Vol.5, No.2, 274-284 (2013) Health
Comparative prevalence of pathogenic and spoilage
microbes in chicken sausages from Egypt and
Samir Mahgoub1,2*, Mahmoud Sitohy3
1Microbiology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt;
*Corresponding Author: mahgoubsamir@gmail.com
2Laboratory of Microbiology and Biotechnology of Foods, Department of Food Science and Technology, Agricultural University of
Athens, Athens, Greece
3Biochemistry Departments, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Zagazig, Egypt
Received 17 November 2012; revised 18 December 2012; accepted 25 December 2012
This study investigated the spread of food-
borne pathogens: Listeria monocytogenes, Es-
cherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus
and Salmonella in chicken sausage samples
collected from retail markets in Greece and
Egypt during 2006 and from Egypt through 2010.
Other microbiological parameters; total viable
count (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), pseu-
domonads (PS), staphylococci (STAPH), Bro-
chothrix thermosphacta (BT), Enterobacteriaceae
(EN), Escherichia coli (EC), yeasts and moulds
(Y&M) were also counted. Egyptian chicken sau-
sage samples were found to harbor L. mono-
cytogenes, Staph. aureus and E. coli O157:H7;
with frequencies equivalent to 24%, 60% and
26% of the total samples during 2006 and 37.87%,
64.44% and 41.11% of the total samples during
2010, respectively, while Greek samples were
entirely free of theses pathogens. Enrichment
techniques indicated the absence of Salmonella
from both Greek and Egyptian samples. The ob-
tained results may mobilize food producers and
handlers in developing countries to take the due
measures reducing food-borne pathogen risks
and spoilage flora alongside the poultry chain.
Keywords: Chicken Sausage; Food-Borne
Pathogens; Contamination; Listeria
Food safety is of utmost importance all over the world.
During food processing, a major risk of contamination
may occur directly prior to filling or packaging. So, con-
trolling the microbial load of such products is very cru-
cial in ensuring a safe quality end-product. The European
Commission regulation on the hygiene of foodstuffs [1]
provides a risk-based approach to ensure food hygiene
through the implementation of HACCP (hazard analysis
and critical control point) procedures. The described
measures represent the prerequisite conditions required
in food manufacturing facilities [2,3]. Risk management
programs including HACCP system is not yet applied in
most food processing units and many kinds of traditional
foods are still manufactured under somewhat modestly
controlled environments especially in the developing
countries including Egypt.
Listeria monocytogenes is a food-borne pathogen that
can annually cause 2500 cases of meningitis encephalitis,
sepsis, fetal death, abortions and about 500 deaths in the
United States [4]. Between 1994 and 2002, an enormous
amount of chicken and turkey products were recalled
because of possible L. monocytogenes contamination in
United State [5]. Relatively high prevalence of L. mono-
cytogenes in contaminated poultry products has been also
reported in Belgium [6], Norway [7] and Northern Ire-
land [8]. Additionally, a number of poultry products and
commercially manufactured foods associated with spo-
radic cases of listeriosis have been reported [9-12]. Es-
cherichia coli O157:H7 is associated with retail meat
products [13,14] and there was a relatively high preva-
lence of E. coli contaminated poultry products in Slova-
kia [15]. A more general overview of factors contributing
to meat-borne disease outbreaks in England and Wales
[16] indicated that inappropriate storage was implicated
in 32% cases, inadequate heat treatment in 26% cases
and cross-contamination (most commonly, raw-to-cooked)
in 25% cases. Cross-contamination during cutting, slic-
ing and packaging of meat products leads to an increase
of total viable microorganisms and reduced shelf life [17].
