor antiretroviral
medication doses, provide clinical and social support,
and accompany patients to outpatient appointm ents [108].
20. Mujer Segura: Healthy
Woman Tijuana and Ciudad
Juarez, Mexico
Trained staff and outreach workers deliver a brief
one-on-one motivational interviewing inter venti on to
female sex workers in o rder to increase condom use
[109, 110].
21. Sexual Risk Reduction
Program for Mexican Youth Mexico
Young people receive a six-hour safer sex program
addressing condom and contraceptive use, parent-
adolescent communication, and pregnancy
prevention [111].
22. Behavior Change Prog ram
for Injecting Drug Users Sichuan, China
A comprehensive HIV/AIDS intervention for urban drug
users (IDUs) combines information, education and
communication activities, peer education, VCT, condom
distribution, a needle-/syringe exchange, and methadone
maintenance therapy [112].
23. HIV Prevention for Female
Sex Workers in Sichuan Sichuan, China
Female sex workers are provided with voluntary counseling
and testing services, needle exchanges, methadone
maintenance treatment, STI testing/treatment services, and
community-based support through seminars and publicity
events [113].
based; and one is school-based. Two are intended for use
with HIV+ patients; two for use with sex workers; three
for use with youth; and one for use with military person-
nel. The last column of Table 3 gives the training and
implementation time required by each GHA program.
Training time varies from none required to about 80
hours (“two 5-day sessions separated by a school term”).
The variance in implementation time is even greater, with
the shortest program (Mujer Segura, Healthy Woman)
requiring but a single 35 minute session per client and
the longest program (Mema kwa Vijana Program: Good
Things for Young People) requiring a complex set of
school, health services, and condom promotion activities
over a 3-year period.
3.2. The GHA Interactive Online Wizards
Our literature review and environmental scan of gap ar-
eas found that program implementers faced implementa-
tion challenges on the ground. We developed a set of
online interactive capacity-build ing implementation tools
to accompany GHA’s efficacious program collection.
3.3. The GHA Interactive Online Wizards
The Preparing Your Program Budget wizard was devel-
oped to help organizations build a budget specific to a
selected Global HIV Archive program.
Information was obtained from each program deve-
loper about the specific costs associated with the pro-
gram (e.g., the number and cost of obtaining enough
condoms or other supplies needed to implement the pro-
gram). This information was programmed into an infra-
structure that accounts for users’ planned staffing re-
quirements, target population reach, resources required,
and overhead ex penses to build a tailored budget specific
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. WJA
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions 49
Table 3. Programs acquired and made part of the global HIV archive.
Setting Target Population Global HIV Archive Category
GHA Program
(Developer; Country)
Sex Workers
Sexual Risk
HIV testing &
Length of Training if
applicable, (T) Length
of Implementation, ( I)
Directly Observed
Therapy (C-DOT) Program
(Sonya Shin, MD; Peru)
x x x x
T: 4 days; I: 11 mos.
(daily visits for 8 mos.,
tapered visits mos.
9 - 11)
Entre Nous Jeunes Program
(Gedeon Yomi, MsC; Camer oon) x x xx x T: 5 days; I: 18 mos.
(no set schedule of
HIV/AIDS Warriors Program
(Daniel Ortiz, PhD; Angola) x x xx x
I: 5, 4-hour sessions on
consecutive days;
1-hour boosters
2x/mos. for 5 mos.
Intervention with
Microfinance for
AIDS and Gender
Equity (IMAGE)
(RADAR; South Africa)
x x xx x
T: 5-day workshop;
I: 1-hour sessions
every 2 weeks for
1 year
Mema kwa Vijana Program
(Good Things for Y oung Pe ople )
(National Institute for
Medical Research and
AMREF; Tanzania)
x x xx x
I: 12, 40-m in sessions
during 1 school year fo
3 years; health services
and condom promotion
for 3 years; meetings 6
days/year; 1-week
health festival 1x/year;
health days 2x/year;
video shows 4x/year
Modified Directly Observed
Therapy (mDOT) Pro gram
(Cynthia R. Pearson,
PhD; Mozambique)
x x x x
T: 2, 7, or 10 days;
1-day refresher training
every 3 mos.; I: 5
visits/week for 6 weeks
Mujer Segura, Healthy Woman
(Thomas L. Patterson,
PhD; Mexico)
x x x x I: 1, 35-min session
(for 1 participant)
Peer Education Program
for Taxicab/Tricycle
Drivers and Other Bridge
(Donald E. Morisky, ScD, ScM,
MSPH; Philippines)
x x x x T: 2 days; I: 1 year +
(no set schedule of
Primary Sc hoo l A cti on for
Better Health (PSABH)
(Janet Wildish, PhD
and Mary Gichuru, MA; Kenya)
x x x x T: 2, 5-day sessions
separated by a school
term; I: 1 school year +
Voluntary Counseling
and Testing for
Female Sex Workers
(Xiaoming Li, PhD; China)
x x x x
T: 3 sessions totaling
12.5 - 13.5 hours on 3
consecutive days; I: STI
exam/tests and pre-/
post-test counseling
(25 mins. each ov er 1
week, for 1 participant)
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. WJA
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions
to the GHA program and implementation site.
