Wireless Sensor Network, 2010, 2, 725-738
doi:10.4236/wsn.2010.210088 October 2010 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/wsn/)
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Published Online
IEEE 802.11s Wireless Mesh Networks for Last-Mile
Internet Access: An Open-Source Real-World Indoor
Testbed Implementation
Riduan M. Abid, Taha Benbrahim, Saâd Biaz
Computer Science and Software Engineering Department, Shelby Center for Engineering Technology,
Auburn University, AL, USA
E-mail: {abidmoh, benbrah, biazsaa}@auburn.edu
Received June 8, 2010; revised July 9, 2010; accepted August 12, 2010
Due to their easy-to-deploy and self-healing features, WMNs (Wireless Mesh Networks) are emerging as a
new promising technology with a rich set of applications. While the IEEE standardization of this new tech-
nology is still in progress, its main traits are already set, e.g., architecture and MAC routing. WMNs are at-
tracting considerable research in academia and industry as well, but the lack of open-source testbeds is re-
stricting such a research to simulation tools. The main problem with simulation tools is that they do not re-
flect the complexity of RF propagation, especially in indoor environments, of which IEEE 802.11s WMNs
are an example. This paper presents an open-source implementation of an indoor IEEE 802.11s WMN test-
bed. The implementation is transparent, easy-to-deploy, and both the source code and deployment instruc-
tions are available online. The implementation can serve as a blueprint for the WMN research community to
deploy their own testbeds, negating the shortcomings of using simulation tools. By delving into the testbed
implementation subtleties, this paper is shedding further light on the details of the ongoing IEEE 802.11s
standard. Major encountered implementation problems (e.g., clients association, Internetworking, and sup-
porting multiple gateways) are identified and addressed. To ascertain the functionality of the testbed, both
UDP and TCP traffic are supported and operational. The testbed uses the default IEEE 802.11s HWMP (Hy-
brid Wireless Mesh Protocol) routing protocol along with the default IEEE 802.11s Airtime routing metric.
Keywords: Wireless Mesh Networks, IEEE 802.11s, Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol,
Airtime Routing Metric
1. Introduction
Due to their easy-to-deploy and self-healing features, W-
MNs [1] are emerging as a promising technology. WMNs
are easy-to-deploy as setting a WMN involves minimal
wiring and configuration overhead: Placing the WMN
nodes and powering them On is all what is required to
operate a WMN. On the other hand, WMNs are self-heal-
ing thanks to the redundancy of wireless links: A failure
in a wireless link causes the network to seek alternative
operational link, and thus continuously maintaining the
WMNs may serve a rich set of applications, e.g., wire-
less community networks, wireless enterprise networks,
transportation systems, home networking and last-mile
wireless Internet access. Providing last-mile wireless Inter-
net access is one of the most promising applications as
WMNs tremendously reduce the cost and the configuration
overhead when compared with current solutions, e.g.,
Wi-Fi (IEEE 802.11) LANs. In fact, the proliferation of
Wi-Fi LANs played a tremendous role in the promising
success of WMNs. However, and even though very suc-
cessful, Wi-Fi LANs still suffer from the cost and the
overhead of setting the wired backbone that connects the
different APs (Access Points).
In Wi-Fi LANs, covering a cell requires the deployment
of an AP which must be wired to the Internet through a
backbone network, e.g., an IEEE 802.3 LAN. When an
adjacent cell is to be connected, another AP has to be
placed and wired to the Internet. This way, the settlement
of further APs becomes more and more costly when the
cells to cover are quite far from the wired backbone net-
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
work. Furthermore, in case of dense regions, a parallel
dense deployment of APs is needed to meet customers’
needs, thus resulting in more wiring and settlement over-
head. Even though APs are relatively inexpensive, wiring
the APs and finding the appropriate canals for the wires
remains expensive.
In IEEE 802.11s WMNs, no wiring is required except
for the AP which will serve as a gateway towards the
Internet, even though the gateway AP can be wirelessly
connected to the Internet. All other APs serve as routers
and route data on behalf of each other towards/from the
gateway AP. Therefore, covering a cell reduces to adding
an AP without wiring it to the backbone network. This way,
the WMN technology is considerably easing wireless cov-
erage, especially when compared to the actual Wi-Fi
WLANs solution. A fact which is of tremendous impor-
tance to industry since easing wireless coverage equates
affording more coverage, and thus supports more user
connections, which finally induces a greater return to in-
dustry. In this context, IETF (Internet Engineering Task
Force) is actively working to finalize the IEEE 802.11s
standard which will pave the way towards a successful
worldwide industrialization of this promising technology.
In 2005, IETF set a mesh networking TG (Task Group)
to standardize IEEE 802.11s. The work is still in progress,
and the last IEEE 802.11s TG meeting was held in March,
2010 [2]. Even though the standard is not final yet, its main
traits are set, e.g., architecture and MAC routing. The IEEE
802.11s TG set HWMP (Hybrid Wireless Mesh Protocol)
[3] as a default routing protocol for IEEE 802.11s compli-
ant devices. HWMP uses MAC addresses for routing. Fur-
ther, Airtime [4] has been set as a default routing metric for
HWMP. These two amendments aim to maintain a mini-
mum compatibility between the IEEE 802.11s devices to
be manufactured by different companies.
Albeit a new technology, several WMNs solutions are
already commercialized (e.g., by Strix Systems, Cisco,
Nortel, Tropos, BelAir). Besides, valuable real-world de-
ployments are in place too, e.g., the MIT Roofnet [5] and
the Microsoft Mesh Networking project [6]. However,
these deployments are not compliant to the new IEEE
802.11s standard and are proprietary.
The absence of non-proprietary and open-source testbeds
is restricting the proliferation of the research in WMNs by
forcing researchers to use simulation tools, e.g., ns-2 [7]
and Qualnet [8]. Even though simulators are relatively
good at approximating most of the real-world networking
applications, they are still quite far from doing so in wire-
less indoor environments, which is the case with IEEE
802.11s WMN technology. In wireless indoor environ-
ments, an accurate RF propagation simulation is very cru-
cial and it largely affects the overall network performance.
For instance, RF propagation is of paramount importance
in determining interferences levels. These latter has proved
to be of great impact to the overall performance of mul-
ti-hop wireless networks [9,10]. However, an accurate RF
propagation simulation of indoor environments remains
quite impossible.