Spoilage of processed meat products prior to the sell-
ing date can limit its distribution options inflicting con-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN A CCESS
S. Mahgoub, M. Sitohy / Health 5 (2013) 274-284 275
siderable economic hardships on the manufacturers [18,
19]. At the retail level, meat products are liable to cross-
contamination through further handling including slicing
into individual parts (e.g. ham, sausages, and pâtés) and
packaging. Epidemiological data from Europe, North
America, Australia, and New Zealand [20] indicate that
substantial proportions of food-borne diseases and spoil-
age microorganisms can also occur during food prepara-
tion practices used in the domestic environment. Several
types of psychrotrophic bacteria including Brochothrix
thermosphacta, lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Pseudo-
monas spp. may grow to levels causing meat spoilage [21].
The aim of the current study was to follow the magni-
tude of contaminating microflora in the final poultry
products collected from retail market of a developing
country (Egypt) as compared to a developed one (Greece)
to evaluate their liability to contamination by pathogenic
and spoilage bacteria in relation to the hygienic status in
each case in order to assure or improve the hygienic
measures in each case and reach appropriate scientific
recommendations. This may mobilize the concerned par-
ties to take the appropriate actions achieving better hy-
gienic measures.
2.1. Sampling Procedure
Fifty samples of chicken sausages produced by a
Greek food manufacturing company were purchased
from the retail markets in Athens, Greece one month
after their production and one month before their expiry
date during 2006. A similar set of samples produced by
an Egyptian food manufacturing company was purchased
from the retail markets at Cairo Egypt with the same
specifications during the years 2006. Other 90 chicken
sausage samples produced by three different Egyptian
food manufacturing companies were purchased from the
retail markets at Cairo, Egypt one month after their pro-
duction and one month before their expiry date during
the year 2010. All samples were transported to the labo-
ratory immediately after collection and stored at 0˚C
until analysis.
2.2. Bacterial Strains
Reference strains of L. monocytogenes Scott A, L. in-
nocua FMCC141 and Staph. aureus ATCC6538 were
used in this study. All stock cultures were maintained at
80˚C. Each strain was aseptically sub-cultured in Tryp-
tic Soy broth (TSB) and checked for purity onto Tryptic
Soy agar plates (TSA), incubated for 24 h at 37˚C.
2.3. Direct Microbiological Counting
An aliquot (25 g) of each sample was transferred asep-
tically to a stomacher bag, combined with 225 ml of ster-
ile Ringer’s solution (Lab 100 Z) and homogenized for
60 s in a stomacher at room temperature (Lab. Blender
400; Seward Medical, London, UK). The samples were
decimally diluted in Ringer’s solution and 0.1 ml from
duplicate samples of appropriate dilutions were spread
onto the surface of solid media. Determinations were
carried out as follows: total viable counts (TVC) on Plate
Count agar (PCA, Merck, 1.05463) incubated at 30˚C for
72 h; yeasts and moulds on Rose Bengal Chlorampheni-
col Agar (Lab M 36, supplemented with chloramphenicol,
X009) incubated at 25˚C for 5 days; pseudomonads on
Pseudomonas agar Base (Lab M, supplemented with
Cetrimide-Fucidin-Cephaloridene, X109) incubated at
25˚C for 48 h; B. thermosphacta on Streptomycin Thal-
lous Acetate Actidione agar (Oxoid M0881, supple-
mented with streptomycin sulphate, thallous acetate and
cycloheximide SR0151) incubated at 30˚C for 72 h;
staphylococci on Baird Parker agar (Biolife, 401116 sup-
plemented with egg yolk) incubated at 37˚C for 48 h. E.
coli on Harlequin Tryptone Bile X-Glucuronide agar
(TBX) (LAB HAL003) incubated at 44˚C for 24 h. Par-
ticularly, E. coli O157:H7 on TBX agar incubated at
37˚C for 4 h then incubated at 44˚C for 37 h. Listeria spp.
