Vol.2, No.9, 1015-1021 (2010) Natural Science
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
Potential for carbon sequestration in reclaimed mine
soil on reforested surface mining areas in Poland
Marcin Pietrzykowski*, Wojciech Krzaklewski
Department of Forest Ecology, Agricultural University of Krakow, Forest Faculty, Krakow, Poland; *Corresponding Author:
Received 16 June 2010; revised 17 July 2010; accepted 23 July 2010.
Reclaimed mine soils (RMS) which develop on
post-mining sites play significant role in Carbon
sequestration in new ecosystems, especially in
local range on areas disturbed by human activ-
ity. This study presents the potential for Carbon
sequestration in RMS developing on 3 post sur-
face mining areas in Poland (Central Europe)
reforested with Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L).
Research was conducted on waste heaps and
quarry which accompany open cast lignite, sul-
fur, and sand mining. Control plots were arrang-
ed in managed pine forests on natural sites in
the surrounding area. The results shows high
Carbon accumulation in RMS, estimated on
16.77 Mg·ha-1 in poor (oligotrofic) soils on Qua-
ternary sands on sand quarry and up to 65.03
Mg·ha-1 on external waste heap after Sulfur sur-
face mining exploitation on Quaternary sands
mixed with Tertiary clays. These results were
very similar to natural forest soils on control
plots. Potential rate of Carbon sequestration in
RMS was estimated on 0.73 (on the poorest sa-
ndy soils on quarry) to 2.17 Mg·ha-1·yr-1 (on po-
tentially abundant sandy-clayish soils on Sulfur
waste heap), and 5.26 Mg·ha-1·yr-1 (on Tertiary
sands substrate soils on lignite mining waste
heap). In conslusion the average Carbon accu-
mulation in RMS was estimated on 41 Mg·ha-1
and Carbon sequestration rate was 1.45 Mg·
ha-1·yr-1. According to the result of this study
and range of post-mining areas reclaimed to
forestry in Poland (ca 15000 ha) total Carbon
accumulation in RMS was estimated on 615 ×
103 Mg and potential Carbon sequestration rate
in new ecosystems on 21.75 × 103 Mg·ha-1·yr-1.
However, the main factors affecting Carbon
sequestration and protection in RMS under tree
stand were substrate, percentage of clay and silt
sized fraction, in order to formulate guidelines
for sustainable management of post-mining ec-
osystem, further study must be continue for be-
tter understanding.
Keywords: Post-Mining Ecosystem; Reclaimed
Mine Soils; Reforestation; Carbon Sequestration
Global warming risks from emission of green house
gases (GHGs) by anthropogenic activities, and possible
mitigation strategies of terrestrial Carbon (C) sequestra-
tion have increased the need for the identification of
ecosystems with high C sink capacity [1]. In compliance
with the Kyoto protocol, the emission of GHGs is to be
reduced on average by 5.2% in relation to the 1990 level
until 2012. These requirements are being implemented in
the EU by introducing energy saving technology and
increasing the share of renewable energy sources. A po-
tential approach to mitigating the rising CO2 concentra-
tion is to enhance sequestration of C in terrestrial eco-
systems [2]. This can be achieved by enhancing the bio-
logical processes like photosynthesis that assimilated
CO2 increasing biomass productivity, and allocating the
assimilated C into long-lived plant and soil organic mat-
ter (SOM) pools resistant microbial decomposition. Thus
the Kyoto protocol talks about the possibility of allevi-
ating the results of the GHGs by appropriate land use
and this is where forestry plays a particular role. It is
widely known that forests have a significant share in
Carbon accumulation and absorbing carbon dioxide
(CO2) [3-6]. In forest ecosystems it is possible to in-
crease the ability to sequester Carbon by appropriate
forestry and by increasing woodiness. It may also be
done by reforesting former industrial and post-mining
Mining is a human activity, which causes drastic sur-
face disturbance, including soil - the base element of te-
*This work was supported by JM Rector of University of Agriculture in
Krakow in frame of Alina and Jan Wagowie Scholarship for young
scientist research program in 2009 year.