Indeed, simulators cannot capture the complex aspects of
RF propagation such as multi-path fading, interferences,
path loss, reflection and diffraction. In indoor environments,
the situation is further aggravated because of the unpre-
dictable and mobile nature of obstacles, e.g., furniture,
people, walls, etc. This unpredictable and mobile nature of
obstacles has a direct and strong impact on the behavior of
most RF propagation characteristics, basically reflection,
diffraction, and path loss. These facts render very complex
an accurate modeling of the interferences phenomenon.
Thus, most simulation tools remain simplistic in the way
they are modeling interferences. For instance, ns-2, which
is the most widely used tool in academia, uses a simplified
version of the physical interference model (the capture
threshold model) that accounts for only one interfere at a
time [11]. This is definitely not the case in real-world in-
terferences where they can be caused by different simulta-
neous interferes. Nevertheless, simulators are still very
common in research since they remain the sole experimen-
tation alternative when the deployment costs of a real-
world testbed are not affordable.
In this context, we are presenting an open-source real-
world IEEE 802.11s WMN testbed implementation that
would encourage the academia WMN research community
to migrate to the use of real world testbeds, instead of
simulators, by deploying the proposed testbed or by using
it as a blueprint for deploying their own testbed. The pre-
sented testbed is easy-to-deploy as it uses off-the-shelf
commodity hardware and software. The linux-based test-
bed code is open-source, written in C language, and avail-
able online [12]. Besides serving the purpose of allowing
the WMN researches to easily build their own WMN test-
bed, the testbed can serve as a building block for a widely-
used open-source WMN.
By delving into the testbed implementation subtleties,
this paper sheds further light into the new IEEE 802.11s
standard and addresses major encountered implementation
problems such as clients association, Internetworking and
supporting multiple gateways. Clients’ association problem
stems from the fact that the original IEEE 802.11 MAC
addresses are lost once the corresponding frames leave the
WMN towards the Internet. To address this problem, we
propose a time-efficient mechanism that maps back to the
original IEEE 802.11 MAC addresses and their associating
access points, and handles mobile stations hand-offs. With
Internetworking, we propose a NAT (Network Address
Translation) mechanism that solves the problem of the ir-
relevance of the IP addresses of the Wi-Fi legacy stations
R. M. ABID ET AL.727
outside WMNs. This irrelevance stems mainly from IEEE
802.11s mesh nodes using MAC addresses for routing. By
using MAC addresses for routing, the WMN nodes are not
contributing to the non-mesh IP routing protocols, e.g., RIP
and OSPF. And last, when multiple gateways are present,
there is always a better route to every operational gateway,
and deciding on the best gateway to select requires a way
for inspecting the status of every gateway. We propose a
mechanism that uses timestamps for synchronizing be-
tween the different gateways.
To ascertain the functionality of the testbed, both TCP
and UDP were tested using real-world traffic. Real-world
web browsing sessions from Wi-Fi enabled stations, using
the testbed as a wireless backhaul, are operational. The
current testbed uses 15 nodes and spans two separate loca-
tions that are connected through the Internet. The testbed
implements the IEEE 802.11s HWMP routing protocol
along with the IEEE 802.11s default Airtime routing metric.
However, it is very important to mention that this work is
not meant to evaluate the performance of the new IEEE
802.11s standard but to present an easy-to-deploy,
open-source real-world in-door IEEE 802.11s WMN test-
bed implementation that can serve as a seed for further
WMN testbed implementations.
The primary contributions of this work are:
Presenting an easy-to-deploy and open-source IEEE
802.11s WMN testbed implementation.
Encouraging academic researchers, on IEEE 802.11s
WMNs, to use real-world testbeds.
Highlighting and solving major implementation is-
sues, e.g., clients’ association problem, Internetworking
WMNs, and supporting multiple gateways.
Highlighting the main traits of the new IEEE 802.11s
Highlighting and implementing the new IEEE 802.11s
HWMP routing protocol and the IEEE 802.11s Airtime
routing metric.
The rest of the paper is organized as follows: Section 2
overviews the main specifications of the IEEE 802.11
standard. Section 3 highlights the details of the HWMP
routing protocol and the Airtime routing metric. The im-
plementation details and the encountered problems are
respectively covered in Sections 4 and 5. Section 6 out-
lines the necessary steps to deploy the testbed. In Section
7, we present the experimental settings of the testbed, the
topologies and the experimental results. Finally, Section
8 presents the conclusion and alludes for future work.
2. IEEE 802.11s Overview
The IEEE 802.11s standard started initially as a study
group in 2003, and then became a Task Group in July,
2004. The first draft was accepted in March, 2006 and the
last TG meeting was held in March, 2010 [2]. The stan-
dard is concerned with five main areas:
1) Architecture
2) Routing in MAC layer
3) MAC enhancements
4) Internetworking
5) Security
This work pertains to areas 1, 2 and 4. Areas 1 and 2
are introduced in next paragraphs, while area 4 is de-
ferred to Section 5.
2.1. IEEE 802.11s Architecture
IEEE 802.11s defines three types of stations:
1) MPs (Mesh Points): MPs are wireless stations that
perform routing only.
2) MAPs (Mesh Access Points): MAPs are MPs with
additional access point capabilities. Besides performing
routing, MAPs aggregate traffic from/towards legacy
802.11 stations. A MAP can be thought of as a legacy
access point which performs routing also.
3) MPPs (Mesh Portal Points): MPPs are MPs that
serve as gateways to other non-mesh networks, e.g., In-
ternet. MPPs aggregate traffic from/towards the non-
mesh networks.
To illustrate the functionality of every mesh node type,
Figure 1 depicts a scenario where an end user, e.g., a
Wi-Fi enabled station, is browsing the Internet. The end-
user, at station sta1, is connected to a legacy IEEE 802.11
network through a mesh access point (MAP). The MAP is
routing frames, and has mesh point (MP2) as a next-hop.
Mesh point (MP2) has mesh point (MP4) as its next-hop
and MP7 afterwards. This latter forwards data towards the
Mesh Portal Point (MPP1) which serves as a gateway to-
wards the Internet web server. The role of the routing pro-
tocol is to determine the best sequence of hops for a data
frame to get to its final destination. In IEEE 802.11s, rout-
ing is performed using MAC addresses and uses Airtime
[4] as a routing metric.
