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Open Journal of Philosophy
2013. Vol.3, No.1A, 155-160
Published Online February 2013 in SciRes (http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojpp) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ojpp.2013.31A026
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 155
Enhancing African Development through Freedom:
An Assessment of Dukor’s Philosophical
Basis of African Freedom
Chuka A. Okoye
Department of Philosophy, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Received October 5th, 2012; revised November 7th, 2012; accepted November 20th, 2012
The African continent has long suffered serious developmental relapse in a continually developing world.
Lots of thinkers indeed term most of these African states “failed states”. One sees that that while many
other nations of the world develop and as such interact conveniently in this global village, most African
nations come merely as beggars in the global village having nothing to offer but begging for an opportu-
nity for consumption. These nations therefore remain stagnated and continually retrogressive in all as-
pects of human life. Where in lies the cause of these problems? Dukor opines that the problem is a
re-echoing aftermath of the western deplorable actions against these Africans. Indeed Dukor concludes
that there is no real honesty in the opportunities all member states have to take part in the process of
global development. Africa seems to be cheated. This work does not seem to fully agree with Dukor that
the western hegemony ALONE is the cause. This work submits that the complacency of most Africans
equally play the role in their underdevelopment.
Keywords: Africa; Philosophy; Development; Freedom; Dukor
The Most Important aspect of the human existence, disput-
able though, lies in development. Development involves tran-
scendence from one level of life to another. This is a stage by
stage evolution of a more advanced and sophisticated personal-
ity. It is sequel to this very important aspect of the human life
that globalization comes in as a system of advancing integral
development among nations. Invariably, globalization operates
theoretically on the platform of global interrelationship. This
interrelationship consists in tracks, politics, economy, commu-
nication, industrial exchange and religion.
It is therefore important, at this juncture, to note that the
grounds of every globally based development on intercultural
dialogue and cultural exchanges. The interaction among cul-
tures makes it important to establish systematic equality in the
process of human development among the various cultures in
the world. This human development centers in development
through freedom. Genuine development is grounded on free-
dom marked by an ingenious ability to synthesize various ac-
tions and events in the universe. Freedom here amounts to
“choice between many or at least more than just alternatives;
this particularly means a valuable freedom … the importance of
free-will comes out in this condition when one makes a choices
with the full concept of the will (Swineburne, 2003: p. 107).
Swineburne, above, stresses on what the element of freedom
consists in. Apparently, freedom begins with a psychological
freedom wherein an individual has an independent thought. It,
equally, encapsulates a physical and metaphysical freedom
where an individual is not enslaved by “the other” even in their
own freedom. The above captures the African predicament in
their race towards development. The Africans, while they per-
sistently work towards development in the supposed freedom,
constantly lag behind in their quest to join other continents in
their race towards development. Globalization, by its terms,
spells justice for all and a revelation of a guide for the per-
plexed. However, the practice of globalization seems to be
devoid of what its theories are.
Africa has suffered over the years from retrogression. This
retrogression is blamed primarily on the Africa experience
through the western domination of Africa, and secondly on the
system of the African worldview which appears stereotype.
These reasons for African retrogression call for real emancipa-
tion of the African from both psychological and physical slav-
ery to freedom for more proper development. This is the idea
Dukor presents in the series of his work on “African freedom
and the philosophical freedom”. This work thus attempts at
making analysis of Dukor’s philosophical basis of African
freedom with a view to seeing how this can enhance African
development in the globalizing world.
African and the Negative Freedom
The problem of the African system is primarily identified as
problem of identity. The problem lies in the crises which the
African has of his values: what is right or what is wrong, who
he is and/or what he stands for. Apparently the African experi-
ence comes from divergent processes of assimilating their exis-
tence. One finds it hard to really place the core African value
system. The only system left for examination among Africans
are those left by the “west” and the yard stick left by them
equally to measure them. This amounts to cultural ambiguity
which according to William Abraham (1962: p. 35), is charac-
teristically accompanied by misgivings of wide-ranging propor-
C. A. OKOYE
The enslavement of African psychology set the stage for the
down casting of the African development process. This show-
cases “negative freedom” among Africans. The choice of the
clause “negative freedom” is apt since the Africans claim to be
free by their cosmological finding whereas metaphysically,
physical and psychologically, Africa lies in the annals of slav-
ery with very slim hope of rising. This African negative free-
dom comes as a result of the African experiences over the years
and the negative view given the Africans over the years.
