Chinese Studies
2013. Vol.2, No.1, 68-76
Published Online February 2013 in SciRes
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Measurement of Peasants’ Satisfaction with the
Compensation for Land Acquisition in the Chinese
Mainland in the Last Thirty Years
Wang Xinliang
Department of Economic and Management, Zhejiang Water Conservancy and Hydropower College,
Hangzhou, China
Received September 24th, 2012; revised October 26th, 2012; accepted November 3rd, 2012
Based on theories and documents, initial quantization table of peasants’ land acquisition compensation
satisfaction has been developed. It consists of compensation standard, compensation procedure, compen-
sation mode, and compensation distribution. Through on-spot interviews and pre-tested questionnaires,
the final scale is determined. After the questionnaire surveys and primary component analysis, ultimately,
we conclude that compensation degree, compensation procedure, and compensation mode are the main
dimensions of the peasants’ satisfaction with the compensation for land acquisition. This reliable operat-
ing tool makes up for the limits of situational specificity and shortcoming of recognition inconsistence of
land acquisition compensation from the current bibliography, and promotes in-depth research and theori-
zations of land-acquisition compensation.
Keywords: Land Acquisition; Compensation Satisfaction; Compensation Degree; Compensation
Procedure; Compensation Mode
The essence of land acquisition is the redistribution of land
property among the peasants whose lands are acquisitioned by
the government. Other members of the village, land developers,
and such local administrations, as village cadres, township and
counties all tried their best to maximize their own benefits. In
the existing property right and institutional framework, gov-
ernment’s forcible land acquisition act does not protect famers’
wish. This leads to endless disputes. Yu Jianrong 于建嵘
pointed out that rural land disputes had replaced tax disputes
and currently become the main reason for peasants’ rights pro-
tests, Yu observed that this was mainly because governmental
acquisition of lands was practiced without peasants’ permission,
or the compensation was too low, or government embezzled the
In large number and often in passive situations, peasants, as a
vulnerable group, are the main stakeholders of land. Obtaining
the least interests, peasants become the most dissatisfied group.
What are the specific elements of the peasants’ satisfaction with
land-acquisition compensation and what’s the degree of the
Theoretical Basis
The Compensation Satisfaction Theory
Satisfaction has long been an important indicator of man-
agement science, especially in psychology research. Each gen-
eration of management masters has come up with their own
theories and models.
F. W. Taylor “the father of scientific management” already
established a prototype of the idea of satisfaction. Herzberg
uses two-factor theory to further inquire which factors lead to
job satisfaction and dissatisfaction.
P. C. Smith’s (1969) Equity Model extends and expands the
satisfaction theory. He thinks that people will compare the in-
vestment and reward ratio. If their investment and reward ratio
are equal with others’, they will feel fair. Conversely, if the self
ratio is far behind others’, they will feel unfair and unsatisfied.
R. A. Ash (1965) points out that everyone has the output which
is obtained from work and the input faith which is essential to
achieve these outputs. These studies have laid a foundation for
follow-up compensation satisfaction research.
The Development of Compensation Satisfaction
A number of researchers have deepened the satisfaction the-
ory. The Lawler (1971) discrepancy model points out that peo-
ple will compare the actual reward with what they should be
paid, and the results will affect their pay satisfaction.
According to the Modified Discrepancy Model by Heneman
and Schwab (1985) salary satisfaction should consist of four
dimensions, namely, “salary”, “pay and promotion”, “salary
policy and management”, and “welfare”. Their model has
changed the view that salary satisfaction is a single surface
structure. The first to discover the problem is Dreher (1988),
who studied the salary and welfare satisfaction of “common
guarantee scope and employee costs borne” with the sample of
1433 police officers. There were no specific differences ob-
-served among the officers, though they found that welfare
actually had influence over welfare and salary satisfaction.
Another forerunner is Henmeman (1988) who conducted re-
searches on all the four satisfaction factors. Heneman (1988)
examined the relationship between job performance compensa-
tion and compensation satisfaction based on a research sample
of 104 hospital staff. He found that there would be some dif-
ferences using different survey methods, just the same as Drehe
et al. had found. The third to find this problem is Miceli et al.
(1991). Their study of the compensation system satisfaction
(structure and management) features a sample of 2000 manag-
ers, who were divided into several levels according to their
positions. The study found that the view on salary system fair-
ness influenced organizational justice. External comparisons
play an important role in determining satisfaction rather than
salary system. At the same time, the study further notes that a
high level executive force makes the salary system fairer.