M. Pietrzykowski et al. / Natural Science 2 (2010) 1015-1021
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
rrestrial ecosystems. These disturbed areas, where recla-
imed mine soils (RMS) are developing, may play locally
significant role for potential of C sequestration [6], es-
pecially through restoration by reforestation. Although a
key objective in C management research is to enhance
the natural capacity of plants’ biomass and soils to sequ-
ester C, the functionality of C storage in terrestrial ecos-
ystem as whole, especially in post-mining ecosystem and
RMS, is poorly understood.
In Poland lands taken up by mining and power in-
dustry are estimated at around 70 thousand hectares, ca.
25 000 thousand of which has been reclaimed. A large
part of these areas in Poland (approximately 60%) are
reclaimed to forestry [7]. The Scots pine (Pinus sylves-
tris L.) is one of the main species introduced when re-
foresting post-mining sites in central Europe [7,8] due to
its low habitat requirements and pioneering character [9].
Forest ecosystems, especially soils, which develop in
these areas, may play significant role in Carbon seques-
tration which will increase as communities’ biomass and
soils developing. According to this the aim of study was
to estimate the potential for Carbon sequestration of re-
claimed post-mining soils (RMS) and in soil organic
matter (SOM) at different reclamation treatments and
substrates (parent rock material).
2.1. Study Site and Sampling
The research was conducted on three post-mining sites
reclaimed to forest and covered by 12 to 30 years-old
pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) stands in central and southern
Poland. The study sites were located at a waste heap in
Lignite Mine Bełchatów (BEL; 19°25’ E; 51°13’N), a
pit bottom of sand quarry Szczakowa (SZCZ; 19°25’ E;
50°14’ N) and a waste heap of open-cast Sulfur mine
Piaseczno (PIAS; 21°34’ E; 50°33’ N). Some character-
istics of the sampled sites are given in Table 1.
Table 1. Study site characteristics.
Post-minig facilities and substrate variant
Waste heap in Lignite Mine Bełchatów Bottom of sand quarry SzczakowaWaste heap of open-cast sulfur
mine Piaseczno
Latitude 51°13’ N 50°14’ N 50°33’ N
Longitude 19°25’ E 19°25’ E 21°34’ E
Mean annual
precipitation (mm) 580 700 650
Mean annual
temperature (°C) 7.6 8 7.0
Parent material Quaternary loamy sands,
loam, bouldery clay;
Tertiary sands with loam
and clay, carbonated and
Quaternary sands
and loamy sands
Quaternary sands
A mixture of
tertiary clays and
mudstones and
Quaternary sands
Basic reclamation
NPK fertilisation (60 kg
N ha-1, 70 kg P ha-1, 60
kg K ha-1 ); one year
cultivation of grasses and
leguminous plants
(sowing 60 kg·ha-1);
planting of trees.
Neutralisation with bog
lime; NPK fertilisation (60
kg N ha-1, 70 kg P ha-1, 60 kg
K ha-1 ); one year cultivation
of grasses and leguminous
plants (sowing 60 kg·ha-1);
planting of trees.
Organic amendment addition (300
m3 ha-1 approx. 1.0% Corg ); liming
(1.5 Mg dolomite ha-1); NPK
fertilization (140 kg N ha-1, 130 kg P
ha-1, 150 kg K ha-1); 2-years lupine
(Lupinus luteus L.) cultivation
(sowing 240 kg ha-1); planting of
NPK fertilisation (80 kg N ha-1, 50
kg P ha-1, 60 kg K ha-1); 2-years
cultivation of Papilionaceae and
grasses; planting of trees (Pinus
sylvestris L.).
Tree stand
biomass (mean and
SD in Mg·ha-1)
Forest flour
(herbaceous and
biomass (mean and
SD in Mg·ha-1)
M. Pietrzykowski et al. / Natural Science 2 (2010) 1015-1021
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Areas of Tertiary sandy strata with loam and clay on
Bełchatów heap are frequently carbonated and sulfurised,
which are very acidic, displaying toxic properties [10].
These tertiary pyritic strata was earlier neutralised with
bog lime incorporated into the surface horizon to a depth
of 40 cm. Reclamation treatments on the Szczakowa op-
en cast sand quarry included forming and grading the
surface and adding organic amendment (approx. 300
m3·ha-1). The organic amendment used was a mixture of
local forest litter and mineral Ai horizons with an aver-
age organic Carbon content of 0.3 to 1.0%, selectively
collected from forest soils in areas to be mined [11].