The slave trade, in the first place, dealt a terrible blow on the
psychology of the Africans and further negatively influenced
the global perception of the African.
The slave trade led to sociopolitical disintegration and
distortion, to economic stagnation and decline, and to
mental or intellectual atrophy (Afigbo, 1993: p. 10).
Indeed Mokwugo decried the situation of the Africa and the
slave trade. Picturing it as a “gory story of inhumanity and in-
dignity meted out to the African, not for any crime committed
but in pursuit of wealth (1964: p. 97). Colonialism, on the other
hand, has systematically eaten deep into the African system.
Thus while condemning what is left of the traditional African
value system; the west imported their strange culture into the
African system. This renders the African system dysfunctional.
Indeed there is a conscious alienation of the African from him-
self through education which consistently denigrates the tenets
of the African traditional system. Thus the more one is edu-
cated the more “unAfrican” one becomes.
Rodney occludes, in line with this, that among the most edu-
cated Africans were to be found the most alienated. Thus to the
extent that they were Europeanized, to that same extent were
they deAfricanized (1972: pp. 264,273).
The negative freedom thus keeps Africa stagnant in the guise
that the African value system is either faulty fetish, outlandish,
or even a savage. The real development and existential maturity
comes when westernization is enthroned and followed. Indeed
anything African is yet to develop and thus should be kept aside
from the frontier of development at length Janheinz Jahn (1961:
p. 20) typically asserts
[That] Only the most highly cultivated person human,
cosmopolitan, enlightened; progressive counts as a real
European. A real African, on the other hand, lives in the
bush, craves “primitive” sculpture, can neither read nor
write, goes naked…) the more primitive, the more really
Jahn represents the negativity of the African situation. His
logical deductive analysis of the African as “[X is X] and al-
ways X” does not seem to give the African any chance of de-
velopment. Nevertheless, the picture he paints is descriptive of
the scenario which brings Africato her knees psychologically.
The contemporary African aims at being perfect. And since
perfection means being European, an African becomes Euro-
pean in his life and character while yet becoming African in his
nomenclature. The African is therefore neither here nor there.
The situation is replicated in Killens’ Explanation of the Black
Psyche while referring to a system of insecurity that bedevils
the Afro-American. This is about the utter heart break of the
Mulatto who rejected his black blood and was in turn rejected
by his white blood (1968: p. 138).
The African sees nothing wrong with westernization no mat-
ter how bad any aspect of it appears. In fact, it is indeed a great
event of change and blessing that the fore Africans were en-
slaved and colonized. This attitude negatively deals with the
Africans in pursuit of development and freedom. The African
professes freedom yet is structurally, politically, morally and
cultural enslaved. What is therefore construed as development
goes along this line of slavery. It is therefore impossible to
achieve any kind of positive independent development without
an enslaving dependence on the west that has given her (Africa)
the identity she has.
Development, which according to Eastern is a self-realization
within the context of society and successful international inter-
action (1960: p. 38), seems to have by-passed Africa since there
is neither self realization nor any independent successful inter-
national interaction. African solely depends on the sour fruits of
western hegemony running round the same plane and playing
the same dishonest politics of retrogression. This picture is
clearly painted by Maduabuchi Dukor thus:
Because of the philosophy of domination and superiority
complex created by the enlightenment period and the
subsequent emergence of “I” and “centre” ontologies, the
Europeans embarked on the scramble for the colonization
and partitioning of Africa, their supposedly interior (…).
The tentacles of colonialism included the universalization
of European culture, psychic and political domination and
economic exploitation (2010: p. 151).
It is therefore, not very strange to say that the system of
globalization in which Africa is a negative participant leaves
African several years behind others in the stream of develop-
ment. The problem here is not that Africa has been robbed or is
terribly enslaved. The problem is that Africans seem to be ig-
norant of the depth of effect of this enslavement. It is para-
mount that the African mind is decolonized in order to see
clearly the destructive effect of the enslavement which the Af-
rican calls freedom. This is negative freedom.
The first aspect of this negative freedom lies in the indoctri-
nation of the African who seems to see every aspect of devel-
opment as being European. Thus the white race stands out just
like Hume postulates
There never warn a civilized nation of any other com-
plexion than white, nor warn any individual eminent ei-
ther in action or speculation. No ingenious manufacturer
among them, no arts no sciences […] such uniform and
constant differences could not happen … if nature had not
made an original distinction between these breeds of men
(2010: p. 73).