A compensation satisfaction research review for the last 30
years finds two obvious phenomena. First, people almost al-
ways use the same satisfaction content and variables related to
work. For example, Ronan and Organ (1973) investigated how
work experience, age, education, gender, organizational capac-
ity, and the actual wage influence salary satisfaction. At the
same time, Rice et al. (1990) did the same research with almost
the same variables. But there are also differences between their
researches. For example, a study does not regard it as organiza-
tion ability, but in another study it is often regarded as a part of
the organization ability. And some of other same routine vari-
ables have been used for many years. Second, most of the stud-
ies only concentrate on the pay satisfaction, much to the negli-
gence of raise, benefits, compensation system structure, and
management satisfaction. But some researchers investigated
some or all the four factors.
The satisfaction theory is not only applied in the field of hu-
man resource management, and government departments, but
also in public administration, health, science and technology
The Measurement of Compensation Satisfaction
At the beginning, most methods measuring satisfaction
adopted one-dimensional method—Minnesota satisfaction ques-
tionnaire (Minnesota Weiss et al., 1967) and job satisfaction
index (Smith et al., 1967), Later on the main satisfaction model
(Dyer & Theriault, 1976; Lawler, 1971) came to be is multidi-
mensional model.
Heneman (1985) believes that either the theory of compensa-
tion satisfaction or actual measurement of the compensation
satisfaction can help researchers understand the causes and
results of satisfaction. He and Schwab, developed and validated
a multidimensional method which was used to measure satis-
faction, namely pay satisfaction questionnaire (Pay Satisfaction
Questionnaire, PSQ). Because of the satisfactory results, they
turned to remuneration related subjects and methods to do con-
ducted more research (Heneman & Schwab, 1985). Some re-
searchers have verified the correctness and reliability of the
PSQ (Judge & Wellbourne, 1994; Mulvey et al., 1991). But
there is at least one non-western researcher that questioned the
validity of these four factors (Lam, 1998). The study by Lam in
Hong Kong illustrated that there are only two factors—salary
and welfare—connected to the compensation satisfaction. Ever
since, people went on with some more investigations. But most
of the research is on the PSQ dimension (Ash et al., 1990;
Chrraher, 1991; Buckley, 1996; Carraher et al., 2004; Carraher
& Scarpello, 1993; Mulvey et al., 1990; Orpen & Bonnici, 1987;
Lance & Scarpello, 1989; Scarpello et al., 1988). As regards the
differences between compensation satisfaction measurement
and compensation satisfaction theoretical results, almost eve-
ryone predicts on the pay level while neglecting the factors that
can influence satisfaction, such as salary, benefits and compen-
sation management system and structure. P. Feuille (1974)
found that after controlling distributive justice, the interpreta-
tion difference of distributive justice (18.8%) on pay satisfac-
tion is two times larger than procedural (8.7%). Dreher (1981)
shows that the relationship between distributive justice (0.78)
and salary satisfaction is greater than procedural justice (0.42).
Miceli et al. (2000) also come to the same conclusion. In his
research on university instructors’ satisfaction, Wu Xiaoyi
小易 (2006) finds it obvious that justice in salary assessment
procedure plays an important part in satisfaction effect. There
have also been some empirical studies that have investigated
the moderating variables and intermediary variable mechanism.
Scarpello (1988) found that procedural justice was a condition-
ing variable through which fair distribution influences satisfac-
tion behavior. Lawler (1971) found that fair distribution influ-
enced organizational commitment through compensation, but
procedural justice on salary satisfaction had no direct effect on
it, and that procedural justice just influenced the organization
commitment through satisfaction with supervisor. Smith (1969)
points out that compensation level, compensation structure, and
pay grade have a great effect on salary satisfaction, and there is
positive relation between salary level and salary satisfaction.
Derher (1981) also shows that the real wage and salary satisfac-
tion among the correlation coefficient is 0.28, but the propor-
tion of wage growth and salary satisfaction among the correla-
tion coefficient is 0.07.