was enumerated on Polymyxin-Acriflavin-Lithium Chlo-
ride-Ceftazidime-Aesculin-Mannitol agar (PALCAM,
Biolife 401604) after incubation for 48 h at 35˚C. Sal-
monella was counted on Xylose Lysine Deoxycholate
agar (XLD) (Merck, 1.05287) after incubation for 24 h at
37˚C. For Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and Enterobacteri-
aceae enumerations, 1 ml sample was inoculated into 10
ml of molten de Man Rogosa Sharpe agar (MRS, Biolife
401728) and Violet Red Bile Dextrose Agar (Biolife
402188). After setting, a 10 ml overlay of the same mol-
ten medium was added. The incubation was carried out at
25˚C for 72 h and at 37˚C for 24 h, respectively. All
plates were examined for typical colony types and mor-
phological characteristics associated to each culture me-
dium. S. aureus colonies were further tested for positive
coagulase reaction (Bactident Coagulase Biolife).
2.4. Post Enrichment Pathogenic Detection
A two-stage enrichment procedure was used for the
detection and isolation of Listeria spp. according to ISO
11290 [22]. An amount of each sample (25 g) was added
to Half Fraser broth (225 ml) and incubated at 30˚C for
24 h. Then an aliquot (0.1 ml) of the primary enrichment
media was transferred to a tube containing 10 ml of a
secondary enrichment medium (Frazer broth) and incu-
bated for 48 h at 35˚C - 37˚C. Aliquots from both media
were inoculated into PALCAM dishes and incubated at
35˚C for 48 h. Presumptive colonies were subcultured on
tryptone soya agar (Lab. M) and incubated for 24 h at
35˚C. Simplified genus identification was conducted
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN A CCESS
S. Mahgoub, M. Sitohy / Health 5 (2013) 274-284
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
using Gram stain, catalase and oxidase reactions, motility
at 25˚C, β-haemolysis reaction, and biochemical identi-
fication by fermentation of D-xylose, L-rhamnose, α-
methyl-D-mannoside and D-mannitol [23]. To identify
several fastidious strains, API-Listeria Kit was used. For
E. coli O157:H7, the samples were analyzed using the
method described in ISO 16654 [24]. Aliquots of the
samples (25 g) were added to 225 ml volumes of modi-
fied tryptone soy broth with novobiocin (Merck) and
incubated at 41.5˚C for 18 - 24 h. Following incubation,
0.1 ml of each enrichment sample was transferred onto
Tryptone Bile Glucuronide (TBX) agar and incubated at
37˚C for 4 h, then subsequently at 44˚C for 20 h.
The detection of Salmonella spp. was achieved by ISO
6579 [25] by suspending 25 g of the product into 225 ml
buffered peptone water (BPW) (Merck), and incubating
at 37˚C for 20 h. Then, 0.1 ml of each BPW medium was
transferred into a culture tube containing 10 ml of Rap-
paport Vassiliadis (RV) enrichment broth and incubated
again at 42˚C for 24 h. From both steps, a portion of the
sample was streaked on XLD agar (Merck, 1.05287) and
incubated at 37˚C for 24 h.
2.5. Statistical Analyses
Data from microbiological analyses were entered into
Excel and transformed to log10 values. All presented va-
lues are the averages of three replicates plus the standard
3.1. The Overall Distribution of Microbial
The data in Figure 1 delineate the overall distribution
of different microbial groups in 100 chicken sausages
samples collected from the retail markets in each of
Egypt and Greece one month after the date of their pro-
duction during the year 2006. The number of samples
positive to any microbial was related to the total tested
samples giving the relative overall distribution. The total
viable count (TVC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) were
counted and detected in 100% of Egyptian samples while
in only 68% and 62% of Greek samples, respectively. All
other tested microbial groups were detected by direct
counting or enrichment techniques in Egyptian samples
where the most spread microbial groups were B. ther-
mosphacta (BT), Enterobacteriaceae (EN), staphylo-
cocci (STAPH), yeasts & moulds (Y&M) and pseudo-
monads (PS) being distributed in 100, 96, 92, 82 and
82% of the tested samples, respectively. Greece samples
were only positive for few microbial groups, i.e. BT,
Y&M and PS accounting for 20%, 12% and 6% relative
distribution in the tested samples, respectively. Other
groups were totally absent by enrichment techniques in
Greek samples. Enrichment technique did not reveal any
Salmonella in either Egyptian or Greek samples. In Bra-
zil, Salmonella was not isolated from chicken sausage
[26]. Therefore, the plant environment, packaging and
chill storage may be unfavorable to its persistence and
growth. This finding is similar to the results of Yılmaz et
al. [27] on Turkey chicken sausage showing no recovery
of E. coli, Staph. aureus and Salmon ella spp. The pres-
ence of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. were not
detected in any of the ready to eat meat in Greece [28].