Hume’s explanation depicts a summary dismissal of the Af-
rican race as lower humans while extolling the white race. This
psychological implantation informs the mind of the African.
Thus the whites are gods, blacks … are merely lower human.
This primary aspect of psychological indoctrination is not as
bad, in the final analysis, as the psychological disillusionment
which is a second aspect of this negative freedom.
In this second aspect, the Africans are psychological bound
in accepting the status quo. “Africa is down and can never
rise.” This disillusionment breaks every effort made by Afri-
cans to rise and even dampens the will of the Africans to strive
for their freedom and development. There is a tendency to
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
C. A. OKOYE
count the damages of the past as the main reason for the nega-
tive of the future. The tendency here is that the seeming
achievement of the very remote past are re-echoed and pro-
jected and the cause of the damages of the present blamed
solely on the west but with little effort and will to rise.
Sequel to the above, one sees in the contemporary African
philosophical thinking a steady effort to prove existence of
African philosophy only as a collection of values which has
been so damaged by colonialism. The African philosophical
polemics does not end the instances. Archaeological finding
which depict a sophisticated black culture from the 8th century
B.C to the middle ages (see Onyeocha 1997: p. 52) and which
has been damaged by colonialism serves another instance. But
what positive effect does this have on the African development
becomes a question open ended. Indeed Franz fanon cites this
and warns for redirection thus:
I am convinced that it would be of greatest interest to be
able to have contact with a Negro literature or architecture
of the third century before Christ. I should be very happy
to know that a correspondence had flourished between
some Negro Philosopher and Plato. But I can absolutely
not see how this fact would change anything … (1964: p.
Fanon calls for a total change from the complacency of the
African mind in negative freedom. Every thought must there-
fore be marshaled by an affirmative action which drifts gradu-
ally to the knowledge that the so tangibly held negative free-
dom is indeed psychological slavery. African system therefore
has been found in the depth of negative freedom which draws
her away from authentic freedom. The effect comes out in the
permissive neocolonialism which suffuses the African interna-
tional relationship with others in the world.
In Search of True African Freedom:
The primary step to the designation of true path to African
freedom lies in the basic understanding of the humanness of the
African. There is an ontological equality which underlies the
whole human system. So long as the human being is human, he
is free. Dukor corroborates this through a logical analysis of the
ontological humanness of every human being.
The humanity of man is empirically and biologically and
intuitively cognitive it is a logical and necessary with
whose opposite is a contradiction the humanity of aces
can be expressed logically to mean that every race X has a
human origin H or alternatively put, every man is man […]
(x) (Rx כ H x) or (x) (Mx כ.Mx) … (2010: p. 95).
Dukor’s contention here is that the freedom of man is really
ontological to the human’s existence. Thus every human being
is born equal to the other. This cancels out the claims of slavery
and the racist incarceration which tends to see some races as
superior and other as inferior. The primary circumstance of the
African existence underscores the fact that the African is onto-
logically equal to the Westerner and at the same time given to
the same freedom which is possessed by the white. As such the
conceptualization of the African system as poor and inferior
does not represent a strong stance upon which the development
stride of the African can commence.
The positive freedom which Dukor advocates is equally
proved from the teleological string. By creation and nature,
theology asserts human freedom. By creation man is believed to
recreate himself and his environment. The view which Dukor
brings forward lies in the human auto transcendence. Man, as
auto-transcendent, is historically and analytically structured for
development of his universe. Indeed the idea of temporality
given to man by his fact of being created by God is fully dem-
onstrated by Heidegger while analyzing the human existential
character in Dasein analytic.
Historicality as that, which determines Dasein, makes
history possible. Historicality stands for the state of being
that is constitutive for Dasein’s historizing as such; only
on the basic of Dasein historizing is anything like world
history possible or can anything belong historically to
world-history (1962: p. 67).
Historicality of man is fully expressed in the effort man
makes as a being of possibility to go beyond himself in the life
of presence and project into the future indeed Heidegger thinks
that Dasein (man)1 tries always to transcend itself by projecting
itself always towards the future and going beyond what is not
(1962: p. 66). There is subtle realization that since humans
create the world and sustain it by reason, it beholds on man to
assert his freedom through his actions and assert the freedom of
others by their interaction with them. This is given to man by
God who answers the basic question of human freedom by the
gift of freewill and faith.
