Low Carbon Economy, 2013, 4, 12-24
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/lce.2013.41002 Published Online March 2013 (http://www.scirp.org/journal/lce)
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan
Shyi-Min Lu1*, Ching Lu2,3, Falin Chen1, Cheng-Liang Chen1, Kuo-Tung Tseng1, Pu-Ti Su1
1Energy Research Center, Taipei, Taiwan; 2Department of Internal Medicine, Hsin-Chu Branch Hospital, National Taiwan University,
Taipei, Taiwan; 3Institute of Molecular Medicine, National Tsing Hua University, Hsin-Chu, Taiwan.
Email: accklk@yahoo.com.tw
Received January 10th, 2013; revised February 17th, 2013; accepted February 27th, 2013
For four carbon-emitting sectors, the electricity, industrial, residential and commercial, and transportation sectors, this
study implements the two strategies of “energy-saving and carbon-reducing measures” and “low-carbon infrastructure
construction” to realize Taiwan’s low-carbon vision. The electricity sector is comprised of clean coal technologies and
renewable energy resources as its main power generation structure. The industrial sector adopts the Best Available
Technologies (BAT) by the International Energy Agency (IEA) to save energy and reduce carbon emissions. The re-
sidential and commercial sector implements the US Energy Star benchmark for the electrical appliances to obtain the
highest energy-saving effect. The transportation sector achieves a win-win outcome for energy savings and carbon re-
ductions with the two strategies of rail mode and electrification. With detailed data analysis and strategic planning, this
study concludes that Taiwan can meet the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions goals set by both the Sustainable Energy
Policy Guidelines and the UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) for the target year of 2030.
Keywords: Low Carbon Strategy; Low Carbon Infrastructure; Taiwan
1. Foreword: Low-Carbon Strategy
Please refer to Figure 1. The electricity sector, upstream
in Taiwan’s greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions flowchart,
is a major source of carbon emissions, accounting for up
to 56.0% of the domestic carbon emissions. Downstream
of this flowchart, carbon emissions by the four final en-
ergy consumption sect ors are t he indust ri al sect or (41.5%),
commercial sector (12.4%), transportation sector (11.8%)
and residential sector (11 .8%); their total share of carbon
emissions in Taiwan is 77.5%. Therefore, this study ap-
plies the low-carbon policies of Clean Sources to reduce
carbon emissions from the electricity sector, which is
also upstream of energy flow, and Consumption Reduc-
tion to save the energy consumed by the terminal Indus-
trial, commerce, transport, and residential sectors. Thus,
total GHG emissions can be reduced significantly to meet
domestic and global targets.
The responsive means for energy saving and carbon
reduction strategies are listed as follows.
Clean sources: For the electricity sector on the supply
side, low-carbon powers, such as renewable power,
gas-fired power, high-efficiency coal-fired power, and
nuclear power, are used to achieve low carbon emis-
sions. Thereinafter, the proposed scenarios focus on
the emerging power generation technologies.
Consumption reduction: For major energy consumers,
such as the industrial, transportation, residential and
commercial sectors, energy-saving technologies can
achieve reductions in carbon emissions.
The industrial sector: This sector is comprised of six
energy-intensive industries: petrochemicals; semicon-
ductors; iron and steel; cement; paper and pulp; and
textiles. The deployment of the Best Available Tech-
niques (BAT) in these industries is a focus.
The transportation sector: The focus in this sector is
on electrical vehicles, rail transport, high-efficiency
vehicles, and bio-fuels.
The residential and commercial sector: The focus is
on high-efficiency appliance, such as Light-Emitting
Diode (LED) and inverter Air Conditioning (AC).
The next section describes the carbon emissions tar-
gets respectively set by Intergovernmental Panel on Cli-
mate Change (IPCC) and Taiwan’s Sustainable Energy
Policy Guidelines.
2. GHG Emissions Targets of the World and
Climate change caused by global warming is by far the
most important issue. Formed by the excessive GHG
emissions, the greenhouse effect has been recognized as
the main cause of global warming. Therefore, many gov-
ernments in the world regard GHG emissions abatement
as a top priority in terms of their energy policy, includ ing
Taiwanese government and the UN’s IPCC (Intergovern-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan 13
EnergyRela t edSectors
EmissionSectors EmissionsBreakdown GreenhouseGases
NonEnergyRelate d
Manufacturing Industryand
Road / R ailro a d/ Wate r
92.2%( 272. 7)
LandUseChangeandAfforest at io n
Waste 1.2%(3.6)
LandfillandWas teWa ter 1.2% (3.6)Oth e r2.3%(6.6)
Metha ne1.7%(5.1)
27. 5 %
Figure 1. Taiwan GHG emissions flowchart (2008) with total emissions of 295.8 million tons of carbon dioxide equivalents. In
this figure, the percentage represents the proportion of GHG emitted by each subject, while the actual emission amount is
written in parenthesis, in a unit of millions of tons. Emissions accounted less than 0.1% are not included.
mental Panel on Climate Change), whereby all kinds of
GHG emissions standards have been formulated.
2.1. Carbon Emissions Status and IPCC
Emissions Abatement Plan B1
The results of a study concerning the years 2000-2006
indicate that the global annual carbon emissions due to
human activities were 9.1 b illion tons (equivalen t to 33.4
billion tons of carbon dioxide), of which emissions from
the combustion of fossil fuels were responsible for 7.6
billion tons; the remaining 1.5 billion tons were emitted
as a result of changes in land-use. During the same pe-
riod, for the carbon emitted into the atmosphere, 2.8 bil-
lion tons was absorbed annually by vegetation and soil;
2.2 billion tons entered the ocean; and the other 4.1 bil-
lion tons remained in the atmosphere. Accordingly, in
recent years, around 45% of carbon dioxide emissions
caused by human activities could not be absorbed by the
oceans, soil or vegetation, and this proportion is still in-
creasing. The greenhouse effect has been mostly respon-
sible for a marked worsening of global weather [1].
