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Creat ive Educati on
2012. Vol.3, Supplement, 70-76
Published Online December 2012 in SciRes (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/ce) DO I:10.4236/ce.2012.38b016
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Teachers’ ICT Skills and ICT Integration in the Classroom:
The Case of Vocational and Technical Teachers in Malaysia
Abu-Obaidah Alazam, A. R. Bakar*, R. Hamzah, S. Asmiran
Facult y of Educatonal Studies, Universit i P utra Malaysia, 43400 Serda ng, Selangor, M alaysia
Received 20 1 2
This s tudy was to deter mine th e le vels of ICT sk ills and ICT usage i n the c lass room amon g techni ca l and
vocat iona l teacher s in Mala ysia . The data of t his stud y were coll ect ed using qua ntita tive techni ques, whe-
reby th e questionna ire was administer ed to 329 t echnical a nd voca tional teachers who were teaching en-
gineering subjects in Malaysian technical and vocational schools. The questionnaire included items re-
lated to teachers’ ICT skills, ICT use and their demographic factors. The study has shown that teachers’
ICT skills w ere at moderate levels, and that a vast majority of teachers who partic ipated i n this s tudy were
modera te us ers of ICT i n cla s sroom t ea c hing. There w ere s i gnif ica nt diff er ences of teac her s ’ ICT s k il ls as
a function of demographic factors: gender, age, years of teaching experience, and type of ICT training.
Also, there were significant correlations between ICT skills and ICT integration in classroom. Teachers’
demogra phic f actors ( age, gender, teaching experience, except level of education) did not influence ICT
integrati on in classroom.
Key words: Technical and Voc ational Educati on; ICT Skills; Technical and V ocational Teachers;
Technical and Vocational Education in Malaysia
The explosion of Information and Communication Technol-
ogy (ICT) in th e last t wo decad es h as impa cted th e life o f many
people and the nature of jobs in all fields. Education as the
main vehicle for human capital development needs to heed to
the co nstant changes in the world of work. In line with the rapid
development and usage of ICT in the workplace, it is important
that the current generation of students need to well-prepared
with ICT knowledge and skills for th em to face the tasks in the
wor l d -of-work in the future. In fact, ICT is the way of life for
the majority of us and we should be fully prepared to live in the
Malaysia has a vision called VISION 2020 with the purpose
of embracing the knowledge economy in order to become glo-
bally competitive. To be able to compete in the globalized
world, Malaysia need to develop knowledge workers. Thus, in
line with that VISION, The Ministry of Education in Malaysia
has recommended the mini mum ICT skill s that teachers sho uld
have in order to lead Malaysian students to compete in the global
economy. Countries that are able offer high skilled workforce
will be able to attract potential investment in large amount.
Technical and vocational education and training (TVET) has
the capability of preparing high skilled workforce and the inte-
gration of ICT in their classroom will enhance the quality of
TVET graduates and will make them the most sought after
potential employees. However, in order to integrate ICT in
TVET classroom, teachers must have t he requi r ed skills.
Many studies have been conducted in this country to assess
the level of ICT integration in the classroom (Paryono and
Quito, 2010; Sukri, 2010; Mahmud and Ismail, 2010; Ngah and
Masood, 2006; Wahab and Kaur, 2006; Mustapha, 2000; Bakar
and Mohamad, 1998). These studies report that the level of ICT
integration is low or moderate, and the integration of ICT into
the classr ooms is a dynamic process co nnecting variou s factors
such as teachers’ skills, experience with ICT, gender, age of
teacher, level of qualification, type of training, computer and
peripheral available at schools, and administration support.
