Open Journal of Philosophy
2013. Vol.3, No.1A, 126-130
Published Online February 2013 in SciRes (
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Christocentric Ecotheology and Climate Change
Ezichi A. Ituma
Department of Religion and Cultural Studies , University of Nigeria , Nsukka, Nigeria
Received September 15th, 2012; revised October 13th, 2012; accepted Octob er 3 0th, 2012
Christocentric ecotheology is a concept that examines ecological phenomena from Christian theological
perspective. This research was therefore required to examine the theological implications of climate
change with the aim of bridging the gaps between theological and scientific interpretation of the events.
Comparative phenomenological methodology was adopted in view of the fact that theological interpreta-
tions of events needed to be compared with scientific ideas so as to ascertain the meeting point. The re-
search noted that the areas of variance between theological beliefs and climate change are as a result of
wrong interpretation of theological events.
Keywords: Ecotheology; Climate; Greenhouse; Christocentric
Christocentric ecotheology is a religious concept that ad-
dresses ecological problems from Christian religious approach.
According to Unitingearthweb (2008), “Ecotheology is a form
of constructive theology that focuses on the interrelationships
of religion and nature, particularly in the light of environmental
concerns. Ecotheology generally starts from the premise that a
relationship exists between human religious/spiritual world-
views and the degradation of nature.” With the Christian con-
cept of ethereal heaven, the home of the faithful, many Chris-
tian adherents seem to care less for the transient world. This
may have aroused Al Gore’s question, cited in Santmire (2000),
“Why does it feel faintly heretical to a Christian to suppose that
God is in us as human beings? Why do our children believe that
the Kingdom of God is up, somewhere in the ethereal reaches
of space, far removed from this planet?” The concept of the
ethereal kingdom is so strong in the Christians, who may have
interpreted some portions of the Bible out of context therefore
becoming too heaven-conscious, while sometimes paying less
attention to the world. But with the concept of ecotheology
there is a re-awakening of interest on the earth in consonance
with the biblical position “the earth is the Lord’s and the full-
ness thereof.” This research therefore builds on the premise that
the encompassing reality of climate change observed as “global
warning” is a problem that should concern every school of
thought, religious or scientist, if lasting solution is to be prof-
fered. It is not the climatologist alone or the enlightened com-
munity that is affected. It is a problem that affects everybody.
Such problem that affects everybody requires that concerted
effort be adopted to find its solution. It is naivety to pretend that
the greenhouse effect is a problem that will be solved only by
the scientist. Such will be a mistake that will yield adverse ef-
fect, more devastating than the problem that is currently facing
humanity. The theologian must therefore lend his voice to
proffer solution. All hands must be on deck before the present
climatic epidemic turns out a religious nightmare called “hell
fire” advertised in the religious books. But the present trend of
liberal and philosophical theological mindset is observed in
endless arguments on the purpose of man on earth from the
standpoint of one who wants to extricate God from all intellec-
tual dispositions. Santmire (2000) has identified two most for-
midable schools of thought in ecotheology as reconstructionist
and apologists, each towing lines of endless arguments why a
new course of biblical interpretation must be extricated from
the traditional hermeneutics. The reconstructionists, identified
with McFague, hold that the cosmos is the body of God, there-
fore everything is the sacrament of God. Santmire represents
the core of the apologists as an anthropological framework that
accents the idea of good stewardship, insisting that human be-
ings must “manage our resources” regardless of God’s mandate.
Santmire himself has diffused these views thus “The recon-
structionists fail to connect with the core convictions of the
Christian community, while the apologists fail to address that
community’s need for a theology of nature shaped by central
Christian faith commitments.” Whether reconstructionists or
apologists, none would deny the fact that Christians need to
come to terms with the global environmental crisis. It is proper
at this point to note that neither the reconstructionists nor the
apologists represents the Christian faith. Solution must be prof-
fered, practical terms as against a eulogy of imminent coming
of Christ to usher in a different world of bliss. Christians will
need to live here on this imperfect earth to prepare for the per-
fect earth yet to come. Until that perfect earth of bliss comes
this present earth must remain habitable. This is God’s creation.
Christian theology recognizes the active participation of God in
ecological redemption and sustenance. God is very interested in
the earth. The earth is the Lord’s and everything in it (Psalm
It is also unfortunate to observe that the complacency in
many African societies as well as the near-mythologized ap-
proach of the religious societies concerning climate change is
worrisome. Many Africans think the global warming is a prob-
lem created by the Westerners and therefore should be solved
by the Westerners. Some other Africans think that the problem
is such a complex scientific issue that only those technologi-
cally and scientifically advanced societies can solve it. These
are erroneous positions that should be corrected and this paper
is poised to achieve that .