A total of 24 research plots (100 m2 each) were arra-
nged in pine stands with 4 replications for 2 parent mate-
rial (substrates) and trophy variants at each post-mining
1) variant 1 on potentially abundant soils with the best
particle size distribution at the post-mining object, i.e.
loamy sands, sands mixed with clays (BEL 1, SZCZ 1,
PIAS 1);
2) variant 2 on potentially less fertile substrates with
particle sizes of loose sands or sands with little clay
(SZCZ 2 and PIAS 2). However, at the Bełchatów waste
heap (BEL 2), variant 2 were located on Tertiary pyritic
strata (mainly sands) following neutralization.
Four control plots (100 m2 each) were also set up in
NPE (natural pine ecosystems) adjacent to post-mining
sites, in tree stand age classes 1 and 2 in habitats of co-
niferous forests and mixed fresh forests. In Poland and in
Central Europe these are appropriate habitats for Scots
pine [12].
On each study plots soil pits were dug up to 110 cm
depth (on reclaimed sites) and 150 cm (on natural forest
sites) and detailed morphology of soils was described.
Additionally, 5 bore holes were made on each plot with
soil augers (Eijkelkamp set) on grid (an envelope sch-
eme) and mixed soil samples were taken (1.0 kg mass of
fresh sample) to determine basic soil chemical and phy-
sical properties and Carbon content at depths: 0-8 cm
(initial organic-mineral horizons AiC with features of pa-
rent rock); 8-110 cm (C horizon as parent rock spoils).
Sampling for bulk density was done by core method
using standard sharpened steel cylinders of 250 cm3 [13]
(3 replication for each horizon in soil pits).
Samples of organic horizons (OLf horizon at 0 + 2 cm
for reclaimed mine soils, and OL, Of, Oh, Ofh horizons
for natural forest soils at depth depends on horizons de-
velopment) were collected in autumn after litterfall from
1 m2 sub-plots with 3 replications for each plots of 100
m2. Next, the mass of fresh organic horizons was deter-
mined and mixed samples (0.5 kg mass fresh sample)
were collected for laboratory analyses.
2.2. Laboratory Analyses
In the lab, soil samples from mineral horizons were dried
and sieved through a 2 mm diameter sieve and samples
from organic horizons were ground. The following pa-
rameters were determined in the soil samples using soil
science procedures (described by Jackson [14] and Os-
trowska et al. [15]. Particle size distribution was deter-
mined by hydrometer analysis method and additionally
sand fractions by sieving. Soil pH was determined in
H2O and 1 M KCl while maintaining at 1:2.5 soil: solu-
tion ratio for mineral horizons and 1:5 ratio for organic
horizons; CEC by as the sum of alkaline cations (Ca2+,
Mg2+, K+, Na+ extracted with 1 mol L1 NH4OAc) and
exchangeable acidity (Hh). Samples were mixed with a
small portion of extracting and equilibrated. After 24 h,
the suspensions were filtered, the soils were washed with
additional extracting, and the total volume was made up
to 100 mL [14]. The concentration of cations was deter-
mined by atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). Total
acidity was measured using 1 mol L1 (CH3COO)2Ca ex-
traction, followed by potentiometric titration to pH 8.2
with 0.1 mol L1 NaOH [15]. Soil organic Carbon (Corg)
content using the FT-IR method; total Nitrogen (Nt)
content using the method of measuring thermal conduc-
tivity with a 'Leco CNS 2000' analyzer were made. Bef-
ore procedure samples containing CaCO3 were washed
in 10% HCl to remove carbonates.
The results, such as the C accumulation and estimated
C sequestration rate in soil (in mineral and organic hori-
zons), were statistically analyzed using the Statistica 8.1
programme [16]. Differences between mean values of
features from differing groups (e.g., variants 1 and 2 for
each post-mining sites) were tested by a student’s t-test
for independent variables (at p = 0.05). Linear regresion
between C accumulation and soil features were also
tested (at p = 0.05).
3.1. Soil Characteristic
Soils in post-mining areas were classified as Urbic An-
throsols (according to FAO [17]) and had poorly devel-
oped AiC organic mineral initial horizons and OLf initial
horizons of forest litter and partially decomposed hums
layers. In the site variant 1, reclaimed mine soils (RMS)
differed significantly (at p = 0.05) in % silt sized fraction
at the Bełchatów waste heap (BEL 1 vs. BEL 2) and in
% clay sized fractions on the Szczakowa (SZCZ1 vs.