2.2. Routing at MAC Layer
Multi-hop routing is a key element in IEEE 802.11s. IEEE
Figure 1. IEEE 802.11s WMN architecture.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
802.11s performs routing using MAC addresses and uses
either four or six MAC addresses depending on the nature
of the traffic. When both the source and the destination are
mesh points in the WMN, only four addresses are used.
When the source or the destination is outside the WMN,
i.e., a non-mesh point (e.g., an IEEE 802.11 or an IEEE
802.3 station), six addresses are used. The IEEE 802.11s
frame header bear an AE (Address Extension) mode bit
that discriminates between the two modes. In the cases
where WMNs are used for last-mile Internet access, the AE
bit is set to 1 as both the destination and the source are
non-mesh points. The scenario, formerly illustrated in Fig-
ure 1, is a relevant case as the source is a wireless station
residing in an IEEE 802.11 network, and the destination is
a web server residing in the Internet.
Adding two extra MAC addresses, to the ordinary four
IEEE 802.11 addresses, is meant to track the MAC ad-
dresses of the non-mesh source and non-mesh destination
as these would be lost once the frame enters/quits the mesh
network. The IEEE 802.11s six MAC addresses are:
1) Destination MAC Address: MAC address of the next-
hop in a given route.
2) Source MAC Address: MAC address of the sender.
3) Destination Proxy Address: MAC address of the des-
tination MPP/MAP from where the frame will leave the
mesh network.
4) Source Proxy Address: MAC address of the MPP/
MAP from where the frame entered into the mesh network.
5) Final Destination Address: MAC address of the final
non-mesh destination.
6) Originator Address: MAC address of the non-mesh
station that originated the frame.
3. MAC Routing in IEEE 802.11s
HWMP [3] is a hybrid protocol being both reactive and
proactive. The two behaviors can be used separately or
simultaneously depending on the application.
3.1. Reactive Routing in HWMP
RM-AODV (Radio-Metric Ad hoc On Demand Distance
Vector) [13] is the reactive protocol in HWMP. RM-
AODV is an adaptation of the AODV [14] protocol that
uses Airtime [4] as a link quality metric. Reactive rout-
ing protocols initiate route discovery requests only when
needed, such as in case of a route failure or a route time-
In RM-AODV, when a node needs a path to a certain
destination, it broadcasts a PREQ (Path Request) mes-
sage that contains the MAC address of the destination.
Every PREQ message bears a unique sequence number
that distinguishes it from other PREQ messages. When
an intermediate MP receives a PREQ message, it first
checks the freshness of the received message by compar-
ing its sequence number with the last locally stored se-
quence number. A PREQ message is processed only when
it has a greater sequence number or when it has the same
sequence number but exhibiting a better route.
After receiving a fresher PREQ message, intermediate
nodes update their reverse path towards the source, update
the routing metric by including the weight of the last hop,
and then re-broadcast the updated PREQ message. Subse-
quent MPs proceed the same way until the PREQ reaches
the destination.
When the destination MP receives the PREQ message, it
checks its freshness in the same way as other intermediate
MPs, and then it updates its reverse path towards the source.
The destination then formulates a RREP (Route Reply)
message which is afterwards uni-casted towards the source.
Intermediate MPs receiving the RREP message update
their forward path towards the destination, update the rout-
ing metric, and then forward the updated RREP towards
the source.
In case of node failure, the intermediate MPs detecting
the failure send a RERR (Route Error) message towards
the source to inform it about the breakage of the link. The
source can then re-initiate a new route discovery using a
new PREQ message.
3.2. Proactive Routing in HWMP
The HWMP proactive mode [3] is a tree based routing [15,
16]. In the proactive mode, every root mesh point (i.e.,
MPP) periodically broadcasts PREQ messages bearing
unique sequence numbers. The protocol is very similar to
reactive HWMP, presented in Subsection 3.1, in how in-
termediate nodes react and process PREQ messages. The
only differences are:
In reactive HWMP, PREQ messages are sent in a re-
active way (i. e., when needed), whereas in proactive
HWMP, PREQ messages are sent proactively (i.e ., in ad-
vance) and on a periodic basis (e.g., every 1 second).
In reactive HWMP, PREQ can be sent by any mesh
node type (MP, MAP and MPP), whereas in proactive
HWMP, PREQ messages are sent only by MPPs. These
latter represent the trees roots. MPs and MAPs do only
forward PREQ messages.
By having every MPP periodically broadcasting PREQ
messages, tree-like topologies are built with MPPs as roots
and MAPs as leaves. By comparing the routing metrics of
the different PREQ messages, MAPs select the best MPP
and thus adhere to the tree whose root is the selected MPP.
The proactive protocol is ideal for the scenario where
WMNs are used for last-mile Internet access since most
of the traffic is directed towards/from the gateway MPPs
that connect the WMN to the Internet.
R. M. ABID ET AL.729
3.3. IEEE 802.11s Radio-Aware Airtime Metric
IEEE 802.11s set Airtime [4] as a default routing metric for
all IEEE 802.11s compliant devices. Airtime is a radio-
aware metric which is meant to measure the amount of
consumed channel resources when transmitting a frame
over a particular wireless link.
Airtime is computed as follows:
ca p
Airtime O Or
where Oca, Op and Bt are constants quantifying, respec-
tively, the Channel Access Overhead, the Protocol Over-
head and the number of Bits in a probe frame. r is the
transmission rate (in Mbps) for a frame of size Bt, and efr is
the frame error rate. IEEE 802.11s did not delineate a spe-
cific way to measure efr, it is left as an implementation is-
sue [17].
Unlike ETX (Expected Transmission Count) [5] which
accounts solely for frame error rate, Airtime accounts for
both frame error rate and link bandwidth as well, this is
also the case with ETT (Expected Transmission Time) [6].
However, Airtime further accounts for channel access and
protocol overheads.
ETX is implemented in this work as it is compared
against Airtime. On the other hand, ETT is not imple-
mented because of its very similarity to Airtime. The
next sections highlight ETX and ETT main traits.