Within the 1000 years before the year 1750, when the
industrial revolution began, the concentration of carbon
dioxide in the atmosphere had remained steady at 280
ppm. However, the concentration of carbon dioxi de slowly
increased after 1750, rising to 381 ppm in 2006; the rate
of increase b etween 2000 and 2006 w as 1.93 ppm/yr [1 ].
The concentration in 2006 was not only the highest in
650,000 years [2], but also may be the highest in the past
20 million years [3]. According to the latest observations
made by the US Atmospheric and Oceanic Administra-
tion, the concentration of carbon dioxide in the atmos-
phere reached 388 ppm in 2010.
In 2010, the total emissions of GHGs globally reached
about 47 billion tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e).
Based on various possible scenarios of economic devel-
opment and population growth globally over the next few
decades, IPCC has generated various estimates of carbon
emissions. One of the most optimistic emission scenarios
(B1) for 2030 involves global total emissions of 54 bil-
lion tons of carbon dioxide equivalents (CO2e), falling to
23 billion tons in 210 0 [4].
When this B1 emission scenario is simulated using 19
meteorological models, the Earth’s surface temperature
in the year 2100 is found to rise by 1.4 - 2.9 degrees Cel-
sius from that in 1980 to 2000 [5]. The World Climate
Conference that was held in Copenhagen at the end of
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan
2009 designated “2˚C” as the target cap on global warm-
ing, with a view to mitigating the impact of global warm-
ing on human survival. The B1 scenario requires 40 bil-
lion tons of global carbon emissions in 2030 [5]. Since
the global population is estimated to be 8 billion people
in 2030 [6], the global carbon dioxide emissions must be
limited to 5 ton s/person. The B1 scen ario will maintain a
carbon dioxide concentration of 550 ppm in the atmos-
2.2. GHG Emissions Targets of the World and
In 2010, carbon dioxide emissions in Taiwan were 11
tons per capita [7]. To meet the IPCC’s 2030 target of 5
tons per capita, Taiwan must reduce its emissions by
54.5% from 2010 to 2030.
In 2008, Taiwan’s government released the Sustain-
able Energy Policy Guidelines. These guidelines asserted
that a sustainable energy policy must be based on the ef-
ficient use of limited resources, the development of en-
vironmentally friendly clean energy, and ensure a stable
energy supply. For the development of clean energies, to-
tal carbon dioxide emissions between 2016 and 2020
should return to their level in 2008, while those in 2025
should return to their level in 2000, and those in 2050
should be reduced to 50% of tho se in 200 0.
According to this standard, Taiwan’s carbon dioxide
emissions should be reduced to 8.3 tons per capita in
2030—the IPCC’s target year. This reduction is equiva-
lent to a reduction rate of 24.5% for the period 2010-
2030. However, this emissions standard is much looser
than that of the B1 scenario proposed by the IPCC for
3. Low-Carbon Power Infrastructure
In the following subsections, if Carbon Capture and Sto-
rage (CCS) technologies were successfully applied to
fossil-fueled power plants before 2030, through scenarios
analyses, we found that the option of the CCS technolo-
gies could sufficiently meet both power supply demands
and GHG emissions standards, under the circumstances
of no nuclear power and small amount of renewables.
3.1. Emissions Target for Taiwan’s Power Sector
in Response to Global Warming
According to a forecast by Bureau of Energy (BOE), the
power supply needed in 2029 would be 276.26 billion
kilowatt-hours [8]. Suppose that the average annual growth
rate remains unchanged, the power needed for 2030 will
be 386.79 billion kilowatt-hours or 45.5 kWh/person-
This study defines “power supply” as “power used by
the power plant” subtracted from “power generated”. In
2011 BOE data [9], the percentage of power generated
that was used by power plants was 8.09%. Thus, the mi-
nimal “total power generation” target for 2030 Taiwan
would be 49.5 kWh/person-day.
According to the BOE [7], the share of GHG emis-
sions by the power sector in 2010 was 59.4% of that of
all sectors. Assuming this percentage remains unchanged
until 2030, in the BAU (Business As Usual) scenario, the
remaining 40.6% would come from miscellaneous emis-
sions items.
As mentioned, 5.0 ton-CO2e/person is the emissions
target for Taiwan for 2030. Relative to the 11 ton-CO2e/
person in 2010, the total reduction in carbon dioxide
emissions would be 54.5%. We reasonably assumed that
the “miscellaneous sector” would also reduce its carbon
emissions by 54.5%, such that the power sector would at
least reduce its annual carbon dioxide emissions to 2.03
tons = 5.0 - (11.0 × 40.6% × (1 - 54.5%)), and that is the
power emissions target set by this study for scenarios in
3.2. Taiwan’s Future Development Programs:
The BAU Cases
According to the average annual growth rate of 2.8%
forecasted in the “Long-Term Load Forecast and Devel-
opment of Power Supply Summary Report” [8], total in-
stalled capacity of traditional power plants in 2030 would
be 65.31 GW. Furthermore, according to the BOE [8],
Tainwan’s target for renewable energy in 2030 is 10.77
GW. Obviously, the Taiwanese government is moving its
power infrastructure toward a low-carbon soc iety.
3.3. Characteristics of Various Power
Generation Technologies
This study analyzed the characteristics of many power
generation technologies by comparing their performance
parameters, such as emissions, availability, generation
cost, and net peak output parameter, to achieve the opti-
mal design of a low-carbon power structure for Taiwan
(Table 1).
3.4. Least-Cost Scenarios for Low-Carbon Power
This study applied least-cost analyses to Taiwan’s low-
carbon power infrastructur e. Table 2 shows th e details of
scenarios. For each scenario, 12 different powers exist:
coal fired; gas fired; oil fired; nuclear; hydro; wind; solar
photovoltaics (PV); biomass; energy from waste; geo-
thermal; fuel cell; and ocean energy. The CCS technolo-
gies are only implemented in coal-fired and gas-fired
power plants. Although nuclear power is a low-carbon
energy, the 2030 scenario was designed without nuclear
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Table 1. The emissions, availability, generation cost, and net peak output parameter of all kinds of power plants.
