Characterization of Reinforced Carbon Composites with Full Field Measurements:

Long Gauge Length Compressive Apparatus

14

5. Conclusions

The new long gauge length apparatus provide a uniform

strain field prior to damage of the material itself, that

allows characterization of the material in compression

with repeatable results in terms of stiffness and strength

on the [±45] laminate and on stiffness for [0/90]s but for

this layup less repeatable results are observed on ultimate

strength.

From a material point of view tufts reduce stiffness

and strength by about 12% but prevent extensive speci-

men delamination in the axial direction. In the bias direc-

tion tufts oppose the shearing of the plies

The new compressive apparatus has shown to be a

good alternative to previous setups. As the DIC usage

evolves and improves, further understanding could be

captured in compression. Further work has looked at dy-

namic compression testing with such apparatus and the

generation of kinematic fields [24].

6. Acknowledgements

EU financial support through ITOOL/(ITOOL-FP6/

516146), DICM equipment Limess Messtechnik and

Software GmbH as well as Professor A. K. Pickett.

REFERENCES

[1] M. Colin de Verdiere, A. K. Pickett, A. A. Skordos and V.

Witzel, “Evaluation of the Mechanical and Damage Be-

haviour of Tufted Non Crimped Fabric Composites Using

Full Field Measurements,” Composites Science and Tech-

nology, Vol. 69, No. 2, 2009, pp. 131-138.

doi:10.1016/j.compscitech.2008.08.025

[2] An American National Standard, “Standard Test Method

for Compressive Properties of Rigid Plastics, Designation:

D695-91,” Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 15-03.

[3] J. F. Harper, N. A. Miller and S. C. Yap, “ Problems As-

sociated with the Compression Testing of Fiber Rein-

forced Plastics Composites,” Polymer Testing, Vol. 12

No. 1, 1993, pp. 15-29.

doi:10.1016/0142-9418(93)90023-I

[4] R L. Westberg and M. G. Abdallah, “An Experimental

and Analytical Evaluation of Three Compressive Test

Methods for Unidirectional Graphite/Epoxy Composites,”

Proceeding of the 6th International Congress on Experi-

mental Mechanics, Vol. 1, 1988, pp. 350-361.

[5] An American National Standard, “Standard Test Methods

for Compressive Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite

Material with Unsupported Gage Section by Shear Load-

ing, Designation: D341/3410M-03,” Annual Book of

ASTM Standards, Vol 15-03.

[6] X. Ming and F. Adams, “Effect of Loading Method on

Compression Testing of Composite Material,” Journal of

Composite Materials, Vol. 29, No. 12, 1995, pp. 1581-

1600.

[7] D. H. Woolstencroft, A. R. Curtis and R. I. A. Hare-

sceugh, “A Comparison of Tests Techniques Used for the

Evaluation of the Unidirectional Compressive Strength of

Carbon Fiber-Reinforced Plastic,” Composites, Vol. 12,

No. 4, 1981, pp. 275-280.

doi:10.1016/0010-4361(81)90018-5

[8] D. F Adams and J. F. Welsh, “The Wyoming Combined

Loading Compression (CLC) Test Method,” Journal of

Composites Technology & Research, Vol. 19, No. 3, 1997

pp. 123-133. doi:10.1520/CTR10023J

[9] J. G. Haberle and F. L Matthews, “The Influence of Test

Methods on the Compressive Strength of Several Fiber-

Reinforced Plastics,” Journal of Advanced Materials, Vol.

25, No. 1, 1993, pp. 33-45.

[10] J. Häberle, “Strength and Failure Mechanisms of Unidi-

rectional Carbon Fibre-Reinforced Plastic under Axial

Compression,” Ph.D. Thesis, Imperial College Technol-

ogy and Medecine, London, 1991.

[11] “Standard Test Method for Determining the Compressive

Properties of Polymer Matrix Composite Laminate Using

a Combined Loading Compression (CLC) Test Fixture.

Designation: D6641/D6641M,” Annual Book of ASTM

Standards, Vol. 15-03.

[12] D. F. Adams and E. Q. Lewis, “Influence of Specimen

Gage Length and Loading Method on the Axial Com-

pressive Strength of Unidirectional Composite Materi-

als,” Experimental Mechanics, Vol. 31, No. 1, 1991, pp.

14-20. doi:10.1007/BF02325717

[13] J. G. Haeberle and F. L. Matthews, “The Influence of

Test Methods on the Compressive Strength of Several

Fibber Reinforced Plastics,” Journal of Advanced Mate-

rials, Vol. 25, No. l, 1993 pp. 33-45.

[14] C. Seng and T. Tan, “Stress Analysis and the Testing of

Celanese and IITRI Compression Specimens,” Compos-

ites Science and Technology, Vol. 44, No. 1, 1992, pp.

57-70. doi:10.1016/0266-3538(92)90025-X

[15] P. Berbineau, C. Soutis and I. A. Guz, “Compressive Fai-

lure of 0 Degrees Unidirectional Carbon Fibre-Reinfor-

ced Plastics (CFRP) Laminates by Fibre Microbuckling”

Composites Science and technology, Vol. 59, No. 9, 1999,

pp. 1451-1455. doi:10.1016/S0266-3538(98)00181-X

[16] R. Aoki, J. T. Hart, H. Bookholt, P. T. Curtis, I. Kroeber,

N. Marks and P. Sigety, “Compressive Strength of Vari-

ous CFRP’s Tested by Different Laboratories,” National

Aerospace Lab Amsterdam, Garteur Tp-c63 04/1993.

[17] C. A. Squires, K. H. Netting and A. R. Chambers, “Un-

derstanding the Factors Affecting the Compressive Test-

ing of Unidirectional Carbon Fibre Composites,” Com-

posites Part B, Vol. 38, No. 4, 2007, pp. 481-487.

doi:10.1016/j.compositesb.2006.08.002

[18] T. A. Bogetti, J. W. Gillespie and R. B. Pipes, “Evalua-

tion of the IITRI Compression Test Method for Stiffness

and Strength Determination,” Composites Science and

Technology, Vol. 32, No. 1, 1988, pp. 57-76.

doi:10.1016/0266-3538(88)90029-2

[19] H. Nisitani, Y. H. Kim, H. Gotos and H. Nishitani, “Ef-

fect of Gage Length and Stress Concentration on the

Copyright © 2013 SciRes. OJCM