3.3.1. ETX (Expected Transmission Count)
ETX [5] accounts solely for frame error rate by measur-
ing the expected number of transmissions needed to suc-
cessfully transmit a frame. To compute ETX, every node
periodically broadcasts a fixed number of probe frames
N over a certain fixed time period T. The receiver counts
the number of received frames and computes the forward
delivery ratio as follows:
where Rf is the number of received frames in the forward
When a node broadcasts its N probe frames, it piggy-
backs on them the computed df values that correspond to
all its neighbors. Upon receiving a probe frame, every
node looks up its corresponding piggybacked df value
and counts the received probe frames in order to compute
the reverse delivery ratio dr (in a similar way to comput-
ing df, Equation (2)). This way every node gets both the
forward and reverse delivery ratios. These latter are used
to compute ETX as follows:
ETX dd
However, ETX suffers from the major shortcoming of
not accounting for link bandwidth. To cope with this
problem, ETT has been proposed.
3.2.2. ETT (Expected Transmission Time)
ETT [6] is meant to cope with the major shortcoming of
ETX in not accounting for link bandwidth. In [6], the
authors are aliasing ETT as “Bandwidth-adjusted ETX”.
ETT accounts for both frame error rate and bandwidth.
ETT measures the needed time for a frame to be suc-
cessfully transmitted, and is computed as follows:
where t is the average time for a single frame to be
transmitted regardless of the transmission being suc-
cessful or not.
t, where s is the size of the probe frame, and B
is the link bandwidth. To compute t, R. Draves et al. [6]
used the well-known technique of packet-pairs [18].
4. Implementation
This section highlights the major implementation aspects
of the testbed. Further details as well as the complete
source code are available online [12].
4.1. System Design
As mentioned earlier, IEEE 802.11s performs routing at
the MAC layer. We adopted an easy-to-deploy imple-
mentation that can be deployed using off-the-shelf IEEE
802.11 commodity hardware, thus requiring no changes
to the IEEE 802.11 driver. In fact, an optimal implemen-
tation would require a thorough change of the MAC
driver as IEEE 802.11s uses six MAC addresses instead
of the four that are used in IEEE 802.11. Still, for our
implementation to approximate as much as possible an
optimal MAC protocol implementation, we deployed two
kernel modules that drop all traffic going to/from the
TCP-IP stack. These kernel modules are placed at the
PRE-ROUTING and LOCAL-OUT hooks of Netfilter
Figure 2. The deployed Netfilter hooks.
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
[19] (see Figure 2). Besides, by using Datalink Raw Sock-
ets, the user-space generated 802.11s frames bypasses the
TCP-IP stack. This way, the TCP-IP stack becomes trans-
parent to our user-space implementation and thus ideally
approximating a kernel implementation.
The system is made of three modules (see Figure 3) that
communicate between each other using IPC (Inter Process
Communication) shared memories:
1) Routing
2) Data forwarding
3) Link quality measurement
Only the link quality measurement module is identical in
all WMN nodes, i.e., MAPs, MPs and MPPs. For the two
other modules, their implementation depends on the type of
the node. Next sections highlight the implementation de-
tails for each module and shows how the implementation
differ according to the type of the mesh node.
4.2. Data Forwarding Module
The Data forwarding module implementation depends on
the type of the mesh node.
4.2.1. Data Forwarding in MPPs
MPPs have two network interfaces, an IEEE 802.3 inter-
face and an IEEE 802.11 ad-hoc interface, that process
two different types of frames:
Upon reception of an IEEE 802.3 frame, the MPP-
Data-Forwarding module extracts the destination IP ad-
dress and MAC address, and then it retrieves the MAC
address of the MAP where the destination (an IEEE
802.11 legacy station) resides. The MAP MAC address
is retrieved from the MPP Association Table. This latter
basically stores the MAC addresses of the MAPs with
which every IEEE 802.11 station is associated (Associa-
tion tables will be further highlighted in Section 5). Once
the destination MAP MAC address is retrieved, the cor-
responding next-hop MAC address is retrieved from the
MPP proxying table, and the appropriate IEEE 802.11s
header frame is built. This latter contains basically the
six MAC addresses that will be used to get the frame,
through the IEEE 802.11s WMN network, towards its
final destination. The six MAC addresses are built as
1) Destination MAC address: The next-hop MAC ad-
dress retrieved from the MPP proxying table.
2) Source MAC address: The MAC address of the
sender, i.e., the MAC address of the MPP (in this case).
3) Destination Proxy MAC address: The MAC address
of the destination MAP.
4) Source Proxy MAC address: The MAC address of
the MPP. The MPP, in this case, is acting as a source and
as a proxy as well.
5) Final Destination MAC address: The destination
MAC address which is retrieved from the local associa-
tion table.
6) Originator MAC address: The source MAC address
retrieved from the original IEEE 802.3 frame.
The MPP then strips off the IEEE 802.3 frame header
and replaces it with the IEEE 802.11s frame header
while maintaining intact the payload of the IEEE 802.3
frame. The resulting IEEE 802.11s frame is then for-
warded using the MPP wireless ad-hoc interface.
On the other hand, upon the reception of an IEEE
802.11s frame in its ad-hoc interface, the MPP reads the
IEEE 802.11s frame header, extracts the originator MAC
address and its IP address, and creates an entry for it in
the MPP association table. The entry contains the origi-
nator IP address, the originator MAC address, and the
associated MAP MAC address. This latter corresponds to
Figure 3. System design.
R. M. ABID ET AL. 731
the source Proxy MAC address (Address 4 in the IEEE
802.11s frame header, see Subsection 2.2). Afterwards, the
MPP strips off the IEEE 802.11s frame header and replaces
it with an IEEE 802.3 frame header containing the local
MPP MAC address as a source address.
4.2.2. Data Forwarding in MPs
In contrast to MPPs, Data Forwarding in MPs is quite
straightforward as it deals with only one type of frames:
IEEE 802.11s frames. However, the MP still has to deal
with two types of frames that differ in terms of their final
destination which can be either in an IEEE 802.3 network
(e.g., frame destined to Internet) or in a IEEE 802.11 net-
work (frame destined to a Wi-Fi station). In other words,
the two frames can differ in terms of whether their final
destination, within the WMN, is either a MPP or a MAP.
The proxy type, either a MPP or an MPP, is made
transparent in our implementation by having the same
type of entry in the MP forwarding table for all proxies.
The MP forwarding table entries contain basically the
destination proxy MAC address, the MAC address of the
next-hop in the route towards destination, the route se-
quence number, and the route metric.