A B C D B × D ÷ A ÷ C
Type of power plant Emissions
(kg-CO2e/kWh) Availability Generation cost
(NTD/kWh)* Net peak output parameter
[8] Scenario constitution priority
Coal-fired 0.839 [10] 0.78 [8] 1.28 [11,12] 0.94 0.68
Coal-fired + CCS 0.125 [13] 0.66 [10,11]1.8 [12] 0.80 2.35
Gas-fired 0.389 [10] 0.65 [10] 1.57 [11,12] 0.98 1.04
Gas-fired + CCS 0.25 [13] 0.55 [10,11]2.2 [12] 0.83 0.83
Oil-fired 0.778 [14] 0.26 [10] 1.42 [12] 0.90 0.21
Nuclear 0.066 [14] 0.92 [10] 1.7 [12] 0.94 7.71
Hydropower 0.0115 [13] 0.37 [15] 2.539 [16] 0.70 8.87
Wind power 0.010 [14] 0.3 [15] 1.75 [12] 0.06 1.03
Solar PV 0.032 [13] 0.15 [17] 4.3 [12] 0.20 0.22
Biomass power 0.018 [14] 0.57 [13] 2.3 [12] 0.50 6.88
Waste energy 0.341 [18] 0.52 [13] 2.0 [12] 0.80 0.61
Geothermal 0.038 [14] 0.9 [19] 1.8 [20] 0.50 6.58
Fuel cell 0.664 [14] 0.9 [13] 2.7 [19] 0.85 0.43
Marine energy 0.0375 [13] 0.3 [13] 3.981 [16] 0.85 1.71
Note: 1 USD = 30 NTD; 1 GBP = 48 NTD.
power. Therefore, the two design principles—CCS and
no nuclear power—were used to satisfy the total power
generation threshold, emissions standard, and minimum
reserve capacity ratio to obtain the most cost-effective
power structure.
3.4.1. The Selection Method for the Power Structure
in Each Scenario
According to the positive and negative effects of each
parameter, this study weighted all types of power (Table
1). Of the four capacity selection parameters, the emis-
sions factor and cost of power generation were regarded
as negative parameters, namely, as their value decreases,
the performance of a scenario increases. As the values of
availability and net peak output parameters, which are po-
sitive impact parameters, increase, the ability to achieve
the minimum standards for generating capacity and re-
serve capacity ratio increases.
3.4.2. 2030 BAU Scenario Analysis
After calculations on an Excel spreadsheet, the 2030
BAU total generating capacity of 51.07 kWh/person-day
meets the target power generation of 49.50 kWh/person-
day; however, annual emissions per capita are 10.84 ton-
CO2, 1.67 times the annual emissions per capita in the
power sector in 2010 of 6.49 ton-CO2, 1.88 times the car-
bon emissions target set by the Sustainable Energy Pol-
icy Guidelines for 2025 of 5.76 ton-CO2, and 1.88 times
the IPCC carbon emissions standard of 2.97 ton-CO2
(Table 2). In the 2030 BAU scenario, since the devel-
opment of renewable energy is only 3.12% of total po-
tential, the cost of power generation does not generally
increase when compared with that in 2010. Although the
reserve capacity ratio is 9.43%, this should not be a pro-
blem, as it can be overcome by moderately increasing
fossil-fuel power generation. The problem is simply that
carbon emissions are too high.
3.4.3. C omparis o n a nd Analysis of the Scenarios of
CCS and No Nuclear Energy
In the planned scenario, no nuclear power plant will be
operational in 2030. The installed capacities of CCS for
fossil-fuel power plants are maintained at BAU levels
(i.e., approximately 1.1 times BAU levels), while those
of renewable energies are about 2.6 times BAU levels.
When generation cost is 36.92% over that in 2010, this
scenario meets the required power generation by Taiwan
and the emissions standard of IPCC.
From analyses of these four scenarios, this study con-
cludes that with slightly h igh emissions, the low cost and
high stability allow CCS to replace nuclear power as a
ajor low-carbon power generation technology. m
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan
Table 2. Scenarios analyses of low-carbon power infrastructure of Taiwan.
Scenario 2010 2030 BAU Full development of
total RE reserves
2030 with CCS, no nuclear scenario:
RE (2.6 times), CCS + fossil fueled
(1.1 times)
Coal-fired 31.30 18.01 - 0.00
Coal-fired + CCS - - - 42.50
Gas-fired 27.30 15.72 - 0.00
Gas-fired + CCS - - - 24.00
Oil-fired 2.43 4.19 - 0.00
Nuclear 2.70 5.14 - 0.00
Hydropower 2.67 1.98 43.49 16.30
Wind power 3.11 0.48 95.51 4.00
Solar PV 2.66 0.02 155.06 3.00
Biomass power 0.34 0.18 3.06 1.50
Waste energy 1.25 0.65 0.00 1.25
Geothermal 0.20 0.00 0.71 0.75
Fuel cell 0.27 0.00 0.00 0.20
Capacity of power plant (GW)
Marine energy 0.27 0.00 14.60 1.00
Total generation (kWh/person-day) 51.07 32.77 78.02 53.65
Minimum power generation forecasted by
Taipower (kWh/person-day) 49.50
GHG emissions (ton-CO2e/person-yr) 10.84 6.50 1.47 2.73
IPCC emissions g oal (ton-C O2e/person-yr) 2.73
Percentage of total RE reserves 3.12 1.10 100.00 10.69
Increase percentage of generation costs (%) 0.60 0.00 92.35 36.92
Comparison criterion
Reserve capacity ratio (%) 9.43 19.35 36.71 16.01
4. The Industrial Sector’s Energy
According to statistics from the BOE in 2010, Taiwan’s
industrial sector consumed about 64.7 million kiloliters
of oil equivalent, accounting for 53.81% of the total final
energy consumption (about 120.31 million kiloliters of
oil equivalent) [9].
4.1. Introduction to Industrial Manufacturing
Processes and the Latest Energy-Saving
The BAT is from the European Union’s IPPC (Integrated
Pollution Prevention and Control) directive, and means
prevention or reduction of overall environmental impact
by best processes, equipment, or operational methods.