The Know Your Capacity to Implement Evidence-
Based Programs wizard was developed to help match an
organization’s capacity and priorities to specific Global
HIV Archive programs. All GHA programs were cate-
gorized according to risk behavior addressed, target
population, setting, and resources required. A database
was created to organize programs according to these
characteristics and suggest relevant programs based on a
user’s answers to questions about their organization’s
HIV prevention priorities and ability to implement iden-
tified programs based on funding, physical space, and
other measures of capacity. The wizard provides the user
with recommended programs as well as a summary re-
garding how this program matches their unique charac-
The Creating and Disseminating Results wizard
teaches organizations how to interpret and communicate
results of their progr am based on their intended aud ience.
We designed this resource so that users first select their
intended audience and identify what they hope to accom-
plish by sharing their “story” with the audience.
The Adaptation Handbook provides step-by-step in-
structions on how to make adaptations to programs while
retaining features that are responsible, or are believed to
be responsible, for the program’s positive effects.
3.4. The GHA Website
A stand-alone website was built in English, Spanish and
French to house the GHA’s evidence-based program col-
lection, the interactive capacity-building wizards, and a
customized search function. The GHA website was de-
signed to appeal to a global audience in both design and
functionality. In developing the site, we fashioned the
look and structure after NGO web sites that would be
familiar to the intended audience, and created a simple
navigation structure that features two distinct but com-
plementary types of resources: program packages and
capacity-building tools. The primary site navigation al-
lows users to browse programs on the website based on
their content area (sexual risk reduction, ART adherence,
community mobilization, reproductive health, high-risk
populations, and HIV testing and education), while the
secondary navigation is by setting (community, clinic, or
school). Users can also perform a full site search and
identify programs based on keywords, titles, or develop-
ers. Each program on the site is fully described and has a
multi-tabbed web page containing a short program de-
scription; list of program developers; image of one of the
key program documents; a complete list of program
characteristics such as implementation level, setting, and
applicable populations; a list of program components; a
complete list of the contents of the program package; and
program-download links.
Once a program of interest has been identified on the
GHA website, users with varying technological infra-
structures can readily access digital copies of HIV pre-
vention program packages. These packages contain all
program materials in a format that can be viewed on the
computer or printed, and any additional materials re-
quired for program implementation, such as videos or
audio recordings. When available, users can also access
supplementary materials in secondary languages includ-
ing French, Spanish, Tagalog, Swahili, Portuguese, and
The website was built to allow for expansion in both
numbers of programs and/or additiona l capacity-building
support. We developed a scalable, cloud-based infra-
structure, allowing for nearly unlimited user and content
growth. This infrastructure, along with the ability to in-
tegrate into existing NGOs’ efforts in implementing HIV
prevention services across a variety of constituencies,
allows the site and programs to be made available in a
variety of ways, for example, to a single individual, a
single organization, a consortium of organizations, or
even across an entire country based on site users’ needs.
4. Discussion
The GHA is a resource that utilizes both science and
technology in meeting the needs of frontline HIV pre-
vention practition ers. To have impact in the real-world, a
resource needs to be based on the latest scientific
knowledge, duly translated into language and formats
accessible to global workers trying to stem the epidemic.
The GHA exhibits several innovations in preven tion pro-
gramming all aimed at facilitating real-world impact:
development of replication kits for global prevention
programs that science has found to be efficacious; provi-
sion of replication kits in both the original language used
by the program and in the universal language English;
digitization of all replication kits to facilitate global ac-
cess via the Internet; provision of tools for science-based
program adaptation to a new context; provision of inter-
active online wizards to develop HIV practitioners’ pro-
gram selection and implementation capabilities; provi-
sion of the original evaluation instrument that was used
to demonstrate the program’s efficacy, to encourage
re-evaluation of the efficacious program in a new setting;
creation of a website (in English, Spanish, and French)
dedicated solely to dissemination of the GHA innova-
tions; and building into the GHA website both scalable
design and a technological infrastructure for ease of fu-
ture expansion, as other efficacious HIV prevention pro-
grams are identified.
For the GHA to be maximally effective, it is important
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. WJA
The Global HIV Archive: Facilitating the Transition from Science to Practice of Efficacious
HIV Prevention Interventions 51
that technical assistance and training accompany its sci-
ence-based resources (efficacious programs, capacity-
building tools/wizards). To this end, free technical assis-
tance is offered by GHA staff to all users of GHA re-
sources. Additional training, both in-person and via we-
binars and web-based videoconferences, is also offered1.
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