Initially the research of satisfaction or satisfaction measure-
ment in the Chinese mainland is was focused on service Indus-
try, such as the satisfaction change of bank service, the satisfac-
tion in retail area of domestic and foreign brands, the tourism
satisfaction in ecological tourism, rural tourism, ancient vil-
lages tourism, and so on. Later, their inquisition extended to the
satisfaction with government service such as administrative
services, public projects. In recent years, there are a lot of sat-
isfaction researches related to peasants, including studies of
peasant life, medical insurance, rural public goods, employment,
and so on. Informed by foreign research, the research method
used by the scholars gradually changes from quantitative re-
search to qualitative research. In conclusion, in terms of ap-
proach methodology, variables, and measurement dimensions
the present study acknowledges important inspiration from
those research projects.
The Conceptual Model and Research
The reason why peasants are not satisfied and why there are
lots of disputes is summarized below and shown in Table 1.
The first is compensation standard. Of all the 44 documents
related to land compensation issues, there are 36 (i.e. 81.8%)
based on compensation standard of land acquisition and re-
garding the low compensation standard as the main reason for
the dissatisfaction of the peasants. Zhu Mingfen 朱明芬 (2003);
Kong Xiangzhi 孔祥智, Wang Zhiqiang 王志强 (2004); Lu
Qian 陆迁, Ye Xiaowen 叶小雯 (2005), Zhong Shuiying
水映 (2007), Qian Zhonghao 钱忠好, Ma Kai 马凯 (2007),
Zhao Wei 赵伟, Zhang Zhengfeng 张正峰 (2009), and Lin
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 69
Table 1.
The main problems in land acquisition compensation.
The main problems which effect
land acquisition satisfaction Quantities Proportion
Compensation standard 36 81.8%
Compensation mode 31 70.5%
Compensation distribution 18 40.9%
Compensation procedure 18 40.9%
The scope of compensation 7 15.9%
The scope of land acquisition 4 9.1%
Method of measurement 4 9.1%
The ownership of the land 3 6.8%
Total documents 44
Qiling 林其玲 (2009) have all carried on the analysis in this
regard. Therefore, the compensation standard for land acquisi-
tion was listed as one of the factors that affect peasants’ land
acquisition satisfaction.
The second is the compensation mode. 31% or 70.5% of the
literature suggests that compensation mode affects the peasants’
satisfaction. But the perspective research area is different, for it
includes employment, social security, resettlement effect, single
resettlement and settlement in wrong place and so on. This
study also lists compensation mode as one of the influence
The third is compensation distribution for land expropriation.
There are 18 papers (about 40.9% of all) arguing that compen-
sation distribution for land acquisition is an important fact af-
fecting land expropriation. Three angles were analyzed in this
part. The first one is the distribution of land value increment
taken by An Husen 安虎森 and Zou Xuan 邹璇 (2005). The
second is the amount of compensation collective internal dis-
tribution discussed by Lin Qiling 林其玲 (2009). The third
one is an analysis of compensation for land acquisition (CLA
henceforward) from the administrative decision of leaving and
village committee retained.
The fourth and last one is compensation procedure. It is ex-
amined from quite dispersive angles in those papers, some of
which focus on imperfect institution system, government mo-
nopoly, or government interference. They also investigated
such other topics as illegal operations, management confusion,
funds management, public participation, and so on. Although
the contents are rich and diversified, the main ways are deci-
sion-making, behavior and supervision of CLA. There is no
unified naming in this area. It is appropriate for Chen Zhen
(2006), Zhao Wei 赵伟, Zhang Zhengfeng 张正峰 (2009)
and others to present a summary using compensation procedure.
We hence name it compensation procedure in our further
analysis of it as an influencing factor. There are 7 articles—
such as those by Zhong Shuiying 钟水映 (2007), Yu Jianrong
于建嵘 (2008)—that consider CLA range as also an important
factor which can affect the satisfaction. They analyze the com-
pensation, operating losses and compensation rent losses,
transfer fees, emotional compensation, and so on. There are 4
articles—including Zou Xuan’s 邹璇 (2005)—that consider
land acquisition measuring method as the main problem of
CLA And there are 4 articles exemplified by that by Zhao Wei
赵伟 and Zhang Zhegfeng 张正峰 (2009), in which the
scopes of public purpose in land acquisition are identified to be
the main factors that affect satisfaction factors. In general, the
numbers of study in these three types are relatively small,
which means that accredited degree is relatively low. At the
same time, the author thinks that these three types are the fac-
tors affecting the low land compensation standard. Therefore,
these three types are listed together and returned to the factors
of compensation standard.