Therefore, BAT is broadly defined as the best energy-
saving and emissions-reducing technologies that are eco-
nomically viable. Best Practice Technology (BPT) is from
the IEA’s (International Energy Agency) 2006 world en-
ergy report. The report determined the energy-saving po-
tential of a nation if it applied BPT to its chemical proc-
The common BAT used in the industrial sector in-
cludes cogeneration (i.e., combined heat and power (C HP ) ,
efficient motor and steam systems, waste heat recovery,
and utilization of waste. In terms of fuel and raw material
substitution, extensive use of biomass energy is an im-
portant measure. If one intends to achieve emissions tar-
gets, CCS is the most critical technology.
Two energies are generally used in industrial processes,
namely, heat and electricity. For manufacturing facilities,
the former is mainly used by boilers, while the latter is
mostly used by motors. The common energy-saving mea-
sures for boilers are highly efficient combustion tech-
niques and excellent performance of heat transferring
mechanisms, while those for motors are inverters and
power control techniques.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan 17
4.2. Maximal Energy-Saving Potential for
Taiwan’s Industrial Sector under BAT
Table 3 shows the energy uses and GHG emissions of
the six largest industries of Taiwan respectively in 2010
and 2030. By comparing qu antities o f en erg y use pe r out-
put value, i.e., energy intensity (loe/NT$1000), one can
determine which industry belongs to which energy-inten-
sive industry in Taiwan. Of six industries, the energy in-
tensity of the cement industry (50.48 loe/NT$1000) is
highest, followed by that of the petrochemical industry
(14.85 loe/NT$1000), both of which are significantly
higher than the av erage of 8.46 lo e/NT$1000. The Indus-
tries with very low energy use per output value are the
semiconductor (1 .00 loe/NT$1000), the steel and iron in-
dustry (4.25 loe/NT$1000 ) and the textiles indu stry (5.15
Table 3 lists the energy uses and GHG emissions from
the six most energy-intensive industries [7,9]. The energy
use (103 kloe) and GHG emissions (Mt-CO2e) for each
industry are divided by output value (100 million NT$).
Thus, one can obtain all industrial energ y intensities (loe/
NT$1000) and emissions intensities (kg-CO2e/NT$1000).
The industries with emissions intensities far exceeding
the average (7.71 kg-CO2e/NT$1000) are the cement
(143.65 kg-CO2e/NT$1,000) and paper and pulp Indus-
tries (14.89 kg-CO2e/NT$1000), while the industry with
the lowest emissions intensity is the semiconductor in-
dustry (2.54 kg-CO2e/NT$1000). Obviously, an industry
with a high emissions intensity also has a high energy
intensity, and vice versa.
Table 3 shows th e maximal energy-sav ing potential of
the six major industries in Taiwan if BAT or BPT were
introduced. The semiconductor industry with a high per-
centage of electrical energy usage has the highest energy
saving potential at 27.0%, followed by 21.3% for the
cement industry, 20.3% for the paper and pulp industry,
20.0% for the textiles industry, and 13.2% and 12.2%,
respectively, for the petrochemical and iron and steel in-
According to the IEA’s estimation [21], the average
energy-saving potential of the global industrial sector
under the BAT scenario is roughly 18%. According to
this study, that for Taiwan is about 14.5%. An industry
with a high energy-saving potential means that its proc-
esses are energy inefficient or its equipment is dated, and
large-scale improvements and updates are needed. By
contrast, an industry with a low energy-saving potential
means that its processes are advanced. The resulting com-
petitiveness will increase corporate earnings. In Taiwan,
the successful examples are the China Steel Corporation
and Formosa Plastics Corporation; both companies rep-
resent profit-leading enterprises for the iron and steel in-
dustry and petrochemical industry in Taiwan, respec-
tively. Additionally, the energy intensity of semiconduc-
tor products in Taiwan is as low as 1.00 loe/NT$1000
(Table 3), which is why Taiwan’s semiconductor Indus-
try earns high profits. However, an analysis in Table 3
shows that because the energy-saving potential of the
semiconductor industry is 27%, a lot of room for im-
provement exists for energy savings in the semiconductor
industry. The petrochemical industry has the largest en-
ergy savings of 4057.6 MLOE, accounting for 64.1% of
total energy saving of the six largest industries and for
6.3% of the entire industrial energy use. Therefore, one
can see how significant the effect of energy savings by
the petrochemical industry would have on the entire in-
dustrial sector. Notably, the cement industry has the high-
est energy intensity at 50.48 loe/NT$1000, and the sec-
ond largest energy-saving potential at 21.3% (Table 3).
Obviously, the cement industry is a high energy-inten-
sive and high pollution industry. Taking 2010 as the base
year, maximal energy-saving potential for the six largest
industries in Taiwan is 14.5%, equivalent to 5.3% of the
total energy use per year. By emissions coefficients and
thermoelectric conversion efficiency (0.4), this study ob-
tains the maximal reductions in GHG emission volumes
for the six largest industries in Taiwan (Figure 2). Over-
all, a positive relation- ship exists between energy use
and GHG emissions for Taiwan’s industries.
5. The Green Transport Infrastructure
Among many planning programs, this study focuses only
on the most energy-saving program, achieved by 1) maxi-
mizing the transport of Mass Rapid Transit (MRT); 2 ) in-
creasing the number of runs of Taiwan’s high-speed rail
and the Taiwan Railway; and 3) partly electrifying buses,
cars, and motorcycles. This is the best en ergy-saving and
carbon-reducing program for manned transportation in
Taiwan for the period 2010- 2030.
Expanding operations of the Taipei MRT to 3 times
that of 2010.
Expanding operations of the Taichung MRT to 2
times that of 2020. Two new lines will be completed
for the Taichung MRT in 2020, the transport volume
Figure 2. Emissions abatement potentials of the six largest
ndustries in Taiwan (Base year: 2010).