These studies assessed the teachers’ basic ICT knowledge and
skills with the presumption that any teacher of any subject will
need to acquire it. Accordingly, the current study examines the
level of ICT integration as well as the new ICT skills that the
technical and vocational teachers need in teaching engineering
subj ects specifically in technical and vocat ion al schools in Ma-
ICT Skills and Integration
ICT has become an important component of education of
many nations. In some schools ICT is taught as a subject and
for the majority ICT is a teaching tool. ICT can do wonders in
classroom if used wisely by well-trained teachers. ICT en-
hances teaching and learning process by increasing students’
motivation. The use of ICT in classroom helps in the explana-
tion of difficult concepts so students’ are able to easily under-
stand those concepts. The integration of ICT in education can
takes several forms such as information and computer networks,
digital content, internet sites, multimedia and others. ICT inte-
gration can be defined as ICT use in classroom teaching (Lloyd,
2005). ICT integration in technical and vocational classrooms
(Kuskaya and Kocak, 2010; Crittenden, 2009) would involve
using instructional software during the course, making presen-
tations, carrying out the tasks in laboratories or workshops or
application services. However, Lloyd (2005) believed there are
conflicting definitions of ICT integration in classroom teaching.
To many of us, ICT integration in classroom is using ICT to
A.-O. ALAZAM ET AL.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
deliver knowledge to students, that means many of us probably
do not have a clear understanding about ICT integration in
Ma ny s tu dies h ave confirmed the impor tance of ICT integra-
tion in teaching and learning processes in technical and voca-
tional schools. For instance, Crittenden (2009) asserted that the
ICT use amon g technical edu cators is to transmit, sto re, create,
share or exchange information by various technologies such as
radio, television, video, DVD, telephone, satellite systems,
computers and the Internet. Few other studies (Jamsek and
Kocijancic, 2007; Abdulrasool and Mishra, 2009; Alseddiqi et
al., 2009; Bezjak, 2010) indicated that the IC T tools used i n the
classrooms of technical and vocational schools and in teaching
engineering subjects include computer-aided drawing and de-
sign (CAD), 2D/3D modeling, simulation products, diagrams,
hyperlinked text, video, picture and interactive examples.
Similarly, these studies have pointed out that using ICT in
the classroom would motivate students studying engineering
and sciences. Previous literatures on teachers’ skills and ICT
integration in the classroom (Cavas et al., 2009; Tezci, 2009;
Drent and Meelisen, 2008; Ngah and Masood 2006) have
shown that there are significant positive relationships between
teachers’ ICT skills and frequency of ICT use. Studies (Agyei
and Voogt, 2011; Inan and Lowther, 2010; Culp, 2005) have
shown that ICT skills are especially important for effective
usage of ICT and are the strongest predictor of technology in-
tegration in the classroom.
Purpose o f the Study
The main objective of this study was to describe the levels of
ICT skills of technical and vocational teach ers in Malaysia and
ICT integration in TVET classroom.
To achieve th ese ob jectives, t he follo wing research questions
1) What are the levels of ICT skills of technical and voca-
2) Are there any significant differences in technical and vo-
cational teachers’ ICT skills attributed to their demographic
3) To what exten t techni cal and vocat ional t eachers integrat e
ICT in their classroom teaching?
4) Is there a significant relationship between technical and
vocational teachers’ integration of ICT in the classroom and
their ICT skills?
5) Is there a significant difference of ICT integration as a
functio n of gender, age, t eaching experi ence, and th e availab il-
ity of ICT facilities?
Data were collected from technic al and vocat ional teacher s in
Malaysian technical and vocational schools using the survey
Populat i on and Sampli ng
The target population was the technical and vocational
school teachers who were teaching engineering subjects in
technical and vocational school. There were 81 technical and
vocational schools in Malaysia with 1666 teachers (Data pro-
vided on 26 January 2011 by the Department of Technical and
Vocational Education (TVE) under the Ministry of Education)
Cochran sampling technique (1977) was used to choose an
appropriate sample size from the population. The sample size of
323 teachers was decided. As the number of technical and vo-
cational teachers differed across the schools, the percentage
system was adopted so that the results may be accurately cal-
culated. The questionnaires were sent in surplus to each tech-
nical an d vocat ional schoo l. In all, 45 0 quest ionn air es were sent
to compensate for damage or failure in providing responses.
