Vol.2, No.10, 1215-1217 (2010) Health
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
Aluminium-magnesium silicate inhibits parvovirus and
cures infected dogs
Ezeibe Maduike C. O.1*, Nwaogu Innocent C.2, Nwigwe Ada N.1, Okorafor Obianuju N.1, Eze
James I.1, Ngene Augustine A.1
1Department of Veterinary Medicine, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; *Corresponding Author: maduikeezeibe@yahoo.com
2Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Received 29 October 2009; revised 25 November 2009; accepted 5 December 2009.
Ability of a synthetic Aluminium-Magnesium Si-
licate [AMS] to inhibit activities of canine parvo-
virus [CPV] was investigated in vitro and in vivo.
Five samples of CPV isolated in Nigeria, were
each incubated with equal amount of a synthetic
AMS on a volume to weight [v/w] basis, for one
hour and then centrifuged. Viral titres of the
supernatants were tested by the haemaggluti-
nation [HA] test and their mean titre compared
with mean titre of portions of same viral sam-
ples, not incubated with the AMS. Also, five
puppies and five adult dogs infected with the
parvovirus isolates were treated by dosing each
with 400 mg/kg of a drug formulation that has
12% AMS per os for seven days. As control, five
puppies and five adult dogs from same class as
the experimental dogs were similarly infected
but were not treated. Incubating parvovirus with
AMS reduced its load from mean HA titre 825.6 ±
261.1 to mean HA, 270.8 ± 132.1 [p < 0.05]. Also
treating parvovirus infected dogs with a 12%
AMS drug formulation reduced mortality due to
the virus from 100% to zero [p < 0.01].
Keywords: Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate; Canine
Parvovirus Haemagglutination Test
Canine parvovirus disease is a contagious disease of do-
gs and wild canids. It affects all breeds of domestic dogs,
foxes and wolves [1,2]. The disease was first recognized
in the United States of America in 1978 [3]. It has since
then been reported in many other countries including
Nigeria [4].
Causative agent of parvovirus disease is a parvovirus
[2,5]. The disease has been reported to be more severe in
puppies than in adult dogs [6]. It is said to cause gastro-
enteritis in adults [7] but myocarditis in puppies [8]. It
leads to high mortality among dogs [9]. Since emergence
of CPV in early 1980s it has posed very serious problem
to dog breeding, yet, there is no treatment for the disease
[5]. Control of the disease is mainly by vaccination and
by hygienic measures [10]. Recent reports show that
even vaccination is no longer effective in controlling
CPV disease due to constant mutation of the virus [11].
Carmichael [12] has therefore suggested that other ways
to combat the disease be looked for.
Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate is an ore which oc-
curs naturally as mineral deposits in India and in the
United States of America [13,14]. Natural AMS, when
purified, is used as medicine for both humans and for
animals [15,16]. The EEC committee on veterinary me-
dicinal products has declared it safe for use even on food
animals [17]. Vanderbilt [13] also reported that AMS is
used to bind drugs in making tablets which are used in
treating humans and animals, because its molecules have
both positively and negatively charged ends.
Since viruses also have electrical charges [18], if
AMS is used as medicine, extracellular viruses may ad-
sorb onto it and so fail to attach to host cells. This would
disrupt the first stage of viral infection which is adsorp-
tion to the host cells’ membranes. To get a pure form of
AMS, devoid of the many impurities found in the natural
AMS, aluminun silicate and magnesium silicate were
reacted under a controlled ionic condition [19].
The synthetic AMS has been reported to reduce titre
of Newcastle disease virus [NDV] in vitro and to reduce
mortality of NDV infected chicks in vivo [20]. Haem-
magglutination [HA] titre and sero-conversion abi- lity
of Egg drop syndrome 76 virus also reduced following
incubation with the synthetic AMS [21]. The synthetic
AMS has also proved to have antiviral effects against
Infectious Bursal Disease virus [22] and against Peste
des Petits Ruminants virus [23].
Ezeibe M. C. O. et al. / Health 2 (2010) 1215-1217
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
It was therefore thought useful to test effect of the syn-
thetic AMS on canine parvovirus both in vitro and in vivo.
Five samples of CPV isolated in Nigeria (National Vet-
erinary Research Institute, Vom, Nigeria) were used for
the experiments. AMS used on the viral samples was
synthesized by reacting aluminium silicate with magne-
sium silicate [19]. A portion of each of the 5 viral sam-
ples was mixed with equal amount of the AMS on a vol-
ume to weight (v/w) basis, and allowed to stand at room
temperature for one hour before they were centrifuged at
3000 revolutions per minute for 10 minutes. The viral
supernatants were then tested for CPV titres by HA test
using 0.6% porcine RBC prepared as described by Wosu
[24] as indicator, as control, intact portions of the 5 viral
samples were similarly used for HA test on the same
plates used for their supernatants. RBC controls were
included in the protocol and the setup was incubated at
4°C [24]. Mean HA titre of supernatants of the viral
samples incubated with AMS was compared with mean
titre of their portions which were not incubated with the
AMS before the HA test.