3.2. Relative Distribution of Spoilage
Figure 2 shows the relative distribution of TVC, LAB,
Figure 1. Relative quantitative distribution of spoilage microbes in chicken sausage collected
from Egypt (black columns) and Greece (white columns) during the year (2006).
S. Mahgoub, M. Sitohy / Health 5 (2013) 274-284 277
Figure 2. Relative quantitative distribution of indicator and pathogenic bacteria in chicken sausage from Egypt and Greece during the
year 2006.
Y&M, PS BT and STAPH in chicken sausage samples
collected from Greece and Egypt. Sausage samples were
categorized into 7 levels according to the microbial load;
<1, >1 - 2, >2 - 3, >3 - 4, >4 - 5, >5 - 6, >6 log CFU/g.
The relative distribution of any microbe was calculated
by dividing the number of the samples within certain
level by the number of the total samples and multiplying
by 100. Egyptian samples were most distributed in the
high TVC load category (>6 log CFU/g) recording 84%
of the total. The other 16% were distributed in the second
highest level of bacterial load (>5 - 6 log CFU/g). On the
other hand the TVC in Greek samples followed nearly a
normal distribution pattern, except that the highest dis-
tribution (32%) was recorded in the lowest bacterial load
level (<2 log CFU/g). The same trend of quantitative
distribution in both Egyptian and Greek samples was
also true for LAB except that the highest bacterial load
level (>6 log CFU/g) was spread in about 92% of the
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN A CCESS
S. Mahgoub, M. Sitohy / Health 5 (2013) 274-284
total Egyptian samples while the lowest bacterial load
level in Greek samples was spread in about 38% of the
total Greek samples. Since the level >6 log CFU/g is the
maximal permissible level for the aerobic plate count in
meat products [29] about 92% of Egyptian samples can
be classified as unacceptable for human consumption.
Previous studies on chicken products, such as chicken
sausage from Egypt have reported that the total bacteria
count ranged from 7 to 8 log CFU/g [30,31]. In Spain,
chicken sausage had total bacterial counts of mesophiles
and psychrotrophs from 7.14 to 7.28 and 7.72 to 7.87 log
CFU/g, respectively and about 80% of the chicken sau-
sage were regarded unacceptable [32]. In contrast, in
USA, [33] found the aerobic plate count of chicken sau-
sage was in the level 4.65 log CFU/g. Thus, the product’s
microbial load depends largely on the geographical loca-
tion, the associated environmental and hygienic status.
However, factors such as handling, processing, packag-
ing, storage and display may influence the microbiologi-
cal load of food products at the sale points [34].
Yeasts and moulds in Egyptian samples followed the
normal distribution pattern, indicating the highest distri-
bution at the medium level (>2 - 3 log CFU/g). Greek
samples distribution deviated towards the lowest detec-
tion limit (<2 log CFU/g) which recording 88% distribu-
tion of the total. This trend was also applied for the
quantitative distribution of pseudomonads group in the
samples of the two countries. The distribution of staphy-
lococci group in the Egyptian samples was centered in
the medium level (>2 - 3 log and 3 - 4 log CFU/g)
achieving 44% and 52% distribution of the total samples,
respectively, while all Greek samples were under the
detection limit. The distribution of BT was exclusively
condensed between the medium and high limit (>3 - 6
log CFU/g) in Egyptian samples while it was located in
the low detection level (80%) in all Greek samples. The
pH values of chicken sausage were 6.25 - 6.38 and 6.33 -
6.87 in the samples from Egypt and Greece, respectively,
i.e. the pH of Egyptian samples was relatively lower,
compared to Greek samples.