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan
Table 3. The energy uses and GHG emissions of the six largest industries of Taiwan respectively in 2010 and 2030.
Index Energy
sector share
emissions Output value Energy
intensity Emissions
intensity Energy-saving
potential Emissions-abating
potential Main
product Main energy
use process
Industry/Unit MLOE % Mt CO2100 million
NT$ loe/1000
NT$ kgCO2/1000
NT$ MLOE % Mt C O 2 - -
Petrochemical 30739.4 47.5 21.9 20,700 14.8510.58 4057.613.210.40 Ethylene Distillation
Steel and iron 6028.9 9.3 11.8 14,187 4.25 8.32 735.512.21.89 Crude
steel Iron ox ide reduction in blast
Textiles 2203.9 3.4 3.7 4280 5.15 8.64 440.820.01.13 Chemical
fiber Fiber-making, spinning,
dyeing and finishing
Cement 1827.2 2.8 5.2 362 50.48143.65 389.221.31.00 Cement Clinker calcinations,
Semiconductor 1617.3 2.5 4.1 16,158 1.00 2.54 436.727.01.12 Integrated
circuit Clean room HVAC
Paper and pulp 1329.7 2.0 2.5 1679 7.92 14.89 269.920.30.69 Paper Pulping, paperma king
Subtotal 43746.4 67.5 49.2 57,366 7.63*8.58** 6329.714.516.22 - -
Notes: 1 MLOE = 10.47 GWh; Thermoelectric conversion efficiency = 0.4; Electricity emissions factor = 0.612 kg-CO2e/kWh; *2010 average value = 8.46
loe/thousand NT$. **2010 average value = 7.71 kgCO2/thou sand NT$.
of which is assessed based on the Kaohsiung MRT.
Expanding the transport volume of Kaohsiung MRT
to 3 times that of 2010.
Expanding the transport volumes of Taiwan Railway
and Taiwan’s high-speed rail to 1.8 times and 2 times,
respectively, those of 2010. The concrete measures of
which are increases in the number of runs.
Transferring the reduced volume of small passenger
cars to th e high -sp eed rail and Taiwan Railway; trans-
fer the reduced volume of motorcycles to the MRT, as
described; and transform the remaining 80% of buses,
cars, and motorcycles into electrical vehicles.
The total transportation volume of the “manned sec-
tor” and “freight sector” remains unchanged during 2010-
2030. Under transfers of transport volume between vari-
ous transport means, total transport volume in 2010 is
same as that in 2030, but the distribution differs. In other
words, transport volumes of vehicles that are relatively
energy inefficient are transferred to vehicles that are en-
ergy efficient, such that total energy use is reduced.
According to this program, the volume from decreas-
ing the number of motorcycles is the increase in trans-
portation volume for the MRT. The same strategy is ap-
plied to small passenger cars and rail transports. The en-
ergy saved by small passenger cars of 3425 MLOE, al-
most covering total energy savings for the entire manned
transportation sector. Additionally, energy savings are
about 50%, which is significant by taking the manned
transportation sector as a whole.
The transportation volume of small passenger cars is
effectively transferred to the Taiwan Railway and high-
speed rail. Although the volume of rail transport is in-
creased significantly, net energy savings are remarkable
due to super low energy consumption of rail transport.
Under electrification, the rate of increase in electric vehi-
cles, such as cars and motorcycles, will be 20% in every
5 years, making this program very effective in energy
conservation because the original volume of cars and
motorcycles is gigantic.
The upper half of Table 4 sho ws the energ y intensities
of manned transport. The energy used by small passenger
cars is about 50% of that for the entire land transporta-
tion sector, followed by 25% for large trucks. One may
deduce that the energy saved for small passenger cars
and large trucks is crucial to the carbon-reducing efforts
of the entire transp ortation secto r. Af ter adopting the pro-
gram of 1) maximizing MRT use, 2) increasing the num-
ber of runs of the Taiwan Railway and high-speed rail,
and 3) partly electrifying buses, cars, and motorcycles,
the manned transportation sector can save 3967 MLOE
of energy o r 51.8%.
The best energy-saving and carbon-reducing program
for the freight sector in Taiwan for 2010-2030 is as fol-
lows (left lower fields in Table 5).
Transfer 80% of freight volume for large trucks to the
Taiwan Railway.
Convert 80% of small trucks into hybrid trucks.
Under the scenario that significantly reduces the vol-
ume of large trucks and remarkably increases the freight
volume of the Taiwan Railway, the energy consumed by
the freight sector can be reduced by 947 MLOE by de-
ducting the inferred 2247 MLOE in 2030 from the origi-
al 3194 MLOE in 2010 (Table 5). n
The lower half of Table 5 shows the energy saving
program and results for freight sector. Shifting freight
carried by large trucks to the Taiwan Railway and con-
verting small trucks to hybrid mode at a ratio of 80% in
terms of transportation volume, total energy savings will
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan 19
Table 4. The energy intensities of land transportations for 2010 and 2030.
2010 2030
Year Technical scenario Energy intensityTransport volumeEnergy use Energy-saving measure Energy intensity
Unit - LOE/p-km Million person-kmMLOE - LOE/p-km
Motorcycle 0.0241 66,795 1610 0.0124
Car 0.054 99,394 5367 0.027
Internal combustion engine
0.024 15,843 380
Electrification mode and rail
Railway 60% loaded 0.011 8998 99 0.007
Taipei 88% loaded 0.011 4237 47 0.01
Taichung - - - - 0.01
Kaohsiung 50% loaded 0.027 201 5 0.01
High speed rail 49% loaded 0.015 7491 112
Expanding transport volumes:
fully loaded, increasing
number of runs a nd lines
Manned transport
Others - - 88 40 - -
Subtotal - - 203,047 7661 - -
Unit - LOE/t-km Million ton-kmMLOE LOE/t-km
Railway - 0.025 873 22 Expanding transpor t volume 0.025
Large truck - 0.046 57,614 2650 Rail mode 0.025
Small truck - 0.18 2900 522 Hybrid mode (HEV) 0.1439
Subtotal - - 61,387 3194 - -
Total - - - 10,855 - -
Data source: Bureau of Energy MOEA, Ministry of Transportation and Communications.