For the in vivo experiment, 20 dogs (10 puppies and
10 adults) were acclimatized for seven days during whi-
ch they were treated with antibiotics (penicillin and stre-
ptomycin), vitamin B complex and Ivermectin to reduce
bacterial and parasitic infections. Their rectal tempera-
tures were also measured daily to ensure they were not
incubating viral infections. Each of the dogs was then
dosed with 2 ml of a CPV sample which had HA titre of
4096. They were observed daily for clinical signs of ca-
nine parvovirus disease including fever, anorexia, vom-
ition and diarrhoea. At first sign of establishment of in-
fection (fever), the experimental dogs were randomly
divided into two groups each of 5 puppies and 5 adults.
One group was treated by administering each dog with a
drug containing 12% AMS in a base of dextrose mono-
hydrate and aluminium silicate, at rate of 400 mg per kg
body weight per os, for seven days. The second group
served as untreated controls.
Mortality rates of the two groups were compared by
chi-square. Also, gross pathologic and histopathologic
lesions on the stomachs, intestines, lungs, hearts and
livers of samples of the two groups were studied and
compared to assess ability of the AMS drug to inhibit
activities of the CPV in vivo.
Incubating samples of Canine parvovirus with the syn-
thetic AMS reduced their viral loaf from a mean HA titre
of 875.6 ± 261.7 to 270.8 ± 132.1 (P < 0.05). All the
dogs treated with the AMS (adults and puppies) recov-
ered while all the untreated controls died. Also, gross pa-
thology of the untreated controls revealed swollen heart
with rounded apex, pale - swollen lungs and congested
liver in the puppies. The untreated adult dogs had disco-
loured and swollen intestines, congested and swollen liv-
er and pale - swollen lungs on gross pathologic examina-
tion. Histopathologic examination revealed necrosis and
cellular infiltration of the crypts of the duodenum, ne-
crosis of hepatocytes, presence of pyknotic hepatocytes,
dilation of the hepatic central veins and necrosis of the
myocardial cells. There was no gross pathology in the
treated cases sacrificed, except for pale lungs. Regener-
ating cells were also observed in the liver and duodenum
of the treated samples at histopathologic level.
HA titres of samples of CPV incubated with the syn-
thetic AMS are as shown on Table 1.
Incubating CPV samples with the AMS reduced their
HA titres. This agrees with earlier results with Newcastle
Disease Virus [20], Egg drop syndrome 76 virus [21],
Infectious Bursal Disease virus [22] and with Peste des
Petits Ruminants Virus [23]. Venkatachrisnan and Che-
nicoff [25] reported that Aluminium-Magnesium Silicate
molecules posses both positive and negative electrically
charged ends. Viral genomes also have electrical charges
[18]. So the CPV particles may have adsorbed onto the
AMS by electrostatic attraction and were removed in the
in vitro experiment.
AMS is insoluble [26] and un-absorbable [13], yet re-
sults of the in vivo experiments suggest it was able to get
to the heart, lungs and liver to inhibit pathologic activi-
ties of the CPV in those organs. It may have passed
through the mucous membranes of the gastrointestinal
tract due to the gastroenteritis caused by the viral infec-
tion [27]. Murray et al. [28] also reported that simple
sugars carry charged molecules across intact mucous
membranes by active transport. The AMS may also have
been carried across even intact mucous membranes into
the blood circulation by dextrose monohydrate mole-
cules in the drug formulation.
Table 1. Haemagglutination titre of canine parvovirus vacc-
ine samples incubated with AMS.
HA Titre
CPV samples Incubated with
AMS Controls
1 2 32
2 8 512
3 68 512
4 256 1024
5 1024 2048
270.8 ± 137.07 825.6 ± 261.07
Incubating CPV with the AMS reduced its viral titre [P < 0.05]
Ezeibe M. C. O. et al. / Health 2 (2010) 1215-1217
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. Openly accessible at http://www.scirp.org/journal/HEALTH/
Suggestion that the AMS is able to reach blood circu-
lation is supported by use of AMS as haemopurifier in
women with menstrual pains [14].
This appears a successful use of AMS for treatment of
a mammalian viral disease. Windholz [15] reported that
AMS is safe when consumed by man and by animals. It
has been in use for treatment of gastric ulcer for many
years [16]. The two chemicals used to synthesize the
pure AMS used in this study, aluminium silicate and
magnesium silicate are also medicines approved for
treatment of animals and man. So, results of these ex-
periments appear to suggest that the synthetic Alumin-
ium-Magnesium Silicate may be useful in treatment of
viral diseases of animals and man.
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