There are 3 authors, Liu Yue 刘乐 and Yang Xuecheng
学成 (2009), Qin Hui 覃卉 (2006), Jin Shigao 金士高 (2006),
who think that ownership is the main problem in CLA. It is the
main cause of disorder of CLA distribution. Therefore, it
doesn’t become a separated influence factor.
In short, this study suggests that what affects peasants’ CLA
are compensation standard, compensation method, compensa-
tion distribution and compensation procedure.
In the following, Figure 1 diagrams the measurements of
specific variables.
The Research Hypotheses
The following assumptions are made based on the under-
standing of related meaning and relevant model.
Hypothesis 1: CLA standard is an element of peasant com-
pensation satisfaction dimensions;
Hypothesis 2: The CLA mode is an element of peasant com-
pensation satisfaction dimensions;
Hypothesis 3: The land compensation distribution is an ele-
ment of peasant compensation satisfaction dimensions;
Hypothesis 4: The CLA procedure is an element of peasant
compensation satisfaction dimensions.
Empirical Analysis
Questionnaire Form
According to the research model, preliminary indexes with
other related issues in peasants’ CLA satisfaction were de-
signed. To study the satisfaction of those with their land acqui-
sitioned and to make questionnaire close to the reality, an al-
most month-long series of individual interview was organized
from early October to early November in 2009. After the inter-
view, four dimensions were determined to constitute compen-
sation satisfaction. They are compensation standard, compen-
sation method, compensation distribution, and compensation
procedure The interview eliminates some unclear and incom-
prehensive questions in the questionnaire. Finally, we obtained
the initial measured variables’.
Compensation Mode
Compensation Standard
Compensation Distribution
Compensation ProcedureOther Statistical
Va r i ab les
Figure 1.
Research model.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
1) The first level index. CLA satisfaction is the first level in-
2) The second level index. There are four second level in-
dexes, namely CLA standard satisfaction, CLA mode satisfac-
tion, land compensation distribution satisfaction, CLA proce-
dure satisfaction.
3) The third level index. According to the literature research
and interview, we select 25 indicators in level three.
4) The definition of measuring index. In the light of the third
index, we defined the indicators.
Measurement index. Likerte symmetric five index scales
were used to measure the third level indexes. In order to avoid
the interference on the respondents from the answer sequence,
half of the questionnaire options are 1 totally agree, 2 agree, 3
general, 4 do not quite agree, 5 totally disagree. While the other
half options are 1 strongly disagree, 2 do not quite agree, 3
general, 4 quite agree, 5 totally agree. We change the reverse
variable questions when we put the data into computer.
Investigati on Process
The survey was completed during the Labor Day Holidays.
The sample range is in accordance with the actual, the way of
getting sample is scientific and strict. There are 350 question-
naires totally which are shown in Table 2. There are only 10
investigation samples from Changshan and Daishan due to the
small populations of the two counties. The other 22 counties
each claim 15 samples. The number of the total recovered ques-
tionnaires is 261, the effective recovery rate of which is 72.8%.
A Description of the Sample
As shown in Table 3, males account for 80.8% and females
account for 19.2%. Males take a larger part in the survey. Peo-
ple of 30 years old or younger account for 9.2%. People aged
between 31 and 40 account for 23.1%. Those between 41 and
50 years old account for 54.7%. And those between 51 and 60
account for 9.8%. People over 61 years old took up 3.2%. The
middle aged is the main part of the survey.
The education levels of the samples are as follows: primary
school or below, 49.3%; junior middle school, 26.2%, senior
mille school and secondary technical, 19.8%, college degree or
above, 4.6%. There are three fourths of the samples educated
below junior high school.
Families with one, two, three, four, and five or more mem-
Table 2.
Composition of samples.
Location Number LocationNumber LocationNumber
Haiyan 9 Yiwu 11 Huangyan12
Pinghu 10 Dongyang14 Linhai 9
Tongxiang 13 Lanxi 11 Cixi 13
Shangyu 11 Lishui 9 Anji 10
Shaoxing county 11 Jinyun 12 Yinzhou14
Shengzhou 13 Wencheng12 Ninghai 12
Xinchang 9 Pingyang13 Changshan7
Changxing 12 Jiangshan9 Daishan 5
Table 3.
Sample survey.