Table 5. Energy saving program and results of Taiwan’s land transport sector for 2030.
Year Transport’s energy-saving measures in the base year of 2010Transport volumeEnergy use Energy-saving volume
Unit - Million person-kmMLOE MLOE
Motorcycle Partly transferring tr ansport volume to MRT, and elec trifying
the 80% remaining transport volume 54,579 804 805
Car Partly transferring transport volume to railway and high speed
rail, and electrifying the 80% remaining transport volume 58,312 1942 3425
Bus Electrifying the 80% transport volume 15,843 279 101
Railway 1.8 times the fully-loaded transport volume 26,995 189 -90
Taipei Triple the fully-loa ded tran spor t vo lume 14,445 144 -98
Taichung Double the fully-loaded transport volume of 2020 1004 10 -10
Kaohsiung Triple the fully-loaded transport volume 1205 12 -7
High speed rail Double the fully-loaded transport volume 30,576 229 -117
Manned transport
Others - 88 84 -44
Subtotal - 203,047 3694 3967 (51.8%)
Unit - Million ton-km MLOE MLOE
Railway Expanding transport volume by the 80% transport volume of
large truck 41,983 1050 -1028
Large truck 80% transport volume transferred to railway 16,503 759 1891
Small truck 80% transport volume transferred to HEV 2900 438 84
Subtotal - 61,387 2247 947 (30%)
Total - - 5941 4914 (45.3%)
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan
be 947 MLOE or 30%. The en ergy savings of the largest
energy consumer, large trucks, is 1891 MLOE or 70%.
Overall, energy-saving effectiveness is limited because
the energy consumed by the Taiwan Railway increases
significantly to 1006 MLOE. However, as mentioned, for
the energy-saving measures of rail mode, the only meas-
ure needed is to increase the number of runs, which re-
mains economical.
The total energy saving of both manned and freight
transportation is 4914 MLOE, which is equivalent to a
GHG reduction of approximately 10.56 Mt-CO2 or 45.3%.
The results account for 4.08% and 4.15% respectively of
total energy use and carbon emissions.
6. Energy Conservation of the Residential
and Commercial Sector
Taiwan’s total energy consumption by the residential sec-
tor in 2010 was 12885.1 MLOE, accounting for 10.71%
of the total energy consumption (BOE, 2011). Electric-
ity consumption was 43428.6 GWh, equivalent to 104 7 0 .0
MLOE, accounting for 80.5% of that in the sector. Air
conditioning accounted for approximately 28.2%, fol-
lowed by 25.4% for lighting, 12.9% for refrigerator,
7.2% for water dispensers, and 6.5% for television. The
use of fluorescent lamp tubes accounted for 47.1% of
total installed of capacity of residential lighting. The en-
ergy consumption of petroleum products and natural gas
was 1317.5 MLOE and 772.7 MLOE, respectively, ac-
counting for 1 0.2% and 6.0% (BO E , 2 01 1) .
In 2010, total energy consumption by the service sector
was 13173.3 MOLE, accounting for 10.95% of national
energy consumption. The sector’s electricity consump-
tion was 46978.3 GWh, equivalent to 11217.4 MLOE,
accounting for 85.2%. The energy consumption of petro-
leum products and natural gas was approximately 1150.2
MLOE and 460.9 MLOE, respectively, accounting for
8.7% and 3.5% in the sector (BOE, 2011). Total electric-
ity consumption of 12 categories in the commercial of-
fice sector was 26,345 GWh. The most energy-intensive
equipment in this sector was air conditioners (30.22%),
lights (17.51%) and plugged sockets (6.87%). The most
energy-intensive buildings were office buildings (16 .22 %),
schools ( 11.05%) , and hotels (10.09%).
The energy consumption in the residential and com-
mercial sector accounted for 21.66% of total energy con-
sumption in 2010. Because energy expenditure is closely
related to personal habits or commercial interests, as long
as the cost of an investment is recoverable, the introduc-
tion of energy-saving measures should be an incentive.
Energy consumed by the residential and commercial
sector is primarily electricity, accounting for nearly 80%.
Air conditioners and lights are the two most energy-in-
tensive types of equipment in this sector. Therefore, en-
ergy-saving measures in this sector should start with air
conditioners and lights, such as large-scale use of high-
efficiency appliances. Currently, the most energ y-e ffi cie nt
air-condition ing standard is the “US Energy Star”, which
has an energy-saving potential of up to 50%. The most
energy-efficient lighting is LED. Co mpared with energy-
saving bulbs, LED bulbs save by up to 26% of energy.
Compared with the T5 florescent tube, the LED tube has
a potential to reduce energy consumption by 50%. The
installed capabilities of LED bulbs and tubes in the resi-
dential and commercial sector are abou t 1:1 , such that the
overall energy-saving potential of lighting is about 39%.
Tables 6 and 7 respectively show energy-saving po-
tential of residential and commercial office sectors by us-
ing energy-saving equipment. Based on energy consump-
tion in 2010, if US Energy Star equipment were intro-
duced into the residential and commercial sectors, elec-
tricity savings will be 17.70 2 billio n kWh and 10 .21 5 bil-
lion kWh, respectively. Th erefore, total electricity-saving
potential in this sector will be 27.917 billion kWh, equi-
valent to a redu ction in GHG emissions o f 17.09 Mt-CO2
or 40.01%.
7. Overall Carbon Reduction
Figure 3 shows GHG emissions abatement credited by
four GHG emissions sources in Taiwan in the period
from 2010 to 2030. The year 2010 is taken as the base
year for calculating the total emission redu ction potential.