Upon reception of an IEEE 802.11s frame, the MP ex-
tracts the destination proxy address, i.e., the MPP or
MAP MAC address, consults its forwarding table and
retrieves the corresponding entry which contains the
next-hop MAC address. The IEEE 802.11s frame is then
updated by changing only two of the six MAC addresses
in the IEEE 802.11s frame header. The remaining four
are kept intact. The two updated MAC addresses are the
destination MAC address and the source MAC address
which become, respectively, the retrieved next-hop MAC
address and the MP MAC address.
4.2.3. Data Forwarding in MAPs
MAPs have two network interfaces, a managed mode
(i.e., Access point) IEEE 802.11 interface and an ad-hoc
mode IEEE 802.11 interface, that process two different
types of frames:
Upon reception on an IEEE 802.11 frame, from its
access point interface, the MAP first reads the source
MAC address and then formulates the six MAC ad-
dresses in the IEEE 802.11s header frame as follows:
1) Destination MAC address: The MAC address of the
next-hop in the path towards the destination MPP. This is
retrieved from the MAP proxying table.
2) Source MAC address: The MAC address of the lo-
cal MAP.
3) Destination Proxy Address: The MAC address of
the MPP for which the frame is destined. It is retrieved
from the MAP proxying table, and corresponds to the
best MPP in case of supporting multiple gateways.
4) Source Proxy Address: The MAC address of local
5) Final Destination: Unknown at this stage. A NULL
address is put in.
6) Originator: The source MAC address, retrieved from
the original IEEE 802.11 frame.
The MAP then strips off the IEEE 802.11 header, re-
places it with the shaped IEEE 802.11s header, and for-
wards the frame through its ad-hoc IEEE 802.11 interface.
On the other side, upon reception of a IEEE 802.11s
frame in its ad-hoc interface, the IEEE 802.11s header
frame is stripped off, while keeping the frame payload in-
tact, and replaced by a broadcast IEEE 802.11 header
4.3. Routing Module
The routing module implementation depends on the type
of the mesh node.
4.3.1. Routing in MPPs
In MPPs, the routing module is made of two sub-modules:
1) MPP-PREQ-Broadcast module: periodically broad-
casts PREQ messages which consist basically of the MAC
address of the local MPP, a unique sequence number, and
the routing metric field.
2) The MPP-RREP-Processing module: processes RREP
(Route Reply) messages forwarded by intermediate MPs
and originating from different MAPs. Upon reception of a
RREP message, the MPP extracts the MAC address of the
source MAP, looks up its entry it the MPP proxying table,
and updates the corresponding routing metric (by adding
the metric of the last hop) as well as the corresponding
next-hop in the reverse path towards the MAP who initi-
ated the RREP message.
Thus, besides acknowledging PREQ messages, RRE
messages set reverse paths towards the source MAPs as
4.3.2. Routing in MPs
In MPs, the MP-PREQ-Processing module processes two
types of messages: PREQ and RREP messages. PREQ
message are originating from MPPs and RREP messages
are originating from MAPs.
Upon reception of a PREQ message, the module
checks first the freshness of the message in order to
process it as only fresher messages must be considered.
First, the module extracts the MAC address of the sender
MPP, then uses this address to look up its corresponding
entry in the MP forwarding table. (The MP forwarding
table entries store, among other values, the last fresh se-
quence numbers that correspond to the different MPPs).
Once the last sequence number is retrieved, the PREQ
opyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
message is discarded in case it corresponds to a non-
fresh message (i.e., of a smaller sequence number). If the
PREQ message is a new one then the routing module
updates its reverse path entry towards the corresponding
MPP. Afterwards, the PREQ message is updated by ad-
justing the routing metric value. The module retrieves the
routing metric value, e.g. ETX or Airtime, that corre-
sponds to the link from where the MP received the
PREQ message and adds it to the current PREQ routing
metric, then rebroadcasts the message. If the PREQ
message is of equal freshness as the current sequence
number, the PREQ message is then processed only and
only if it corresponds to a better route. If that is the case,
the PREQ is processed as if it was a fresh PREQ message.
Upon reception of a RREP message, the MP extracts
the MAC address of the sender MAP, looks up its entry
in the forwarding table, and then updates the corre-
sponding reverse path to the MAP. To forward the re-
ceived RREP message, the MP looks up the destination
MPP MAC address and retrieves its entry from the for-
warding table. The retrieved entry contains the MAC
address of the next-hop in the route towards the destina-
tion MPP. Afterwards, the routing metric in the RREP
message is updated, and then the message is forwarded
towards the next-hop.
4.3.3. Routing in MAPs
Upon reception of a PREQ message, the MAP-PREQ-
Processing module retrieves the MAC address of the
MPP which issued the PREQ message, then retrieves the
entry (from the proxying table) that corresponds to the
sender MPP and checks the freshness of the current
PREQ message. If the PREQ message is a fresh one,
then the corresponding entry in the MAP proxying table
is updated and the routing metric value is updated the
same way as with MPs.
Still, since the PREQ sequence numbers pertain to
only one single MAP, the selected route (having the best
routing metric and a fresh sequence number) would cor-
respond to the best route leading to one specific MPP,
and since there can be other MPPs (i.e., multiple gate-
ways), other better routes to other MPPs may exist as
well. To address this problem, we keep a routing entry,
in the MAP proxying table, for every MPP, and we time-
stamp those entries with the time they were last updated
in order to assure the selection of the MPP that has the
best route as well as a fresh route (Further details, on the
multiple gateways problem, are presented in Section 5).
Once the proxying table is updated, a RREP message,
that acknowledges the receipt of the MPP PREQ mes-
sage, is formed and sent back to the selected MPP. The
RREP message consists mainly of the MAC address of
the MAP as well as the corresponding routing metric.
4.4. Airtime Measurement Module
As presented in Subsection 3.3, Airtime is computed as
ca p
Airtime O Or
According to the Equation (5), Airtime depends on two
basic variables: The frame error rate efr and the bit rate r.
The other constants depend solely on the underlying mod-
ulation technique, see Table 1.
To compute the frame error rate, we first compute the
reverse and the forward delivery ratios (The details of
these ratios were presented in Subsection 3.3.1). Once
the reverse and forward delivery ratios are computed,
they are used to infer the reverse and forward failure
ratios as follows:
1, 1rrf
df df
These latter are used to approximate the frame error
rate as follows:
The way the forward and reverse delivery ratios are
computed is covered in next section.