3.3. Relative Distribution of Pathogenic
Figure 3 shows the relative distribution of EN and
bacterial pathogens (E. coli O157:H7, Staph. aureus, Lis-
teria spp., L. monocytogenes and L. innocu a) in chicken
sausage from Egypt and Greece. The relative quantitative
distribution of EN in Egyptian samples followed nearly
the normal distribution pattern while all Greece samples
were under the detection level. The presence of EN in
processed food may give a strong indication of inade-
quate treatment or environmental post-process contami-
nation, and may also indicate the extent of faecal con-
tamination. The distribution of the pathogenic bacteria (E.
coli O157:H7, Staph. Aureus and Listeria spp., L. mono-
cytogenes and L. innocua) seems concentrated in the
lowest two levels (>1 - 2 to >2 - 3 log CFU/g) in Egyp-
tian samples while all Greek samples were totally under
the detection limit (>1 - 2 log CFU/g). Nørrung et al. [35]
recommended zero tolerance for L. monocytogenes in 25
g of ready to eat meat products when the shelf life is
longer than a week, but when shorter, the tolerance level
could be <100 CFU/g, so the level 2 - 3 logs CFU/g at
sale points may represent a potential risk to health.
Counts of this level may also indicate a significant fail-
ure of hygienic standards in the preparation and storage
of sausage. Additional, problems due to the growth of
pathogenic bacteria in sausages such as L. monocyto-
genes may cause serious food safety problems for con-
sumers. All Greece samples were under the lowest
pathogenic detection limit in contrast to 30% - 75% of
Egyptian samples, which were in that level. That may
imply that 25% - 70% of the Egyptian samples harbored
pathogens at a medium bacterial load of >2 - 3 log
CFU/g. The most common pathogens associated with
meat products are L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7,
Staph. aureus and Salmonella [36,37]. The production
process of cooked meats includes a heating step that is
probably sufficient to eliminate any L. monocytogenes
and other present pathogens, so its presence in the tested
samples is most likely due to post-process contamination
[38]. Additionally, the ubiquitous presence of Listeria
spp. in the environment and poor handling can lead to
their spread in food-processing environments and the
food chain. Taking into account that storage conditions
may allow for rapid growth of pathogen [39], its pres-
ence in processed meat products could pose serious
health problems. Noack and Jockel [40] reported that
between 1990 and 1992, official testing of 1235 samples
of meat and meat products yielded L. monocytogenes in
3.7% of cooked sausage. Listeria spp. including L.
monocytogenes was isolated from chicken meat products
[12,41]. L.mono cytogenes was detected in 8.8% cooked
meat products in Northern Spain [39], 18% of retail
chicken in Northern Ireland [8], 38% in Belgium [6] and
37% in Japan [42]. Moreover, L. monocytogenes was a
contaminant in slaughterhouses and poultry processing
plants [43]. Previous studies on chicken sausage in Spain
[33] and chicken frankfurter sausage in Egypt [30] have
reported incidences of S. aureus of 100% and 40%, re-
spectively. The levels of this pathogen in chicken frank-
furter sausage from Egypt are similar to those re- ported
by [32] in chicken sausage, with average of 3.15 - 3.23
log CFU/g. The presence of Staph. aureus in meat prod-
ucts may arise from food handlers through packaging
and storage of the product at high temperature [44-46].