The aim of this paper is to establish that biblical Ecotheology
from African perspective can go a long way to proffering solu-
tion to the global warming. It stands on the matrix that Africans
are not passive recipients of Jewish Christianity and Western
technology. Africans are very active in these cultures, receiving
and contextualizing. The paper insists that it could be far
reaching to realize that in the African society man as a cognate
entity exists in a series of integrated relationship. It is African
culture for human beings to interact healthily with the super
humans—spirits, divinities and ancestors as well as animate
and inanimate creation. Any upset of this equilibrium brings
untold hardship that could be very devastating and calamitous.
Africans can contribute their quota in an African way to
solving the environmental problem of climate change. There is
African approach to ecological theology on the matrix of which
climate problems could be positively addressed. This estab-
lishes the genuineness of African initiative in ecotheology and
takes its bearing from there to address the climatic change.
Akumu, in Okeowo (2007), is of the opinion that “There’s not
much Africa can do—unless other countries cut their green-
house emissions, our efforts will be undercut.” However, this
paper insists that Africans can do so much if theological ap-
proach is given adequate attention. For example, Africans are
highly religious. It is all a good approach to turn their religious
energy into religious implications of disregarding divine in-
junctions which results in disasters. If the warnings of the Afri-
can meteorologists are religiously heeded to, it is obvious that
closed drainage systems will be opened up for the flood to have
its course. Surprisebaba (2012) noted that on Sunday 22nd July
2012 Gangare, Tundun Osi, Anguwan Rogo and Kwanan areas
of Jos metropolis was hit by heavy rain disaster—38 dead, 50
missing, as floods wreak havoc in Jos—it is said that the people
were warned quite early that heavy rainfall should be expected
so people should clear the drainage systems that had been
blocked, that warning was disregarded. But if the religious
implications of such warning are highlighted, the Africans who
are highly religious will follow every possible step to averting
the disaster. Even the rate at which Africans represent their
religious zeal abroad could influence the Developed nations to
approach ecological warnings with seriousness. To a large ex-
tent, it is a matter of appealing to the conscience of human be-
ings to do the right thing. The nonchalant attitude to the eco-
logical warning, observed in Jos, may not be unconnected with
the concept of paradise-bound as against an interest in the
world. According to Robinson (2005) the Islamic theology
holds to the ethereal Janna for the faithful. Another report of
destruction by flood was made on 11th September 2012 within
the same Northern Nigeria by Asemota (2012) that, “No fewer
than two lives were lost and property worth about N27 million
lost to flood that affected over 500 houses.” The report, ac-
cording to Asemota (2012) continued, the Chairman of the
committee set up by the Daura Local Government Area,
Katsina State to assess the level of damage of the flood, Jafaru,
“noted that most of the affected houses were built on waterways,
appealed to people to desist from erecting structures or dump-
ing refuse on the waterways.” The Chairman of Transition
Management Committee of the local government, Kabir Musa
Royal received the report and concluded with prayer that God
may prevent a recurrence of the disaster. Meanwhile the inves-
tigation committee had noted that houses were built on water
ways. The drainage system was also obstructed because people
were dumping refuse on the waterways. So, religion has been
brought into the matter. If religion must be brought into every
ecological disaster it is necessary that religion experts should
find a way of re-interpreting parts of sacred writings that bear
ecological instructions. This is what this paper is advocating. It
is only in this way that the African, who is very religious, can
partner with the scientist to reduce the problems of the green-
house effect.
Climate Change
Climate change describes “the variability or average state of
the atmosphere or average weather over time scales ranging
from decades to millions of years”
( change). This is
not a new phenomenon. Just as weather changes day by day the
climate also changes though noticeable over a long period of
time—decades to millions of years. These changes could be
caused by natural processes or by human activities. Over the
long period of the history of the world the earth has gone
through series of climate changes.
What becomes a problem in climate change is an accumu-
lated body of noticeable evidence creating a reasonable impact
on the habitat within a short space of time. Climate change
could cause a decrease or increase in the surface temperature
over a long period of time.