The bit rates are extracted using the “/Proc” system
files, and the rate adaptation algorithm was kept to the
default, which is SampleRate [20] in Madwifi drivers [21].
4.4.1. ETX Module
The ETX module consists of two sub-modules: The ETX-
Broadcast module and the ETX-Collect module.
1) The ETX-Broadcast module periodically broadcasts
probe frames (e.g., 1 frame per second) embedding the
number of probe frames received in the reverse path
from every neighboring MP during a certain time period
T. ETX-Broadcast does not compute the reverse delivery
ratios, it gets them from the ETX-Collect module via IPC
(Inter Process Communication) shared memories.
2) ETX-Collect is the module that computes the ETX
values for all links towards neighboring MPs. First, in or-
der to compute the reverse delivery ratios, the module
counts the number of broadcast probe frames received from
every single neighboring MP during the period of time T.
Once computed, these ratios are communicated to the
ETX-Broadcast module in order to piggyback them in the
broadcast probe frames. On the other side of neighboring
MPs, when a MP receives a probe frame, its ETX-Collect
module extracts the corresponding reverse delivery ratio
that were embedded by the ETX-Broadcast module of the
sender MP and counts, at the same time, the received probe
frame as well in order to infer the corresponding forward
Table 1. IEEE 802.11s airtime metric constants.
IEEE 802.11 a IEEE 802.11 b/g
Oca 75 µs 335 µs
Op 110 µs 364 µs
R. M. ABID ET AL.733
delivery ratio. In this manner, the ETX-Collect module of
every node gets both the forward and the reverse delivery
ratios for every link towards a neighboring MP. These ra-
tios are then used to compute the corresponding ETX val-
ues (see Equation 3), which are then communicated to the
routing module for route selection.
5. Implementation Problems
During implementation, we faced three basic problems: 1.
Clients association, 2. Internetworking, and 3. Addressing
multiple gateways. The next sections highlight these prob-
lems and suggest suitable solutions.
5.1. The Clients’ Association Problem
The clients’ association problem arises when an IEEE
802.11s frame leaves the WMN via a MPP gateway. In
such a scenario, the MAC address of the source IEEE
802.11 legacy station as well as that of the MAP who ori-
ginated the frame is lost forever. This is due to the IEEE
802.11s frame headers being stripped off at the level of the
gateway, and replaced by the corresponding MAC header,
e.g., an IEEE 802.3 header. Thus, when the MPP receives
back a frame as a response to one already sent, the MPP
cannot forward it to the right destination as it does not
know the MAC address of the MAP where the destina-
tion resides.
To solve this problem, we propose two alternatives: 1.
Forcing every MAP to periodically broadcast the IP and
the MAC addresses of its associated legacy IEEE 802.11
stations, 2. Having the MPP extract the needed informa-
tion from forwarded frames and store them in a table.
Both alternatives would meet the goal of having the
MPP remember the MAP from which it received the con-
cerned frame. However, we opted for the second alterna-
tive as the first one would induce more overhead in the
network because of the broadcast nature of the approach.
Besides, the first approach becomes delicate in the case
where the legacy IEEE 802.11 stations are mobile. In this
latter case, a MAP may broadcast that a station is associ-
ated with it while the station already moved to another
MAP coverage area. In other words, the first approach
does not handle hand-offs.
In the second approach, the MPP extracts the follow-
ing data from IEEE 802.11s frames: source IP address,
source MAC address, and the MAC address of the asso-
ciated MAP. The extracted data is then stored in a table.
To cope with the look up time of the table, which is of
0(n), we implemented the association table as a hash
table with a chained list collision resolution strategy. We
simplified the hash function to allow for further allevia-
tion in terms of computational speed:
Hash(IPaddr) = IPaddr[3] % 256
This way, when the MPP receives an incoming packet
from the non-mesh network, it uses the source IP address
in order to map to the appropriate entry in the hash table
in order to retrieve the corresponding MAC addresses of
both the IEEE 802.11 legacy station and the associating
MAP. These latter are then used to formulate the appro-
priate IEEE 802.11s MAC header. In this manner, MPPs
can send the received packets, from the non-mesh net-
work, to the intended MAPs. The MAPs, in turn, will
deliver the packets to the right destination using the
MAC addresses of the IEEE 802.11 legacy stations whi-
ch are also retrieved from the association table.
5.2. Interconnecting WMNs
With Interconnecting WMNs, another problem arises due
to the irrelevance of the IP addresses of the legacy IEEE
802.11 stations outside WMNs, i.e., in external networks.
This irrelevance stems from the fact that IEEE 802.11 leg-
acy stations would have IP addresses that are unrecogniz-
able in external networks since these legacy stations are not
directly connected to those networks. The legacy stations
are connected to external networks via WMN nodes.
In IEEE 802.11s, every mesh node is a router. However,
since these mesh nodes use MAC addresses for routing,
they remain invisible to external IP networks protocols
(e.g., RIP and OSPF), thus rendering the IP addresses of
the legacy stations unrecognizable as well since these latter
are directly connected to the mesh nodes. In fact, external
networks can recognize only the IP address of the gateway
MPP through its non-mesh network interface, e.g., an
IEEE 802.3 interface. All other mesh nodes, as well as
the client nodes in the IEEE 802.11 networks that use the
WMN as an interface, are invisible to external networks.
To solve this problem we implemented a NAT (Network
Address Translation) mechanism at the level of the
WMN gateways (i.e., MPPs). These latter have two in-
terfaces, a WMN interface and an IEEE 802.3 interface.
Accordingly, when a frame is about to leave the WMN
towards an external network, e.g., the Internet, the MPP
gateway reads the IP address of the originator, i.e., the
IEEE 802.11 legacy station, and replaces it by its own IP
address. The packet is then sent. However, since there
will be other frames originating from different WMN
clients, replacing only the IP address is not sufficient as
there is no way for mapping back to the original IP ad-
dress. To solve this problem, we implemented another
hash table that has as a hash key the combination of the
source port, the destination port, and the destination IP
address. In this manner, when a connection is created, an
entry in the hash table is added, and it is comprised of the
following quadruplet: destination IP, original IP, destina-
tion port and source port. When a response packet is re-
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
ceived back, the gateway maps to the right entry in the
hash table using the destination IP, the source port, and the
destination port. This way the original IP is retrieved. The
original IP is then used to map into the association table in
order to get its corresponding MAC address as well as the
MAC address of the MAP where the original legacy sta-
tion resides.