Freewill and faith are gifts of God which are cultivated
through reflection on the ethical or existential aspects of relig-
ion (a congregational worship of God) “rather a narrow meta-
physical acquisition of same”. Dukor finds a clearer teleologi-
cal description of the human positive freedom and indeed the
African freedom in particular, in liberation theology.
In liberation theology, God answers the question con-
cerning African freedom […] liberation theology in this
context seeks to free the downtrodden, the African from
the Westernized and neo-colonized theology views man
as a historical subject capable of making himself as well
as his reflection and cultures … it is therefore, a reflection
on the ethical, or existential aspect of all religions rather
than of its narrow metaphysical dimension (2010: p. 97).
The religious grounds of the African existence give the Afri-
can freewill to the choice of faith. It is in this faith—utter trust
in the love of God (Dukor, 2010: p. 97)—that “God should
answer to the question of African freedom and authentic exis-
tence of freedom” which lies in human faith in God: Dukor’s
idea of the teleological proof of the African freedom basically
lies in the meta-logical systematization of the teleological his-
tory. This is built on faith and the grounds of freewill following
the concrete interaction between Christianity and the ground
ethical structure of the African identified as “African pansy-
In the final analysis, man as a being within history is deter-
mined by his self transcendence. It is in this self transcendence
that man becomes a creator of the world and is determined in
1Heidegger’s datum analysis does not explicitly call Dasein by the name
“man” but the implications and the existential analysis of Dasein shows an
existential analysis of man himself. See B & T 28.
2African pansychism as Dukor puts it, is the belief of everything in the
universe is spiritual and that spirits, divinities, plants, animals, physical
objects, rivers and waters are creatures of God the supreme being.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 157
C. A. OKOYE
the love of God through faith which is found in the African
pansychism. Dukor thinks that,
Africa is identified as part of the whole universe neither
inferior nor superior to it. God is also viewed as a Re-
deemer and Emancipator; Africans should naturally not be
slaves to any people or nation. Faith as the existence of
freedom is the effect of God’s grace because it is the ac-
tion of God’s love that is the necessary condition of the
possibility of faith … (2010: p. 98).
This teleological proof, despite its Christian appearance
makes it cleverly valid. The introduction of faith and the crea-
tive role of man in the world lead to the nick proof of African
freedom through self consciousness. Self consciousness repre-
sents a great drive to a human assertiveness and attempt to
conquer the universe. It is in self assertiveness that the world is
constantly created. Dukor insists that self-consciousness pro-
vides a good ground for freedom. Apparently,
Self-consciousness simply means self-awareness; it is the
awareness of one’s own mind and it acts and states. Self-
consciousness as a form of freedom presupposes the col-
ligatory concepts of freedom; self perfection, self-deter-
mination and self-realization […] the most fundamental
and strongest impulse in man is the urge of instinct and
urge of self for greater ideals … the urge of self for greater
ideals is the progress of self-consciousness (2010: p. 98).
Dukor took an existentialist stance in proposing African
freedom through self consciousness though he implicitly be-
lieves that essence precedes existence. His assertion that exis-
tentialism amounts to untamed freedom underscores this point.
Nevertheless, the idea of existentialism about freedom in rela-
tion to self consciousness brings out the need for human effort
in achieving freedom Sartre indeed insists that
Man who involves himself and who realizes that he is not
only the person he chooses to be but also a law maker
who is at the same time choosing all mankind as well as
himself cannot help escape the feeling of […] deep respon-
sibility … man is condemned to freedom (1968: p. 20).
By the human choice, man is conscious of his existence in
this consciousness, man asserts himself and determines his life
and becomes a “lawmaker” who chooses both himself and other
human beings. “Man is the future of man” (1947: p. 19). This
entails that man is free from any form of slavery. Sartre indeed
is deaf to any excuse for lack of freedom. In the Nausea he
describes redundancy in slavery as universal negative to human
nature. Apparently it is bad faith. Stumpf summarizing the task
of Sartre on freedom states that.
Sartre explains the issue of freedom with consciousness.
The activity of the consciousness is at this point two fold.