There is an overwhelming consensus among scientists that
the globe is experiencing rapid climatic change. The change is
very significant because its effects are felt noticeably around
the globe. There i s increase in tempera ture, ice caps a re melting
faster, hurricanes, and other natural disaster are experienced in
various parts of the globe quite regularly and thousands of peo-
ple are already becoming climatic change refugees. World
Health Report 2002 says that “climate change was estimated to
be responsible in 2000 for approximately 2.4% of worldwide
diarrhea, and 6% of malaria in some middle-income countries.
Epidemics of weather and climate-sensitive infectious diseases
such as malaria and meningitis will have a devastating effect on
human health and socio-economic development and severely
overburden health systems in many parts of the world”. These
are the express effects of climate change as observed in the
world. But for some Christian faithful to interpret the global
warming as the destruction of the earth by fire and subsequent
hellfire is quite understandable. The Bible has said so much
about the destruction of the earth by fire and the hellfire that
awaits the unrepentant human being. Those Christians who are
disgusted with injustice, corruption and other unchristian life-
style in the world will definitely want to see the realization of
the biblical concept of destruction by fire. But these events,
whatever they represent, cannot be interpreted in the literal
forms that such Christians want them to be interpreted. Besides,
the “earth is the Lord’s and the fullness thereof”.
Greenhouse Effect
It has been said that the present climate change is caused
mainly by the greenhouse effect. The greenhouse effect is not a
hypothetical ideology. It is such a practical experience that
could be explained even from our daily experiences. It de-
scribes the trapping in of solar energy in the surface earth due
to the blanketing gaseous layer in the atmosphere. It could be
described in simpler terms with examples from daily experi-
ences in a greenhous e experiment.
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 127
A glasshouse will usually allow sunlight into the house. But
this trapped sun energy does not leave the house at the rate it
came in. In fact much of the energy is trapped inside. This
trapped energy causes the house to heat up. The same experi-
ence is observed when a car is packed in the sun. Because the
glasses are wind up sunlight goes into the care. Once absorbed
the solar energy is trapped inside the car making the car to be
very hot. If the glasses are wind down the solar energy easily
escapes into the atmosphere outside the car.
Greenhouse gases include water vapour, carbon dioxide,
methane, nitrous oxide and certain industrial gases. They allow
sunlight enter the atmosphere. Once this sunlight reaches the
earth surface it is released back into the atmosphere. Some of
the energy passes back into the space but much of it still re-
mains trapped inside. “Over time, if atmospheric concentrations
of greenhouse gases remain relatively stable, the amount of
energy sent from the sun to the earth’s surface should be about
the same as the amount of energy radiated back into space,
leaving the temperature of the earth’s surface roughly constant”
( There is
an order or arrangement of things which naturally sustains sta-
bility in the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases.
However, if this natural order is upset then the consequences
will be atmospheric imbalance.
Global Warning
It has already been observed that climate change could bring
about increase or decrease in global temperature. Temperature
change could fluctuate but the average will usually be expected
to be relatively stable. If there is a noticeable average increase it
becomes global warming. Global warming may not always be a
point of deep concern except where it becomes worrisomely
obvious. Lindinger (2010) has noted that the global problem “is
not only about how much the earth is warming, it is also about
how fast it is warming.” The rate of increase of global warming
is becoming a serious threat to human life. Scientists have
noted that “out of the 20 warmest years on record, 19 have
occurred since 1980. The three hottest years ever observed have
all occurred in the last eight years, even.” It is also on record
that “the world has warmed 0.74˚C in the past hundred years
and scientists are clear that the world will get warmer this cen-
tury due to further increase in greenhouse gas concentrations.
Global average temperature is forecast to rise 4˚C (7.2˚F) to-
wards the end of the 21st century.”
The Meeting Point of Science and Religion
in Ecotheology
Science is human beings’ effort to explain, through system-
atic observation and empirical means, God’s infinite design.
The more human beings enquire into the profundity of the un-
known, the more they realize that there are so much unknown,
and the more they want to know the unknown. By divine en-
ablement, called knowledge, human beings could grab, though
very insignificantly little, relative to what is unknown, God’s
design that human beings call nature. God has given human
beings the command; “Be faithful and multiply, and fill the
earth and subdue it” (Gen 1:28). The English Version that has
“subdue” is not a better interpretation. It has been shown, by
Jewish parallelism that both expressions “fill the earth” and
“subdue it” convey the same idea. It is therefore a poetic repeti-
tion of thought. In this case it means to be in full grip of the
earth or to control events on earth. It is an adumbration of
Genesis 2.15, “The Lord God took the man and put him in the
Garden of Eden to work it and take care of it.” For human be-
ings to take care of the creation, this divine declaration confers
on them the ability to understand creation. Therefore the “sub-
due it” clause confers on human beings the ability to study
natural phenomena and to take advantage of the knowledge to
restructure a better environment for living things, including
human beings and other living beings. This knowledge could be
called science, technology, philosophy, or whatever human
beings choose to call it. Both the living and the non-living be-
ings are there to fill some gap so as to sustain stability in the
world. By the knowledge of this divine empowerment human
beings are able to simulate the creation of God to achieve some
scientific goals. Consider the ship, for example, it is a simula-
tion of the fish; aeroplane is a simulation of the birds of the air.