Even if the presented NAT mechanism seems logical,
this approach did not work at first. We realized that the
gateway (MPP), when receiving a response packet, espe-
cially in TCP, it replies to the received packet by estab-
lishing a TCP connection for itself as well. This result in
sending duplicate packets (one from the MPP and one
from the legacy station) as a response to a single TCP
connection establishment, and thus ending up with two
TCP connections. This problem was easily solved when
we deployed the Netfilter [19] modules, presented in
Subsection 4.1. The Netfilter modules drop all IP packets
destined to the gateway and keep intact the packets des-
tined to IEEE 802.11 legacy as the framework uses Raw
Datalink sockets for frame forwarding. These Raw Data-
link sockets read frames at the MAC layer before the
Netfilter module drops the packets.
5.3. Addressing Multiple Gateways (MPPs)
When processing HWMP PREQ (Path REQuest) messages,
a MAP has to process only fresher PREQ messages, i.e.,
the ones that bear a larger or equal sequence number than
the last sequence number. However, when a better PREQ
message is processed and the corresponding routing entry
is updated, a problem arises when the wireless mesh net-
work has multiple MPPs since there will be different sets
of PREQ sequence numbers. Each set pertains to only one
MPP since a PREQ message is uniquely broadcasted by
one MPP.
Accordingly, when selecting a better sequence number,
this latter would correspond only to a better route toward
the specific MPP which originated the concerned PREQ
message. The situation becomes quite critical because of
the likeliness of having alternate routes to other MPPs
with better routing metrics. Besides, since PREQ mes-
sages bear sequence numbers that cannot be synchro-
nized as they are sent from different MPPs, comparing
sequence numbers issued from different MPPs is non-
sense. Furthermore, if we just select the MPP that has the
best route, this may not work since the selected route
may not refer to a fresh route and hence invalid.
To cope with this problem, we adopted a simple ap-
proach that consists on keeping a routing entry for every
MPP and time-stamping it with the time it was created. The
MPPs routing entries consist of the following fields: MPP
MAC address, next-hop MAC address, routing metric,
sequence number, and timestamp. This way, when a
PREQ message is received, the MAC address of the
sender MPP is retrieved and used to map to the right
MPP entry. The sequence numbers as well as the routing
metric of the received PREQ message are then compared
to the ones in the appropriate MPP entry. If it corre-
sponds to a better route, the MPP entry is updated with
the just received PREQ message and instantly timestam-
ped. However, the updated route still corresponds only to
the best route towards a specific MPP. This latter may
not correspond to the best gateway to choose for frames
forwarding towards external networks.
To select the best MPP we proceeded as follows: When-
ever an MPP entry is updated and timestamped as a re-
sult of a new processed PREQ message, the timestamps
of both the active route and the new candidate route
should first conform to the following inequality:
 (6)
where ta and tc denote, respectively, the timestamps of the
active and the candidate routes. δ is a time threshold that
assures that the active route is a “still-valid” one. We set
the threshold to depend on the MPP broadcast period. The
experimental value of the threshold is set to twice the MPP
broadcast period in order to account for the case when a
PREQ broadcast message has been lost.
If ta and tc conform to inequality (6), and the candidate
route is exhibiting a better routing metric that the active
route, then this latter is updated. By doing this, the MPP
with the best route, as well as a “still-valid” route, is guar-
anteed selection.
6. Testbed Deployment Instructions
All the files referred to in this section are available online
[12]. For every type of mesh node (i.e., MPP, MAP and
MP), we present how to deploy the three different system
modules: Data forwarding, routing, and link quality meas-
urement. Data communication between these three mod-
ules is implemented via IPC (inter Process Communication)
shared memories.
6.1. Deploying Mesh Access Points (MAPs)
Deploying the Data Forwarding module: Compile
and run the “MAP_ Data_Forwarding.c” file.
Deploying the Routing module: The routing module
depends on the underlying “Link quality measurement”
module as the two modules exchange link quality values
through the IPC mechanism. Hence, depending on whether
the WMN is using ETX or Airtime as a routing metric, we
need to compile and run one of the following files:
MAP_PREQ_Processing_ETX.c” or “MAP_PREQ_ Pro-
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Deploying the Link Quality Measurement module:
The deployment of this module is the same for all three
types of mesh nodes. Hence, it will be separately covered
in Subsection 6.4.
6.2. Deploying Mesh Portal Points (MPPs)
Deploying the Data Forwarding module: Compile
and run the “MPP_ Data_Forwarding.c” file.
Deploying the Routing module: Compile and run
the following two files: “MPP_PREQ_Broadcast.c” and
Deploying the Link Quality Measurement module:
See Subsection 6.4.
6.3. Deploying Mesh Points (MPs)
Deploying the Data Forwarding module: Compile
and run the “MP_ Data_Forwarding.c” file.
Deploying the Routing module: As with MAPs, we
need to compile one of the following two files depending
on whether the WMN is using ETX or Airtime as a rout-
ing metric: “MP_PREQ_Processing_ETX.c” or “MP_
Deploying the Link Quality Measurement module:
See Subsection 6.4.
6.4. Deploying the Link Quality Measurement
This module is the same for all WMN nodes and it must
be deployed in all WMN nodes. The deployment of this
module depends on whether the WMN is using ETX or
Airtime as a routing metric:
Deploying ETX: Compile and run the following two
files: “ETX_Broadcast.c” and “ETX_Collect.c”.
Deploying Airtime: Compile and run the “Air-
time.c” file. However, we need to compile and run also
the “ETX_Broadcast.c” and “ETX_Collect.c” files as the
Airtime module uses the forward and reverse delivery
ratios for error frame computation. These latter ratios are
computed and communicated by the ETX module.
6.5. Deploying the Netfilter Modules
Two Netfilter kernel modules must be placed at the
PRE-ROUTING and LOCAL-OUT hooks of Netfilter as
explained in Subsection 4.1.
To hook the two modules, do “make” and “insmod
the following two kernel files: “preModule.c” and “lo-
7. Experiments
It is very important to remember that the purpose of this
work is not to evaluate the performance of IEEE 802.11s
WMNs. Instead, it is presenting an open-source real-
world IEEE 802.11s WMN testbed implementation.