First, consciousness defines specific things with world
and invests them with meaning. Secondly, consciousness
transcends, that is, puts a distance between yourself and
object and in that way, attains freedom …
Freedom lies in the consciousness of oneself. It connotes
living above slavery; an individual’s conscious effort to be free
since man is seem to be always about his choices. Dukor buys
into the tenets of existentialism, at this juncture. He links the
African predicament with Sartre’s “bad-faith”. Africans for
Dukor “are said to be in bad-faith” if they cannot interpret their
lives existentially free of any moral maxim or principle … Af-
rica should be a historical subject in the process of self creation
(2010: p. 100). Apparently, the existential process leaves a lot
in the hands of the Africans who are now not to dwell on the
evils of the past meted on it by West but to rise up to self actu-
alization. This is what this work projects in the second section
about negative freedom. Dukor corroborates this in his state-
ment that African political, economic and social unfreedom is
her own making since she should have proved her freedom
from the onset. He occludes:
Existentialism, espouses self-creation process as must lib-
eration theology and African theistic pansychism. So, Af-
rican freedom must mean her ability to emancipate herself
from western domination politically, philosophically, eco-
nomically and technologically through self-creative proc-
ess. It means African capacity for self-determination and
self realization (2010: p. 100).
The above creates a new process of inquiry into the African
problem. The issue lies in the systematic restructuring of the
African attitude to development. African backwardness is no
longer directly on external repression of the growth process but
a complacent under categorization of the will to develop by the
Africans themselves. There is need for a pluralistic affirmation
of the will to advance and genuine erasing of the psycho-social
stigma which has held the Africans down. This will lead to a
positive attitude towards development by an attempt to enhance
an integrated growth through freedom.
Africa and the Path to Development
The structure of the African system is ontologically theistic.
The theistic structure of the African system is seen in the Afri-
can Conception of the universe. Indeed there is a serious trace
of systematic pantheism. This systematic pantheism makes it
possible for Africans to see God in everything and every event.
Following this primary analysis Dukor chooses for the African
System “Polymonothesism” which he thinks depicts the struc-
ture of the African system. Of course, the theistic approach of
the African System encapsulates the pragmatic approach of the
average African to issues and events.
The Africans asserts the potency and workability of his en-
vironment by the result it gives. While positive results show an
entirety of well-being around the whole existential forces,
negative results show that something has gone wrong in the
chain of connection among the existential forces. Indeed, in as
much as the African sees God in every aspect of life, there is a
tendency ontological in the structure of African culture to ma-
nipulate the order of nature and the world entirely. Even though
God is not challenged for certain negative occurrences, the
intermediaries and the ancestors are often blamed and revolted
against in such unpalatable event. As such one can hear among
the Africans: If a deity proves stubborn we will show it the tree
from which it is made.
The pragmatic structure of the African system is quickly
demonstrated by Dukor who, in espousing the African poly-
monotheistic idea, emphasized that the spiritualist and idealistic
belief in God and gods or ancestors is limited by their prag-
matic and materialistic orientation in life … while the gods,
spirits and ancestors are asked to come and eat drink and to
continue to protect them … these gods and ancestors are ad-
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
C. A. OKOYE
monished when they fail to live up to people’s expectations
(2010: p. 103).
This African attributes show that at the basis of the human
existence, following the African system, there is an internal
push to freedom. This push to freedom is informed by the value
attached to the life of the African. Dukor surmises that the col-
lective and individual basis of African freedom lies in God,
self-consciousness and materialism. It is following these bases
of African freedom that a new way will have to be charted for
the African development.
Development seems to have happened on the Africans.
While other people welcomed development with gusto, Africa
seems to be engaged in an internal conflict between her current
situation and the demands for development. There is a seeming
entanglement in the African system which partly depends on
their worldview, their system and to a great extent on the ex-
ternal denigration of the African continent.
On the part of the Africans, their cultural system seems to
have been watered down by a “culture mix”. This leaves them
redundant and heavy to rise like the rest. What constitutes life is
consumerism, which often drags the continent into the dragnet
of corruption. There is a large dependence of the Africans on
the west for everything including environmental structuraliza-
tion. There is an apparent mediocrity which greets the Africans
dwelling in the continent. This calls for a psychological cleanse.
There is need for total de-ideologization of the African mind.
The Africans needs to be raised from the doldrums of laxity and
lassitude which has really led to their total dependence. It be-
gins with a “ratiocinative deconstruction”.