Category Option Proportion
Male 80.8%
Female 19.2%
30 years and below 9.2%
31 - 40 years 23.1%
41 - 50 years 54.7%
51 - 60 years 9.8%
61 years and above 3.2%
Primary school and below 49.3%
Junior middle school 26.2%
Senior middle school and
secondary specialized school 19.8%
The education level
Junior college and above 4.6%
1 1.9%
2 12.0%
3 30.9%
4 39.1%
The number of family
5 and above 16.1%
Agriculture 30.6%
Working 47.9%
Business 11.4%
The main source
of income
Others 10.1%
Rural residence 81.4%
Presently registered
permanent residenceNon-rural residence 18.6%
bers account for, respectively, 1.9%, 12%, 30.9%, 39.1%, and
16.1%, which means that families with three or four members
constitute the largest part and take up more than 80%.
Thirty point six per cent of the landless peasants have their
main income from agriculture account for 30.6%, 47.9% work-
ing elsewhere, 11.4% doing business, 10.1% engaged in other
trades. Because the agriculture is not as popular as it was in
Zhejiang province, most of the peasants there have turned to
In the investigation, 81.4% of the peasants are still registered
as permanent rural residents, while 18.6% of them are not.
Most peasants still retain a rural household. Among those
peasants whose land was expropriated, only a small portion
fully completed their transformation into nonagricultural resi-
A Preliminary Assessment of Data Quality
The Validity of Questionnaire
The exploratory factor analysis, KMO and Bartlett sphere of
the questionnaire all meet the requirements, which are shown in
Table 4.
Test “do you agree” by, After the KMO sampling and Bart-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 71
lett test of the 14 questions answered by 261 investigators, the
result shows a KMO value of 0.729 and Bartlett test value of
1616.68 (p < 0.001), which reach significant level. These 14
entries can be factor analysis.
Questionnaire Reliability Test
Used in this paper, is the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient that
was put forward in 1951 by Cronbach. Table 5 shows that re-
liability coefficient is positively related to credibility of the
As seen in Table 5, besides the Cronbach’s alpha coefficient
for CLA program is 0.585 and the rest are bigger than 0.7.
Overall, this questionnaire reliability is acceptable.
The Analysis of Exploratory Factor
Table 6 shows a general dissatisfaction with the 14 variables
among peasants in the questionnaire. The peasants are satisfied
with the 14 describe problems in land acquisition process, but
they are not satisfied with the CLA now. Of these 14 variables,
the peasants speak highly of the following three variables, the
average of lower living standard for land acquisition (3.0766);
the average of life threaten for old-age pension, medical care
and other social security problem which cannot be solved prop-
erly (3.0881); the average of land compensation fee that shall
be enjoyed by members of the village land ownership (3.0077).
The peasants are most unsatisfied—3.4253 on average—with
the resettlement arrangements that lack effective policy advo-
cacy. Their dissatisfaction with the lack of powerful supervi-
sion of is also high, reaching 3.3946. There is also a high dis-
satisfaction (3.3831) of the large amount of retentate, diversion
of land acquisition compensation and the non-standard use of
capital and the little actual obtained capital of peasants. Factor
analysis is a unity of two kinds of analysis, one of which is
purely exploratory factor analysis. The aim of exploratory fac-
tor analysis (Exploratory Factor Analysis, EFA) is to identify
the essential structure of the observed variables from a group of
data and thereby develop a new hypothesis or theory frame
Table 4.
KMO and Bartlett test.
Sampling enough metric of Kaiser-Meyer-Olkin 0.781
Approximate chi-squared 1844.898
df 91 Bartlett Sphericity Test
Sig. 0.000
Table 5.
Reliability analysis.
Test project Question numbers Cronbach’s α coefficient
Land acquisition
compensation procedure 4 0.856
Land acquisition
compensation distribution 4 0.823
Land acquisition
compensation standard 3 0.585
Land acquisition
compensation mode 3 0.738
capable of changing those variables with complicated and con-
fused relations into a few common factors so as to describe
variation of questions. Its idea is to simplify the complication.
This paper uses exploratory-factor analysis. It mainly in-
cludes Principal Component Analysis Methods, PCA, Varimax,
and Factor Analysis. Among the quantity decision of the factors,
those whose characteristic value (Eigenvalue) is greater than 1
are regarded as evaluation standard. The following three rules
were observed during the screening variables measuring project
(Item): 1) we deleted those factors with only one question for
there are no internal consistency. 2) The load of the factors
belonging to the question had to be greater than 0.5 and with
convergent validity; otherwise it would be deleted. 3) The load
of every corresponding question should be close to 1.