However, we go through some basic experiments for the
purpose of implementation validation. In the following
paragraphs, we describe the topological and experimental
settings of the testbed, and we compare the performance
of IEEE 802.11s with Airtime as a routing metric against
7.1. Topologies
We used two different topologies for running experi-
1) In the first topology (see Figure 4), we deployed a
wireless mesh network composed of 11 mesh nodes. This
latter is located in the same building and is connected to
the Internet.
2) In the second topology, we connected two WMNs
(see Figure 5) through the Internet. The first WMN is
composed of 7 nodes, and the other WMN is composed
of 8 nodes. The two WMNs are located in different
Both topologies were deployed at the second floor of
the Shelby center for engineering technology at Auburn
Besides the WMN nodes, we deployed an IEEE
802.11 legacy station (which serves as a client and is
connected to the WMN through a MAP) and an IEEE
802.3 station (which serves as a server). Using Iperf [22],
we created UDP and TCP connections between the client
and the server. In topology 1, the server resides on the
Internet while in topology 2 the server lies on a WMN.
7.2. Settings
In both topologies, the mesh nodes network interface cards
Figure 4. IEEE 802.11s WMN testbed; topology 1.
Figure 5. IEEE 802.11s WMN testbed; topology 2.
(NICs) are operating in the IEEE 802.11g channel 1
while the IEEE 802.11 clients NICs are operating in the
IEEE 802.11g channel 11. The selection of different chan-
nels for client stations and mesh nodes is for the purpose
of minimizing interferences between the client and the
mesh nodes.
The mesh nodes NICs run the open-source Madwifi
driver [21]. For a list of NICs that are compatible with
Madwifi, please refer to “Hardware Supported by Mad-
wifi” [23]. The HWMP PREQ messages were periodi-
cally sent every 4 seconds and the ETX probe frames are
1024 Bytes long and are periodically sent every 1 second
During experiments, the TCP and UDP sessions were
repeatedly run over periods of 20 seconds and averaged
to plot the network throughput in function of client
7.3. Results
First, during experimentation, we noticed a “ping-pong”
effect in the behavior of the Airtime metric. This behav-
ior is basically due to Airtime accounting for the load by
means of accounting for the bit rate. The bit rate is dy-
namic since Madwifi uses the default SampleRate rate
adaptation algorithm [20]. This latter adapts the trans-
mission bit rate according to the observed link quality.
Thus, when Airtime advises a less-loaded path, this latter
will soon become loaded, a fact that incites Airtime to
select another less-loaded path which will become also
loaded, thus resulting in a “ping-pong” effect. This latter
consists on the process of switching back and forth be-
tween alternative paths.
In both topologies, Airtime and ETX have quite simi-
lar performances for both TCP and UDP (see Figures
6-9). We intentionally depicted the network throughput
in a scale of [0, 5] Mbps in order to relatively match
against the large scale of client bandwidth which is in [0,
10] Mbps. This gives a clear idea about the network effi-
Efficiency = Throughput / Bandwidth
In fact, we cannot definitively state that Airtime and ETX
Figure 6. Topology 1; UDP throughput.
Figure 7. Topology 1; TCP throughput.
opyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
R. M. ABID ET AL.737
Figure 8. Topology 2; UDP throughput.
Figure 9. Topology 2; TCP throughput.
have similar performances simply because the topologies
we deployed have a limited set of alternative paths. In
other words, Airtime and ETX are likely to pick the same
hops as there are not many alternatives. Deploying larger
topologies, with a larger set of alternative paths, is cru-
cial to ascertain the performances of Airtime and ETX
with regard to each other.
The actual network performance is quite poor when
comparing the network throughput to client bandwidth.
We explain this poor performance with the following
two main reasons:
The testbed is using only one channel: Performance
degradation is a well known fact in single-channel sin-
gle-radio multi-hop wireless networks [10] like WMNs.
This is mainly due to the fact that neighboring nodes,
which are in the carrier sense range of each other, cannot
transmit simultaneously. This results in having only one
active hop in a route at a time while the two other adja-
cent hops (always in the same route) cannot be active. A
fact which noticeably affects network throughput. In this
context, using multi-channel and multi-radio [16,24,25]
techniques have been extensively investigated in order to
cope with the limitations of using singlechannel. Actu-
ally, it is our intention to have this open-source testbed
support the use of multi-channels and multi-radios in our
future work.
In the deployed topologies, the WMN nodes have been
deployed in a quite dense region (see Figures 4,5). This
renders the wireless links quite close to each other. In
fact this was limited by the available space in the build-
ings where the testbed is deployed. Ideally, the WMN
nodes should be geographically scattered in order to mi-
nimize the interferences and to favor simultaneous trans-
missions between the wireless links.
8. Conclusions and Future Work
We presented a real-world IEEE 802.11s WMN testbed
implementation which is open-source and easy-to-deploy.
The implementation is an easy-to-deploy one as it does
not involve any IEEE 802.11 MAC driver alteration and
thus it can be deployed using off-the-shelf IEEE 802.11
wireless cards. The implementation was made open-
source and transparent by making the full source code
available online.
We identified and highlighted most important imple-
mentation problems (e.g., clients association, Internet-
working and addressing multiple gateways) and pre-
sented workable solutions. Two WMNs, that are located
in separate buildings and composed of 11 nodes and 15
nodes respectively, were successfully connected through
the Internet. Real-world web browsing sessions, from
IEEE 802.11 legacy stations that are connected to the
Internet via the deployed WMNs, are tested and opera-
We have the strong belief that the presented imple-
mentation will be of great input to the WMN research
community, especially in academia, as it provides a way
for deploying a testbed and therefore enabling more con-
cise and real-world experimental research.
The experiments we performed with HWMP, and with
Airtime as a routing metric, showed a clear “ping-pong”
behavior that stems from Airtime depending on the link
bandwidth. On the other hand, Airtime and ETX exhib-
ited quite similar performances which we mainly ex-
plained by the non-redundancy of available paths.
As a future work, and after getting feedback from in-
terested WMN researchers about the testbed, we plan to
continuously maintain the current web site about the
testbed. Future versions with enhancements will pave the
way for a widely used open-source WMN testbed. We
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. WSN
also intend to incorporate the support for the multi-chan-
nel multi-radio technology.
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