SZCZ 2) and Piaseczno (PIAS 1 vs. PIAS 2) sites (Ta-
ble 2). The H2O:soil pH differed only in by site trophy
variants (1 vs. 2) in the forest litter horizons OLf at the
Bełchatów (BEL) and Piaseczno (PIAS) sites and in
M. Pietrzykowski et al. / Natural Science 2 (2010) 1015-1021
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parent rock horizons only at Bełchatów (BEL). An extra
factor for sandy soils developing on the Szczakowa sand
quarry (SZCZ) was the lowest Cation Exchange Capac-
ity CEC (Table 2).
Native podzolic forests soils (NPE) on adjacent to
post-mining sites were in habitats of coniferous forests
and mixed fresh forests developing on Albic Arenosols
and Haplic Podzols (according to FAO [17]).
3.2. Carbon Accumulation and Potential for
Carbon Sequestration
Total Carbon accumulation in soil (the sum for mineral
and organic horizons) ranged from 16.77 Mg·ha-1 at sand
quarry in SZCZ 2 variant (in the poorest sandy soils) to
over 65.03 Mg·ha-1 in PIAS 1 waste heap on abundant
sandy-clayish deposits (Table 3). This value was even
higher than the estimated average total Carbon accumu-
lation in soil for NPE, which in mineral and organic ho-
rizons together was on average 59.14 Mg·ha-1 (Table 3).
In research conducted on natural sites of inland dunes in
Holland under initial communities which had developed
by way of natural succession and aged 5, the Carbon ac-
cumulation in soil organic matter (SOM) was around 6.0
Mg·ha-1, whereas under 120-year-old mixed forest it was
around 104 Mg·ha-1 [18]. In forest habitats of Central
Europe, in organic and organic-mineral Haplic Podzols
developing on bank and water glacial sand, the amount
of Corg accumulation may be estimated at around 76.0 to
122.0 Mg·ha-1, and in case of the poorest Haplic Podzols
(according to FAO soil subtype [17]) developing on
eolian sands, it is around 126.0 Mg·ha-1 (calculated on
the basis of data from the Atlas of Forest Soils in Poland
[19]. As in the case of carbonated Tertiary (Miocene
strata) sands on coal mine spoil heaps BEL 2 variant the
‘geological coal’ has a large share in the total content. It
had to be assessed in the context of the origin and prop-
erties of these deposits. The determination of Carbon
content in SOM and later the determination of accumu-
lated Carbon in soils developing on reclaimed mine soils
(RMS) is particularly difficult from the methodology
point of view in case of carbonated deposits which con-
stitute banks [20,21].
Table 2. Some characteristics of reclaimed mine soil (RMS) on three post-mining sites in Poland (Central Europe).
Waste heap in Lignite Mine
Bottom of sand quarry
Waste heap of open-cast
sulfur mine Piaseczno
Feature Horizon
Silt (0.05-0.002 mm) [%] 31.75a
Clay (< 0.002 mm) [%]
AiC and C 3.00
OLf 4.45a
AiC 7.65
pH H2O
C 8.06a
OLf 4.10a
AiC 7.35
pH KCl
C 7.50a
OLf 47.85
AiC 0.61
Corg [%]
C 0.32
OLf 0.58a
Nt [%]
AiC 0.05a
OLf 82.78
C/N ratio
AiC 11.55
AiC 27.98a
CEC [cmol (+)/kg]
C 27.68a
Explanations: 37.75(11.44) – mean and standard deviation; BEL 1 – reclaimed mine soil on “Bełchatów” spoil heap and site trophy variant; abbrevia-
tions for soil features – see description in text
M. Pietrzykowski et al. / Natural Science 2 (2010) 1015-1021
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Table 3. Carbon accumulation in soils in pine ecosystem on afforested post-mining sites and ‘natural’ forest sites.