In 2010, total carbon emissions were 254.48 Mt-CO2,
equivalent to 11 ton-CO2 per capita per year. If one ap-
plies energy-saving measures and a low-carbon infra-
structure to the four sectors (i.e., electricity, residential
and commercial, industrial, and transportation) GHG
emissions will reduce to 106.93 Mt-CO2 in 2030. There-
fore, during the two decades between 2010 and 2030, a
significant carbon reduction of 147.55 Mt-CO2 or 57.9%
will be obtained. After this maximal carbon reduction,
carbon emissions per capita in Taiwan will be 4.6 ton-
CO2/person-yr, significantly below the target set by Sus-
tainable Energy Policy Guidelines of 8.3 Mt-CO2/person-
yr and just meeting the IPCC global emission target of 5
Next, according to the GHG emissions reduction con-
tribution, the en ergy-saving measures and low-carbon in-
frastructure that are separately applied to the four major
sectors to reduce their carbon emissions are described as
1) The electricity sector: the electricity sector is a ma-
jor source of carbon emissions in Taiwan, accounting for
about 56.0%, mainly due to the abuse of traditional ther-
mal power plants, the installed cap acity share of which is
about more than 80%. Therefore, the sector’s low-carbon
strategy is the development of clean energy, such as nu-
clear energy, renewable energy and CCS technology.
Due to the event of nuclear disaster in Fu kushima Japan,
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Table 6. The energy-saving potential of residential sector by US Energy Star equipment.
Class Electrical
Annual energy
(kWh) Penetration Total energy
(108 kWh)Share (%)Model No. of electrical
appliance of US
Energy Star
potential (%)
(108 kWh)
AC 2000 1200 2.36 113.78 25.19 MWW-12CRN1-MI4 46.62 53.05
Inverter AC 1420 860 0.21 8.77 1.94 MR09C1H 52.02 4.56
Dehumidifier 285 153.9 0.52 6.43 1.42 DHC-250 35.24 2.27
Electric fan 66 47.5 3.48 13.28 2.94 AC-153X18 62.43 8.29
Exhaust fan 30 14.4 0.12 0.14 0.03 SBF110G 13.33 0.02
bulb 69 74.5 4.92 29.45 6.52 EL/A G40 23 W
(Philips) 66.66 19.63
lamp 25 63 10.09 51.08 11.31 EL/Can T2 9 W
(Philips) 64.00 32.69
Energy saving
bulbs 17 32 11.49 29.54 6.54 LED 47.05 13.90
Power Elevator 2300 - - 5.36 1.19 OTT 50.02 2.68
(middle) 1100 661.6 0.41 21.80 4.83 ARD1031F*8R/L 22.72 4.95
(large) 1500 700 0.61 34.31 7.60 ARD1031F*11R/L 33.33 11.44
oven 1200 72 0.51 2.95 0.65 RE-0902R 12.25 0.36
etic ovens 1200 28.8 0.46 1.06 0.24 - 4.17 0.04
Dispenser 800 576 0.68 31.47 6.97 MSK-9918T 15.63 4.92
cookers 800 144 1.02 11.80 2.61 - - -
Electric stove 800 19.2 0.66 1.02 0.23 VW210EZES 24.00 0.24
Range hood 350 126 0.93 9.42 2.08 VED-8056S 8.57 0.81
Juicer 210 2.5 0.17 0.03 0.01 - -
Dish dryer 200 36 0.02 0.06 0.01 AFN50RS 27" 19.00 0.01
Clothes dryers 1200 60 0.21 1.01 0.22 - -
Irons 800 48 0.4 1.54 0.34 - -
machine 420 25.2 0.62 1.26 0.28 WM2250C**(LG) 10.00 0.13
TV (20") 140 201.6 0.55 8.91 1.97 E322BV-HD 51.38 4.58
TV (29") 166 221.8 0.66 11.76 2.60 E325BV-HD 63.23 7.44
TV (33") 210 248.3 0.22 4.39 0.97 E325BD-HD 77.48 3.40
LCD TV 140 203.6 0.2 3.27 0.72 - - -
Stereo 50 18 1.37 1.98 0.44 DX-DVD2 75.00 1.49
Computer - 60 1.24 5.98 1.32 - - -
Error Correction - - - 22.41 8.81 - - -
Total 16,782 3701.4 - 434.28 100.00- 40.76 177.02
anti-nuclear wave upsurges in the world, even though
with low emission and cheap generation cost, Taiwan’s
current energy policy has to move toward the direction of
less nuclear. On the other hand, renewable energy is the
trend of global green energy industry, in addition to con-
sidering its sustainable aspirations; the rise of the green
energy industry will also promote economic development
and job creation. Although their electricity prices are
high and the supply is unstable currently, in scientific
and technologic progressive trends, for example, the dev-
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan
Table 7. The energy-saving potential of commercial office sector by US Energy Star equipment.
equipment Department
stores Discount Convenient
store store
Medical center
Office building
and warehousing
Subtotal energy
(108 kWh)
share (%)
(108 kWh)
Conditioning 5.89 3.48 3.92 10.23 2.20 15.1323.2914.3711.910.715.364.67101.15 30.22% 49%49.56
Lighting 4.03 2.33 2.66 4.23 2.63 8.2812.5914.603.110.711.402.0458.61 17.51% 39%22.86
Refrigerator 0.61 1.41 2.92 0.55 1.55 2.200.430.820. 3.23% 30%3.24
Socket 0.97 0.44 2.57 2.44 0.35 1.696.242.073.740.131.680.6823.01 6.87% 28%6.44
Air supply
and exhaust 0.58 0.36 - 0.93 0.26 1.592.230.970.530.840.240.438.95 2.67% 17%1.52
Sewage 0.42 0.21 - 0.76 0.26 1.722.121.550.477.720.210.7116.15 4.82% 32%5.17
Elevator 0.79 0.50 - 1.07 - 1.763.421.270.600.000.270.3810.05 3.00% 50%5.03
Others 0.58 0.38 0.13 0.86 0.57 1.423.911.3311.068.444.981.0334.70 10.36% 24%8.33
(108 kWh)
13.85 9.12 12.20 21.04 7.82 33.7854.2836.9831.4318.6014.1410.21263.45 78.70% 39%102.15
share (%) 4.14 2.72 3.64 6.29 2.34 10.0916.2211.059.395.554.223.0579 - - -
2010 Total
Service Sector Industrial
Sector Transport
Unit: Mt-CO
2010 Taiwan’s emissions:11 t-CO
2030 planning sce nario: 4.6 t-CO
2030 national goal: 8.3 t-CO
2030 IPCC goal: 5 t- CO
Figure 3. GHG emissions abatement credited by four GHG
emissions sources in Taiwan in the period from 2010 to
elopment of energy storage technologies, renewable en-
ergy is still possible to become an electricity generation
mainstream. Finally, CCS technology can be used as a
low-emission power generation technology, because the
biggest advantage is that global fossil energy reserves are
still very abundant, such as coal and natural gas. There-
fore, the specific measures and efforts to develop low-
carbon power generation infrastructure should be: with a
small amount of nuclear power, all thermal power plants
changed to CCS technologies, and doubling renewable
energy generation capacity before 2030, then the carbon
emissions in power sector will be reduced to 103.71 mil-
lion tons of carbon dioxide, with reducing scale of 40.7%
in comparison with the carbon emissions in 2010 .