Even the computer is a simulation of the human brain and its
God, a Perfect Designer
God has created nature, designing some recycling process
which maintains the equilibrium. There is nothing that human
beings can create out of nothing. Human beings rather recycle
natural or divine creation to sustain ecological effects. God has
put the greenhouse effect in place, for example, to ensure that
life continues. Seen from space, “our atmosphere is but a tiny
layer of gas around a huge bulky planet. But it is this gaseous
outer ring and it’s misleadingly called greenhouse effect that
makes life on earth possible” (Kunzemann, 2010). God in his
wisdom has designed some processes to maintain equilibrium.
When the sunlight reaches the earth, passing through the blan-
ket of greenhouse gases the solar energy is sent back into the
atmosphere. The greenhouse gases will usually allow some of
the energy to escape back into the space while some are trapped
in the atmosphere. The reduction of the level of greenhouse
gases accumulation through photosynthesis and other natural
processes are divine arrangement to allow some level of an-
thropogenic greenhouse gas emissions without upsetting the
atmospheric equilibrium or nature balance. When this is done
the temperature of the earth’s surface remains relatively con-
Man, an Imperfect Maintainer
The Christian theology presents human beings as custodians
of God’s creation. The implication is that human beings are
expected to maintain creation and to be accountable to God for
whatever goes wrong in creation. That human beings are custo-
dians is an indication that things can go right or wrong depend-
ing on the activities of human beings. The divine declaration
that creation is “very good” (Gen 1:3) is an indication that na-
ture by itself is not created to work against human beings. It is
the mismanagement of nature that results in artificial or
ma-caused disaster.
Against the idea of “control” or “be in charge” as the right
interpretation of Gen 1:28 human beings read “domination” and
end up exploiting the earth. By exploiting the earth human be-
ings exploit themselves. It is wrong for one to exploit oneself.
The earth was created for God’s glory and not for man’s glory.
It is in the process of promoting God’s glory that human beings
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
derive joy in God’s creation. Respect for nature is a result of
respect to God. Custody rather than manipulation should be the
watch word in scientific experimentation if the idea of exploita-
tion of nature is to be removed. The present technological ma-
nipulation of a recalcitrant environment is not the purpose of
God and is eventually working against human beings.
Ecotheology is a combination of the terms, ecology and the-
ology. It stems from the understanding that the natural world is
God’s creation and good. In the human society God has al-
lowed three laws to guide interdependence. These include the
Revealed Law, the Natural Law and the Conventional Law.
There are highlights to these laws in the Christian scriptures.
Conventional Law refers to customs which could be enforced
by a court or, at least, form the basis of litigation, (Anderson,
1998). Natural Law refers to the understanding of inherent
principles in the nature of things which can be observed by
rational creatures in the light of reason. Divine Law is a par-
ticular disclosure about the way human beings can find favour
with God and as a result maintain good relationship with fellow
human beings. Christian theology maintains that divine law
culminates in the incarnation. The Bible itself becomes the
written deposit of divine revelation which contains divine law.
Jesus is the incarnate God, therefore represents divine law.
Obedience and submission of one’s will to Jesus is obedience
to divine law.
Ecotheology is the use of Judeo-Christian theology to exam-
ine the implications of contemporary ecology for human action.
It seeks how ethical principles of theological could sustain na-
ture as a stable equilibrium. The matrix of this position is al-
ways that nature was created by God and declared good and
that human beings were basically required to take care of crea-
tion to God’s glory. Ecotheology combines the principles of
natural law, moral law, ecopurist, moral theology, theology of
nature, environmental and bioethics. The two main purview of
Ecotheolgy are nature and God. The being referred to as God is
the Creator of all things in heaven and on earth. God is the
source of all beings—animate and inanimate, visible and in-
visible. Creation belongs to him. He demands worship from
human beings. He is unchallengeable, and unchangeably sover-
eign in creation. “Since he is not open to direct observation, a
meaningful account of him can only be given by indicating at
each point his relation to ourselves and the world we know”
(Packer, 1998).