The common factor is the concentrated extract of original
index information, featuring clear explanatory factor to each
original variable. And the original index can be expressed as a
sum of common factors and special factors. Common factors do
contribution to the quadratic sum of all load in the model. The
contribution rate of the common factor equals to the proportion
of corresponding feature values in the whole. Finally each re-
search variable is decomposed into several affecting factor
variables and is shown in Table 7.
This paper also uses the method of principal component
analysis to solve the initial variance contribution rate, common
factor characteristic value, and the cumulative variance contri-
bution rate (see the table). According to the principal that char-
acteristics of the male factor should be greater than 1, three
initial factors were determined. In Table 8, it can be seen from
the Variance Column that the contribution of extracting 3 fac-
tors can reach 62.840%, which shows that extracting 3 common
factors can fully retain the variable information.
The initial factor loading matrix requires that the factors
should have clear, reasonable and realistic meaning. Therefore,
in order to better understand the factors of practical significance,
this paper uses the Vrimax with Kaisr Normalization to rotate
the factor. The load matrix of the rotation factor is shown in
Table 9.
Hypothesis Testing and Discussion
Finally, Table 10 is based on the following 3 meaningful
factors according to the factor loading matrix, namely land
acquisition compensation procedure satisfaction, land acquisi-
tion compensation level of satisfaction, and land acquisition
compensation model satisfaction.
Research shows that the peasants whose lands were acquisi-
tioned are not satisfied with the compensation (only 3.2942 in
all dimensions of variables). There are 0.4% who are very satis-
fied, 14.7% who are satisfied, 40.5% who feel just so-so, 36.6%
who are not satisfied, and 7.5% who are not satisfied at all. The
ones who are not satisfied and not satisfied account for 44.1%.
What the peasants care the most in the acquisite process is the
benefits they will get. In this regard, the peasants’ best wish is
to have a high CLA benefits based on market value compensa-
tion. Huang Xianjin 黄贤金 (2003) argues that land acquisi-
tion costs should refer to the price on land market. While Zhang
Runsen 张润森 (2009) thinks that peasants trade freely is just
reasonable in theory.
What the peasants fear is that the CLA procedure is unfair
and the CLA mode is improper, which will affect their final
income. Therefore, peasants are also concerned about the said
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 73
Table 6.
Descriptive statistics.
N Minimum value Maximum value Average value Standard deviation
Lack of effective policy advocacy on land acquisition 261 1.00 5.00 3.4253 0.77408
Almost no comments from peasants 261 1.00 5.00 3.3870 0.85915
Lack of effective regulation on CLA 261 2.00 5.00 3.3946 0.86013
Only very simple rules on CLA relief 261 1.00 5.00 3.3602 0.85518
The government got most profit by to buying the land at a
low price and selling it at high price, Peasants cannot
enjoy the benefits of land acquisition
261 1.00 5.00 3.3180 0.94178
The interception diversion of land acquisition money is
large and the its use is non-standard 261 1.00 5.00 3.3831 0.99940
The actual income of peasants is too little 261 1.00 5.00 3.3831 0.96414
Land compensation money shall be owned by all the
village members 261 1.00 5.00 3.0077 0.94865
CLA is below the agricultural production value
before land acquisition 261 1.00 5.00 3.3372 0.98514
There are different compensation standard in the region 261 1.00 5.00 3.3602 0.96106
The living standard of the peasants before the acquisition 261 1.00 5.00 3.0766 0.82850
Land compensation fees will soon be spent out and
peasant will become poorer 261 1.00 5.00 3.3257 0.77786
Pension and medical protection is not properly resolved,
and peasant life is at more risk 261 1.00 5.00 3.0881 0.86151
Peasants have no long-term guarantee and they
will lose jobs again 261 1.00 5.00 3.2720 0.76883
Effective N (list of state) 261
Table 7.
Common factor variance.
Initial Extraction
Lack of effective policy advocacy on land acquisition 1.000 0.880
Almost no comments from peasants 1.000 0.658
Lack of effective regulation on CLA 1.000 0.650
Only very simple rules on CLA relief 1.000 0.638
The government got most profit by buying the land at a low price and selling it at high price,
Peasants cannot enjoy the benefits of land acquisition 1.000 0.868
The interception diversion of land acquisition money is large and the its use is non-standard 1.000 0.710
The actual income of peasants is too little 1.000 0.719
Land compensation money shall be owned by all the village members 1.000 0.248
CLA is below the agricultural production value before land acquisition 1.000 0.407
There are different compensation standards in the region 1.000 0.802
The living standard of the peasants before the acquisition 1.000 0.212
Land compensation fees will soon be spent out and peasant will become poorer 1.000 0.823
Pension and medical protection is not properly resolved, and peasant life is at more risk. 1.000 0.509
Peasants have no long-term guarantee and they will lose jobs again 1.000 0.675
Extraction method: principal component analysis
Table 8.