2) Residential and commercial sector: residential and
commercial sector mainly uses energy in the form of elec -
tricity. As the largest electricity consuming sector in Tai-
wan, the residential and commercial sector consumed
69.773 billion kWh of electricity in 2010, acco unting for
about 29.4% of the total electricity consumption. Air
conditioning and lighting equipments are the two most
energy-intensive items in the residential and commercial
sector, totally consuming 41.2 23 billion kWh of electric-
ity in 2010, accounting for 60% in the sector. Therefore,
air conditioning an d lightin g equipments are the main ob -
ject of energy saving in this sector. The specific meas-
ures are the switch to energy-efficient appliances, for
example, the US Energy Star energy-saving equipments
and LED. Based on the analysis of research data, the in-
stalled capacities of lighting bulbs and tubes are in the
proportion of 1:1. If replacing T5 fluorescent tube with
LED tube, 51% electricity will be saved. If replacing en-
ergy saving bulbs with LED bulbs, the electricity saving
will be 26%. Please refer to Figure 2, if applying energy-
saving equipments labeled with “US Energy Star” and
the LED lighting lamps and tubes to the residential and
commercial sector, there will be a GHG emissions reduc-
tion of 17.09 Mt-CO2 in 2030, which accounts for 6.7%
of the total carbon emissions in 2010.
3) Industrial sector: The industrial sector is the biggest
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. LCE
Low Carbon Strategic Analysis of Taiwan 23
energy-consuming sector in all final energy consumption
sectors, accounting for about 53.81%. The main energies
used are heat and electricity, the proportion of which is
about 2:1. Meanwhil e, t he m ajor energy-cons uming equip-
ments in the industrial sector are boilers and motors,
while the specific energy-saving measures are CHP ( Com-
bined Heat and Power), waste heat recovery, high effi-
ciency motor, re-use of waste and by-products, and so on.
If IEA’s BAT is all applied to Taiwan’s industrial sector,
there will be GHG emissions reduction of approximately
16.22 Mt-CO2, equivalent to 6.4 % of the 201 0 total GHG
4) The transport sector: transport sector consumes en-
ergy annually of 15546.3 MLOE , accounting for 12.92%
of the total energy use. The major consumed energies of
the transport sector are almost entirely from petroleum
products. The main energy-consuming transports on land
are three kinds: small passenger cars (50%), large trucks
(25%), and motorcycles (15%). The specific energy-sav-
ing measures are the implementation of rail transports
and the switch to electric vehicles. In the manned trans-
ports, the energy intensity of MRT is 18% that of the
passenger car. Encouraging people to take MRT is the
principle energy-saving guidelines for city transport. In
the freight transport, the energy intensity of Taiwan Rail
is about half that of large truck. Therefore, in the trans-
port sector, if we implemented the energy-saving meas-
ures—“maximizing the transport of MRT, increasing the
number of runs of Taiwan Railway and high-speed rail,
and electrifying specific portions of cars and motorcy-
cles,” there will be a GHG emissions reduction of 10.56
Mt-CO2 or 4.1% compared with that of 2010 G HG emis-
8. The Vision of a Low-Carbon Taiwan
In summary, by applying the two strategies of “Clean
Energy and Consumption Reduction” and “Low-Carbon
Infrastructure Construction” to the four sectors (i.e., elec-
tricity, industrial, residential and commercial, and trans-
portation) to meet global carbon emissions standards will
create a low-carbon Taiwan.
However, to achieve this low-carbon vision, one must
take into account a number of situations, which can be
briefly listed as follows.
1) “Escalating energy prices” is a “Stick Strategy”. In
the past, Taiwan relied on cheap energy and an export-
oriented economic structure to earn profit. However, in
recent years, due to the rise of the Third World econo-
mies, it can no longer rely on cheap labor and energy as
competitive advantages for export trade. Industry must
change its energy structure by producing high-value-
added products. Therefore, increases in energy prices will
not only promote the domestic industrial structure and
upgrade business objectives of high-profit products, but
also engender public awareness of energy conservation
and correct the habit of using products that consume
large amounts of energy. Although increases in energy
prices may cause a temporary inconvenien ce, the y are es-
sential to Taiwan’s prosperity and business.
2) Electricity and transportation are the lifeblood of
economy. Both stable supply and smooth operation are
key factors promoting people’s livelihood and economic
development. One must implement carbon-reduction mea-
sures, such as the “Clean Source and Consumption Re-
duction” and “Low-carbon Infrastructure Construction”
to achieve a low-carbon society.
3) Setting energy efficiency standards and implement-
ing subsidies are a “radish strategy”. The low-carbon vi-
sion is a hop e for all the p eople. Under th e motto that the
state owns laws and the family has rules, clearly setting
energy efficiency standards will make civil servants, the
public, and corporations implement energy-saving and
carbon-reduction measures. Additionally, subsidies can
complement energy efficiency standards and further in-
spire a nation.
9. Acknowledgements
This study is a research result of the NSTPE, financially
sponsored by the NS C, Taiwan .
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