Soil Carbon accumulation (CA Mg·ha -1) and Carbon sequestration rate (CS Mg·ha -1·yr-1)
Mineral AiC and C horizons up to 110
cm depth (in post-minig soil) and A, B
and C horizons (in natural soil)
Organic horizons OLf (row litter and
humus) in post-minig soil and il OL, Of,
Oh horizons)
Total organic and mineral horizons in
soil up to 110 cm depth
Variant and tree
stand age (years)
BEL 1(17) 35.18
BEL 2 (12) 53.50
SZCZ 1(21) 12.83
SZCZ 2 (23) 8.64
PIAS 1 (30) 53.97a
PIAS 2 (30) 21.62b
1.15 b
NPE (30) 40.42
Explanations: 35.18 (7.65) – mean (SD); BEL 1 – Bełchatów waste heap in site trophy variant 1; NPE – natural pine ecosystem (abbreviations see in
text); CA – total Carbon accumulation in soil horizons; CS – Carbon sequestration rate as quotient of CA and reclaimed mine soil age; 22.61a – mar-
ket differences between variants 1 and 2 are significant at p = 0.05 by t-student test with independence variables, Number of replication plot for vari-
ant n = 4
Therefore, the rate of Carbon sequestration in these so-
ils may be determined from accumulation in initial org-
anic horizons developing under communities. When com-
paring BEL variant 2 to other studied sites, accumulated
Carbon in organic horizons was the lowest and estimated
on 9.57 Mg·ha-1. In OLf organic horizons in other sites,
the amount of accumulated Carbon ranged from 8.64
Mg·ha-1 (SZCZ 2 variant) to 12.76 Mg·ha-1 (PIAS 2
variant). However, the amount of accumulated Carbon in
OLf was not a variable which statistically differentiated
significant (at p = 0.05) trophy variants 1 vs. 2 within the
sites (Table 3).
Estimated Carbon sequestration rate in the mineral
horizons (up to 110 cm depth) of reclaimed mine soils
amounted from 70.73 Mg ha-1·yr-1 in the poorest sandy
soils in SZCZ 2 variant on sand quarry to 2.17 Mg
ha-1·yr-1 in fertile sandy-clayish deposits in PIAS 1 vari-
ant on Piaseczno waste heap.
However the highest Carbon sequestration rate, esti-
mated on 5.26 Mg ha-1·yr-1 was in sandy soils on Tertiary
Miocene strata of Bełchatów waste heap in BEL 2 vari-
ant, it was connected mainly with ‘geologic carbon’ con-
tent. The potentially Carbon accumulation in RMS on
post-mining ecosystems estimated on such bases may
amount approximately on 1.45 Mg·ha-1·yr-1 (based on
data from Table 3, excluded BEL 2 variant). It was not
so high as Shrestha and Rattan [1] quoted on 3-4
Mg·ha-1·yr-1 Carbon for reclaimed mine soil in US prai-
rie climate conditions. However values from studied post
mining sites are high compared to published data from
another coal mining region, e.g., of North Dakota (USA),
where the Carbon accumulation rate in soil under plant
communities succession was 0.131 Mg·ha-1·yr-1 [22] or
0.282 Mg ha-1·yr-1 in reclaimed soils in southern Sas-
katchewan (Canada) [1] and 0.256 Mg·ha-1·yr-1 in the
Montana mining region (USA) [25].
In reclaimed mine soils (RMS) the distribution of Car-
bon accumulation in organic and organic mineral hori-
zons was diversified. In natural Haplic Podzols in con-
trol plots, Carbon accumulated in organic horizons con-
stituted around 34% of the total Carbon accumulated in
soil. In case of post mining ecosystem soils, the largest
amount of Carbon trapped in OLf initial organic hori-
zons, was in sandy soils of sand quarry and significantly
exceeded 40% in both variants.
On the investigated lignite mine waste heap it ranged
from around 15 in BEL 2 variant to 23% in BEL 1 vari-
ant, and for PIAS 1 variant on sulfur waste heap from
17% to 37 % in PIAS 2 variant (estimated on the basis of
data from table 3). According to the findings of German
research (Lusatian Mine District), most organic Carbon
in areas of up to 17 years of age under pine trees accu-
mulated in the overlaying humus horizon (OLf). From
the age of 32, Carbon accumulated mostly in the initial
organic-mineral horizon (AiC) [23]. A dynamic increase
of Carbon accumulation in overlaying humus horizons is
connected with the development of tree communities
and a growing amount of organic fallout.