Here, the African must reason out processes of pulling down
the walls of negative attitude preponderant in the African sys-
tem. This lassitude however is not independent of the colonial
impact. The colonial impact dealt with Africans psychology
and left a trauma that appears to have dwarfed the ingenuity of
the Africans. Dukor acknowledges it and calls for a world of
pluralism devoid of every kind of racism but ensures freedom
for all. Dukor believes that Africa ought to have exceeded this
level of perpetual infancy in this continual pressure of western
domination were not upheld. With pluralism, the world would
have been more balances and successful indeed Dukor says.
Pluralism as a philosophical concept and doctrine is
rooted in the realm of ideas whose elaboration in practice
has been found to be of practical importance to humanity.
In practice and theory, it tends to reconcile the divergent
and conflicting views and values of life. Pluralism, ana-
lytically and philosophically makes nonsense the distinc-
tion among cultures, religion, races and colors (2010: p.
The best bait on the African development in the relative to
pluralism postulated by Dukor is re-echoed by Jurgen Haber-
mas who believes that,
[…] we humans learn from one another… this image of
man’s position in the world expresses the intuitive sense
of the deep-rooted reciprocal dependence of one person
on the other … (2004: p. 243).
Since the human interdependence makes for a better world
the need for segregation drops. This is the call there in global-
ization. Globalization makes it open for everyone, race, nation
to interact meaningfully and thus contribute by their various
life-world or lived experiences to the global integral develop-
ment. This is clearly demonstrated by Habermas.
The concept of society has to be linked to a concept of life
world that is complementary to the concept of communi-
cative action then communicative action becomes inter-
esting primarily as a principle of socialization (Verge-
sells’s Chafting): Communicative action provides the me-
dium for this reproductive of life worlds. At the same time,
processes of societal naturalization are given a different
place. They transpire more in implicity known structures
of the lifeworld than in explicity known action orienta-
tions (2004: p. 337).
The above corroborates what Dukor is arguing for; a world
free from racism and inequality, a world of equal opportunity
and independence. A world viewed from a universalistic per-
spective not just an anthropological downgrading.
On the other hand, the African system needs to be cleansed
of the complacency that covers it which makes it difficult for
Africa to key into the developmental process. This begins with
a strategic reconditioning of the African mind by restoring a
great deal of confidence and will to rise. The African seem to
be bottled and crippled by the belief that the western hegemony
has taken away every possibility of development. This errone-
ous belief is what results in the negative freedom which holds
Africa down and denies her the opportunity of development.
Bill Bernhard (2011: p. 13) succinctly explains that,
The beginning of development lies in the will to develop.
He will is supported by the human ingenuity which may
not be equally given but places the individual on a visible
plane of globalization.
Bernhard’s postulation is as much a clarion call to the re
awakening of the African rational system. Here there is need to
showcase one’s ingenuity primarily through an ontological
freedom granted by one’s humanness. This will place Africa
right on the platform of development in the globalizing world.
During the course of this work, it is established that freedom
is very pertinent for any form of developmental process. This is
the African predicament. The African nation seems to lack such
freedom both internally and externally, this results in the pro-
gressive underdevelopment of African continent. To find the
solution to this problem, a lot tinkers stemmed up reactionary
attitudes towards asserting the African freedom. Dukor exten-
sively proffers a lot of ideas towards the establishment of the
necessary freedom for African development.
Dukor established some basis upon which the assumption of
the African freedom is based. These bases were employed in
the attempt to draw the attention of Africans to the freedom
which pervades her. Apparently, the negative freedom which
suffuses the African system seems to blind Africans from de-
velopment. Thus, this call to positive and responsible freedom
becomes very important. In the first place, Africans should rise
from her psychologically moribund state, convince themselves
of their freedom and ingenuity and therefore make a positive
impact in the global development. On the other hand, the west-
ern hegemony, which seems to have taken over the freedom of
the world, must be corrected. Dukor accepts that the western
domination of Africa has been predicated in western prejudice
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 159
C. A. OKOYE
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
and emotional intolerance of the back man. However, the free-
dom bestowed on the Africans by his humanness and existential
goals makes it ethically wrong for the Africans to be enslaved
under hammers of western neocolonialism. Indeed, freedom
Africa must be projected and promoted for any meaningful
development to take place.
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