The presence and the number of E. coli in food are im-
portant as indicators of cross-contamination [47]. It has
been suggested that several factors may contribute to the
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN A CCESS
S. Mahgoub, M. Sitohy / Health 5 (2013) 274-284
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Figure 3. Relative total microbial distribution in chicken sausages from Egypt and Greece during the year 2006.
presence of these pathogens, including poor handling,
poor hygiene practices, cross-contamination from food
handlers and storage conditions [46]. Chicken sausage
samples from Spain were reported to contain E. coli
groups range from 3.48 to 4 log CFU/g [32]. Taulo et al.
[48] found positive correlation (p < 0.05) between the
presence of E. coli and Staph. aureus in food samples.
Several authors found that E. coli O157:H7 was associ-
ated with derived retail meat products [13,14]. Of the
1750 ground beef samples analyzed, 20 (1.1%) of these
were positive for E. coli O157 [49].
3.4. Absolute Microbial Counts of Spoilage
and Pathogenic Microbes
Figure 4 shows that the microbial counts in chicken
S. Mahgoub, M. Sitohy / Health 5 (2013) 274-284
Figure 4. Microbial counts (TVC, total viable count; LAB, lactic acid bacteria; BT, Brochothrix thermosphacta; PS, pseudomonads;
EN, Enterobacteriaceae; Y&M, yeasts and moulds; STAPH, staphylococci) in chicken sausage from Greece and Egypt (black col-
umns = the maximum, gray columns = the average and white columns = the minimum) during the year 2006.
sausage from Egypt and Greece as characterized by maxi-
mum and minimum as well as the average of the whole
samples. It can generally be observed that the maximum
levels of the different spoilage microbes were higher in
Egyptian samples than in Greek samples. The maximum
values of all Egyptian samples were over the detection
limit, compared to only 5 groups in Greek samples. All
minimum levels in Greek samples were under the detec-
tion limit, while there were three microbial groups in
Egyptian samples whose minimum were over the detec-
tion limit. The average values of the microbial groups in
Greek samples were either below the detection limit (4
groups) or slightly over the detection limit (3 groups) but
in all Egyptian samples the averages of all microbial
groups were evidently over the detection limit. All these
results indicate a more hygienic and safety correlated
conditions during production and distribution of Greek
sausages. The distribution of pathogenic microbial
groups shows that, maximum, minimum and average
values were all under the detection limit for Greek sam-
ples while most of Egyptian samples (4 out of 5) had the
maximum and average levels over the detection limit,
particularly Listeria spp., E. coli O157:H7 and Staph.
aureus. So these three groups may represent pathogenic
hazards in Egyptian samples. Salmonella level was under
the detection limit and hence does not pose hygienic
problem. The presence of low number of microorganisms
in chicken sausages from Greece, may be a synergistic
result of quality of raw materials, ingredients, cooking,
vacuum packaging and chill storage as well as good hy-
gienic quality and practices. In addition to microbiologi-
cal quality of the products, factors such as handling,
processing, packaging, storage and delivery may also
influence the microbiological load of food products at
the point of sale [34].
3.5. Pathogenicity of Listeria Isolates
Collected from Egyptian Samples
Listeria isolates were subjected to haemolytic test on
blood agar to disclose their pathogenicity. In control
samples (Figure 5), L. monocytogenes ScottA (B) in-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN A CCESS
S. Mahgoub, M. Sitohy / Health 5 (2013) 274-284 281
duced a clear zone on blood agar indicating haemolysis
while L. innocua (C) does not. Staph. aureus (A) nor-
mally induces a clear zone on the outer border of the
growth (colony). 34 isolates producing clear zones simi-
lar to L. monocytogenes Scott A and 36 isolates produc-
ing zones corresponding to L. innocua . From the 70 ex-
amined Listeria isolates could be separated into 34
pathogenic L. monocytogenes and 36 L. innocua. This is
quite an alarming result revealing the hazardous hygi-
enic status of Egyptian sausage samples while Greek
sausage samples were safe. None of the samples pro-
duced zones comparable to that of the Staph. aureus.