The dependence of Carbon accumulation in soil (in
mineral horizons up to 110 cm depth) in reclaimed mine
M. Pietrzykowski et al. / Natural Science 2 (2010) 1015-1021
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
(a) (b)
Figure 1. Correlation of Carbon accumulation in reclaimed mine soil (in mineral horizons up to 110 cm depth) to % clay
sized fraction (< 0.002 mm diameter) (R = 0.48) (Figure 1(a)) and % silt sized fraction (0.05-0.002 mm) (R = 0.45 at n = 24)
(Figure 1 (b)).
soils showed significant linear correlation to percentage
silt sized (0.05-0.002 mm diameter) (R, linear regression
coefficient with p = 0.05 was 0.45 at N = 24) and per-
centage clay sized (< 0.002 mm diameter) (R = 0.48)
(Figures 1(a), (b)). According to this, as mentioned in
literature [21,23,24] one of the main factors for Carbon
accumulation range in reclaimed mine soils is substrate
and particle size distribution, included % silt and clay
sized fraction.
The potential for Carbon sequestration in reclaimed mi-
ne soil (RMS) in pine ecosystems on post-surface min-
ing sites in Poland turned out to be relatively high comp-
ared to native podzolic soils in natural pine ecosystems
(NPE) in Central European climatic zone. Currently, yo-
ung pine tree stands (from 12 to 30-years old) and soils
which developed underneath had a comparable Carbon
sequestration rate level to average values for NPE con-
trol plots. The lowest total Carbon accumulation in soil
occurred in the most oligotrophic sites on a sand quarry
and exceeded 16 Mg·ha-1, i.e. , around 30% as compared
to average accumulation in native forest soils (on NPE
control plots), over 46 Mg·ha-1 on the spoil heap follow-
ing lignite mining at Bełchatów (BEL 1) sulfur mining
(PIAS 1), i.e. over 70% of the value in native soils
(NPE), and on the waste heap following sulfur mining
over 34 Mg·ha-1 in PIAS 2 and 65 Mg·ha-1 in PIAS 1
variant, i.e. even higher than in case of NPE control
plots. The range of Carbon accumulation in the youngest
(12 years old) RMS on BEL 2 variant (lignite waste heap)
was very high and amounted at 63.07 Mg·ha-1. However
these results are rather discussed because it was very
difficult to estimate Carbon accumulation in RMS on
Tertiary Miocene carboniferous strata.
Assuming that Carbon accumulation in RMS of pine
ecosystems ranged from 34 to 65 (average of ca. 41)
Mg·ha-1, it may be estimated that from 510 to 975
Mg·ha-1 total or an average of 615 × 103 Mg·ha-1 may be
potentially Carbon accumulated in soil in the currently
reclaimed to forest post-mining sites in Poland (of ca.
15 000 ha). Estimated rate of Carbon sequestration in
soil was 0.73 (on the poorest sandy soils) to 2.17
Mg·ha-1·yr-1 (on abundant sandy-clayish soils), and 5.26
Mg·ha-1·yr-1 (on Tertiary carboniferous substrate soils).
The average Carbon sequestration rate was 1.45 Mg·
ha-1·yr-1 and potential for Carbon sequestration in RMS
was estimated on 21.75 × 103 Mg·ha-1·yr-1. The esti-
mated Carbon sequestration range in Central Europe
climatic zone condition was near 2-fold lower than
similar data for reclaimed mine soil in e.g., prairie cli-
matic zone (USA) quoted in literature. It means, that
similar to dependence of natural biomes (vegetative
zones of Earth), very important factor for soil Carbon
accumulation and Carbon biogeochemical cycle is cli-
mate. Second very important factor for potential of Car-
bon sequestration was substrate (parent material) and
particle size distribution. These factors affected on po-
tentially abundant and fertile of reclaimed mine soil, as
well. However, as well-known from references, the fac-
tors affecting C accumulation and ability for Carbon
sequestration and protection in RMS leading to increase
in: substrate properties (especially percentage silt and
M. Pietrzykowski et al. / Natural Science 2 (2010) 1015-1021
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. OPEN ACCESS
clay sized), microbial activity, nutrient availability; soil
aggregation, C build up and soil profile development
under tree stand age must be better understood in order
to formulate guidelines for sustainable management of
post-mining ecosystem.
This study was financially supported by JM Rector of University of
Agriculture in Krakow in 2009 for realization of research program by
young scientist in frame of Alina and Jan Wagowie Scholarship. The
authors also thank to Jarosław Socha PhD from Department of Forest
Mensuration for his assistant in statistical results evaluation.
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