Therefore, ecotheology is a theological standpoint that the
earth is God’s sacred design and should be protected, cared for
and managed in an orderly and most circumspect manner that
depicts the fear of God. It maintains that managing the earth in
an orderly manner should first and foremost be with the prem-
ise to glorify God. Secondly it is necessary so that human ac-
tions do not tantamount to creating imbalance in God’s design.
Thirdly deviance in protecting God’s design may result to a
chaotic and disastrous situation in the environment. It is like a
man who insists on breaking the law of gravity. He climbs the
telecommunic ation mast ; he then jumps off the pick of the mast.
By the time he crashes on the ground he only succeeded in
breaking himself and not the law of gravity that he insists on
God created the earth and left in the hands of human beings
to manage. If human beings manage the earth very well they
enjoy the goodies of the earth. If they become ecological des-
pots and insist on exploiting the earth, they surfer untold con-
sequences which could result in a climatic “hellfire”, very dev-
astating and disastrous. The Bible maintains, “The earth is the
Lord’s and the fullness thereof, the world and those who dwell
therein” (Psalms 24:1). It is fallacious and unbiblical to see the
earth as a corrupt satanic abode. It is the human activities that
are corrupt and desecrating to God’s orderly and sacred design.
Morality of Human Actions
By God’s injunction human beings are required to care and
protect the earth. Every godly measure that is adopted by sci-
ence must be zealously pursued. There is nothing wrong that
science pursues scientific issues empirically. The earth itself is
empirical. God has made nature to be natural and not super-
natural. Yet, God himself is supernatural. We cannot bring God
into our experimental laboratory for scientific examination.
This does not mean He no longer permits our scientific enquir-
ies. If a man is hungry, for example, he gets some food. He
does not go to pray that God should remove the hunger. This is
a simple biological function which God Himself has put in
place. If, however, human beings find it difficult to resolve
human problem the Bible requires that he should go to God
who Himself is quite willing and ready to provide answer to the
problem. That he prays to God to help him does not mean he
drops aside his mental reason and application of knowledge;
this comes from God and is required by God. In fact, this
God-given potential enables him to become more inquisitive.
At the end he is able to discover or invent a measure that helps
him to solve mundane problems. It is unscientific to refuse to
acknowledge the superiority and initiative of God in scientific
enquiries. Great minds think because God has made them great
in thought. That a particular scientist refuses to acknowledge
God does not remove God from being God. That does not also
mean that there are no great scientists who acknowledge God.
Conversely there are those who are neither scientific nor
enlightened who do not acknowledge God. The problem of not
knowing God is not a problem of a selected class of philoso-
phical individuals but a general problem of the human heart.
Yet those who know their God shall be strong and do exploit
while those who do not know their God shall be weak and be
The morality of human actions requires that human beings
justify the purpose of their actions in a divine context. Both
actions and their purpose must be examined in the divine writ.
It was human actions that brought the diluvium judgement of
Genesis 7. It was also human actions that brought the post dilu-
vium covenant of blessings and protection in Genesis 8:21f. If
human actions are not controlled not only will they bring disas-
ter to themselves and this will be theologically interpreted as
attracting God’s judgement on themselves.
Common terms in ecotheology include balance and harmony
in nature, sacredness, sustainability, health, integrity and stew-
ardship. But these concepts are not new ideas in human phi-
losophy. Fitzsimmons (2000) has observed that “The concepts
of balance and harmony in nature have a lengthy history. Eco-
logical historian Frank Egerton observed that Herodotus ad-
dressed these ideas as early as 450BC.” On the other hand “One
bio religionist argues that what is needed is a ‘treaty’ or spiri-
tual bond between ourselves and the natural world similar to
God’s covenant with creation after the flood” Nelson (1995).
Copyright © 2013 SciRes. 129
Copyright © 2013 SciRes.
Beers (1997) has remarked that “A good steward does not cod-
dle the resources entrusted to him and let them lie fallow and
undeveloped. Rather, he uses them, develops them and, most
appropriately attempts to the best of his ability to realize their
increase so that he may enjoy his livelihood and provide stew-
ardship for the good of his family and other dependents.”