The 34 pathogenic L. monocytogenes isolated from 12
Egyptian sausage samples, i.e. they were distributed in
about 24% of the total samples. Sporadic cases of liste-
riosis have been reported in a number of poultry prod-
ucts [9-12].
Following the magnitude of contaminating microflora
in the final poultry products collected from retail market
of a developing country (Egypt) as compared to a deve-
loped one (Greece), could evaluate the bacteriological
quality and estimate the hygienic status in every case in
order to improve the hygienic measures and motivate
concerned parties to take the appropriate actions achiev-
ing this objective.
3.6. Comparative Prevalence of Pathogenic
Bacteria in Chicken Sausages from
Egypt during 2006 and 2010
L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Staph. aureus
were detected in chicken sausages produced by three food
manufacturing companies (B, C and D) in Egypt during
2010 and compared by food manufacturing company (A)
during 2006 (Tab le 1 ). L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:
H7 and Staph. aureus were detected in about 24%, 26%
and 60% of the samples of the producing company A
from Egypt during the year 2006 compared to respective
values of 37.78%, 41.11% and 64.44% of the samples of
the producing companies B, C and D from Egypt dur-
ing the year 2010. This indicates clearly that the micro-
bial pathogens are highly prevalent in Egypt and there
was no improvement in the general hygienic status be-
tween 2006 and 2010, due probably to the insufficiency
of the means and measures required for microbial control.
Generally, the same trend found in 2006 applied also to
the samples collected in 2010, irrespective of the pro-
ducing company. This result reveals that the hygienic
status was still very poor and no serious actions were
taken to improve it.
The samples of chicken sausage from Egypt collected
Figure 5. Heamolytic activity of some L. monocytogenes iso-
lates collected from Egyptian sausage samples during 2006 and
2010. The control plate (I) contain Staph. aureus (A), L. mono-
cytogenes (B) and L. innocua (C) and the other plates (II-IV)
contain random samples.
Tab le 1. The prevalence of Salmonella, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and Staph. aureus in chicken sausages from Egypt dur-
ing 2006 and 2010.
Company and number of
samples Salmonella L. monocytogenes E. coli O157:H7 Staph. aureus
No. of positive samples during 2006
A (50) ND 12 (24.00%) 13 (26.00%) 30 (60.00%)
No. of positive samples during 2010
B(30) ND 12 (40.00%) 10 (33.33%) 15 (50.00%)
C (30) ND 13 (43.33%) 15 (50.00%) 21 (70.00%)
D (30) ND 9 (30.00%) 12 (40.00%) 22 (73.33%)
Total (90) ND 34 (37.78%) 37 (41.11%) 58 (64.44%)
ND, not detected.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OPEN A CCESS
S. Mahgoub, M. Sitohy / Health 5 (2013) 274-284
in 2006 were found to harbor Listeria spp., Staph. aureus
and E. coli O157:H7, while these pathogens were not
detected in Greek samples. The pathogenic L. monocy-
togenes was exclusively detected in 24% and 37.78% of
the total Egyptian samples during 2006 and 2010, re-
spectively. While Salmonella was absent in both Greek
and Egyptian samples as revealed by enrichment tech-
niques. The prevalence of pathogenic bacteria in Egyp-
tian samples was confirmed after 4 years from the origi-
nal study. The obtained results will mobilize the con-
cerned parties to take the necessary measures reducing
food-borne pathogen risks and spoilage flora alongside
the poultry chain.
This research was supported by the Laboratory of Food Microbio-
logy and Biotechnology, Department of Food Science and Technology,
Agricultural University of Athens, Greece and Greek Scholarship
Foundation (IKY), Greece. We would like to express our deep thanks to
Prof. George-John Nychas and all colleagues in the Laboratory for
supporting me during this study.
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