Total variance explained.
Initial eigenvalues Extraction of square and loading
Sum Variance % Cumulative % Sum Variance % Cumulative %
1 4.098 29.269 29.269 4.098 29.269 29.269
2 2.786 19.900 49.168 2.786 19.900 49.168
3 1.914 13.672 62.840 1.914 13.672 62.840
4 0.968 6.911 69.751
5 0.790 5.642 75.393
6 0.698 4.985 80.378
7 0.624 4.460 84.838
8 0.516 3.686 88.524
9 0.484 3.461 91.985
10 0.378 2.698 94.683
11 0.252 1.799 96.481
12 0.209 1.491 97.973
13 0.163 1.168 99.140
14 0.120 0.860 100.000
Extraction method: principal component analysis
Table 9.
Component matrix.
1 2 3
Lack of effective policy advocacy on land acquisition 0.365 0.834 0.226
Almost no comments from peasants 0.294 0.736 0.170
Lack of effective regulation on land acquisition compensation 0.259 0.740 0.186
Only very simple rules on CLA relief 0.371 0.680 0.196
The government got most profit by buying the land at a low price and selling it at high price,
Peasants cannot enjoy the benefits of land acquisition 0.891 0.267 0.041
The interception diversion of land acquisition money is large and its is non-standard 0.817 0.203 0.038
The actual income of peasants is too little 0.821 0.206 0.045
Land compensation money shall be owned by all the village members 0.471 0.151 0.060
Land acquisition compensation is below the agricultural production value before land acquisition0.560 0.306 0.002
There are different compensation standard in the region 0.853 0.271 0.003
The living standard of the peasants before the acquisition 0.421 0.078 0.168
Land compensation fees will soon be spent out and peasant will become poorer 0.236 0.223 0.847
Pension and medical protection is not properly resolved, and peasant life is at more risk. 0.052 0.272 0.657
Peasants have no long-term guarantee and they will lose jobs again 0.192 0.250 0.759
Extraction method: principal component analysis
a. Having extracted 3 ingredients
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 75
Table 10.
Factor named.
Lack of effective policy advocacy on land acquisition
Almost no comments from peasants
Lack of effective regulation on CLA
Land acquisition
Only very simple rules on CLA relief
The government got most profit by buying the land at a low price and selling it at high price, Peasants
cannot enjoy the benefits of land acquisition
The interception diversion of land acquisition money is large and its use is non-standard
The actual income of peasants is too little
Land acquisition compensation is below the agricultural production value before land acquisition
Land acquisition
There are different compensation standard in the region
Land compensation fees will soon be spent out and peasant will become poorer
Pension and medical protection is not properly resolved, and peasant life is at more risk.
Land acquisition
compensation mode
Peasants have no long-term guarantee and they will lose jobs again
The level of
The acquisition compensation
level satisfaction
The acquisition compensation
procedure satisfaction
The mode of acquisition
compensation satisfaction
Figure 2.
CLA satisfaction.
procedure and mode. The results of the tested hypothesis are as
Hypothesis 1: the compensation standard of CLA is not the
dimension of peasant compensation satisfaction.
Hypothesis 2: the CLA mode is the dimension of peasant
compensation satisfaction.
Hypothesis 3: the distribution of CLA is not the dimension of
the peasant compensation satisfaction.
Hypothesis 4: CLA procedure is the dimension of peasants’
compensation satisfaction.
By analyzing peasants’ views, the present study has identi-
fied the most prominent factors which influence peasants’ CLA
satisfaction. CLA satisfaction consists of compensation stan-
dard, compensation procedure, compensation mode, and com-
pensation distribution.
Through the literature review, a pretest questionnaire and
then a scale questionnaire are used to collect data, which is
tested to be valid and reliable.
After the principal component analysis and testing, we find
that peasants’ CLA satisfaction as shown in Figure 2, is com-
posed of compensation level, compensation procedures and
compensation model.
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