African Insight
The African is religiously ubiquitous. He sees God is every-
thing. Though this was spoken from a pejorative sense and may
have its shortfalls one may note that such position could still
enable the African to impact positively on a climatic changing
environment. The climate change is a very serious issue that is
fast driving man into his doom. The present problem is largely
human and human could also go a long way to solving the
problem. If the African, in his usual way of observing sacred-
ness observes respect in the creation of God obviously he
would be contributing a lot in solving the problem at stake. In
fact, Africans are known to have held to the sacredness of na-
ture. It was the European missionary who taught the African
that the sacred could be exploited and desecrated. It was the
European missionary who taught the African that respect for
nature divinities were useless, hopeless, fetish and a result of
ignorance. The fear and respect for natural laws as well as eco-
logical justice disappeared into the tin air of religious emanci-
pation. Indiscriminate burning down of forests that ordinarily
lay fallow for many years and ecological exploitation that
formed taboo in African socio-economic life were given up for
what was called civil ization and enlightenment.
However, the African is not encouraged to worship natural
objects, which itself forms hyper-ecotheology. This term means
“finding God Himself in nature—much less substituting God
with nature itself” (Sirico, 1997). Besides, the individualistic
Western approach to life that has been imported is very alien
and unfriendly to the African society. The African is therefore
called upon to respect nature and natural order as he initially
did and to restore sacredness in his relationship with the envi-
ronment. This will enable him to see the exploitation of nature
as wrong and ungodly. Godliness requires a respect to God’s
1) A change in the pattern of industrialization must be
adopted to reduce the anthropogenic emission of Greenhouse
gases. This requires a new approach to industrialization which
could adopt a revolution t o solar e n er gy.
2) Regulating International Body should be instituted to con-
trol industrial emissions which increase the greenhouse gases.
3) African theologians should give new orientation to the
pastors on a better understanding of hell fire concept and to
adopt a proactive approach to global warming.
4) The theologian should bring a better understanding to the
“dominion and subdue” concepts of Genesis to stop further
manipulation of the earth as if every item in the world is there
for the benefit of human beings.
Human beings have been created and kept in the world not to
destroy it but to keep it. This is the essence of christocentric
ecotheology. If human beings obey God and respect natural
order the world will remain very habitable. While the scientist
is called upon to study the natural order, without exploiting it,
knowledge will increase and this acquired knowledge will be
used to take care of nature. Nature should not be seen as being
hostile to human beings. It is the activities of human beings that
will become hostile to human beings. Global warming, being
the result of rapid climate change, could be addressed and with
time order could be created. If the scientist is working hard to
restore order and the religionist tows a line of destruction, with
the mindset that God is being challenged by science, order may
not be returned in the near feature. The religionist is called to
see natural order as God’s design and to respect it in a way that
God will be glorified. The African is also encouraged to use his
God-given dedication to respect natural order of things so as to
contribute his quota to reduce the global warming and to bring
stability in atmospheric order. It does not, however, call for
worship of natural order as the African did in the ancient past.
Anderson, J. N. D. (1998). Law new dictionary of theology. Leicester:
Inter-Varsity Press.
Asemota, A. (2012). Flood kills 2, destroys 500 houses in Katsina,
URL (last checked 11 September 2012).
Beers, J. M. (1997). Have dominion over all these religion & liberty.
URL (last checked 18 June 2009) .
Fitzsimmons, A. (2000). Ecological confusion among the clergy. Jour-
nal of Markets & Morality, 3. URL (last checked 12 J une 2 009).
s-wreak.html#uds-search-results, Also see
URL (last checked 28 July 2012). /new/
Kunzemann, T. (2010). What is the greenhouse effect? URL (last
checked 10 June 2009).
Lindinger, K. (2010). What is global warming? URL (last checked 28
August 2012).
Nelson, R. H. (1995). The ecological gospel religion & liberty URL
(last checked 18 June 2009).
Okeowo, A. (2007). Is global warming drowning Africa? URL (last
checked 9 September 2012).,8599,1664429,00.html#ixz
Packer, J. I. (1998). God new dictionary of theology. Illinois: Inter-
Varsity Press.
Robinson, B. A. (2005). Description of paradise in the Qur’An, Ontario
consultants on religious tolerance. URL (last checked 9 September
Santmire, H. P. (2000). In God’s ecology. URL (last checked 20 Au-
gust 2012).
Sirico, R. A. (1997). The new spirituality eco-spirituality. The New
York Times Magazine. URL (last checked 22 June 2009).
What is ecotheology? (2008). URL (last checked 9 September 2012) .