The survey instrument was developed in native language
(Malay) as well as in English. The instrument comprised three
parts (A, B, and C): Par t A contain ed questions about teacher s’
demographic characteristics, which include gender, age, teach-
ing experi ence, level of qual ific ation, type of training, and ICT
availability. Part B co ntained questions related to ICT integra-
tion int o the classr oom. Teachers ’ ICT in tegratio n was assessed
using 5-poin t Likert scal e (not at all = 1, seldom = 2, quite fre-
quent = 3, frequent = 4, very frequent = 5). Part C, which ass ess
the teachers’ ICT skills, was developed based on the following
literature: 1) Understanding Computers Today and Tomorrow
by Morley and Parker (2009); 2) Computer Graphics by Sourin
(2005); 3) Computer Education for Classroom Teaching by
Fook et al. (2007); 4) Principles of Multimedia by Parekh
(2006); 5) Engineering Drawing and Design by Madsen et al.
(2007); 6) AutoCAD 2009 in 3D, A Modern Perspective by
Puerta (2009); and 7) A Guide to Programming Languages by
Cezzar (1995). In addition, resources of the Department of
Education and Training, Western Australia (2006) and Jawarneh
et al. (2007) were of also used to develop the instrument.
Teachers’ skills about software packages (Microsoft Excel,
digital video, animation, simulation, CAD), programming lan-
guages, and World Wide Web were assessed based on 5-point
Likert scale (1 = unskillful, 2 = less skillful, 3 = moderate
skillful, 4 = skillful, and 5 = very skillful).
Validat ion and Pilot Te st i ng of the Instr ument
To verify the validity of the instrument, the advisory com-
mittee, a university professor of technical and vocational edu-
cation, and a qualified person with vast experience in the field
of computer technology have been asked to validate the ques-
The pilot test was carried out using 40 technical and voca-
tional teachers, who were not included in the main study. The
internal consistency and reliability of the instrument was esti-
mated using the Cronbach’s coefficient alpha. The overall re-
liability of the instrument was established at 0. 97.
Data Collection and Analysis
The researcher sent and received the questionnaires through
mail. From among 450 questionnaires that were sent out, 329
questionnaires were returned. After the questionnaires were
received, the researcher analyzed them using SPSS 18.0 soft-
The number of male respondents were higher (206, 62.6%)
than female respo n dents (123, 37 .4%). Their age range b etween
27 and 57 years old with the large percentage (37.1%) were
between 4 2 - 49 years. For th e years o f teachin g exper ien ce, th e
A.-O. ALAZAM ET AL.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
highest percentage was the below 10 years group (105, 31.9%)
followed by 11 - 18 years, 19 - 26 years, and 27 - 34 years.
Approximately 80% of the respondents hold a bachelor degree,
12.2% hold a diploma, and 8.2% hold a Master’s degree.
Major ity of the teach ers atten ded the basi c ICT cour ses (135,
41.0%) and courses related to Web, multimedia and program-
ming (129, 39.2%); courses related to ICT integration in teach-
ing and learning process were attended by 33 respondents
(10.0%), while 32 respondents (9.7%) did not attend any course
related to ICT. The respondent ranked ICT availability as
‘highly adequate’ (62.9%), 27.7% ranked it as ‘adequate’ and
9.4% ranked it as ‘inadequate’.
Teachers’ Lev els of ICT Skills
As sho wn in Table 1 , the level of ICT skills among technical
and vo cation al t eachers were mod erate (M = 2.42, S.D. = 0.64).
The ICT skills consisted of seven groups of skills in this study;
the highest mean was for skills of AutoCAD software (M =
3. 25 , S .D . = 1.07), followed by skills of World Wide Web (M =
2.75, S.D. = 0.81), skills of computer-aided design and drafting
(CADD) (M = 2.62, S.D. = 1.02), skills of Microsoft Excel (M
= 2.48, S.D. = 0.83), skills of digital video and animation (M =
2.27, S.D. = 0.83), skills of programming languages (M = 1.83,
S.D. = 0.72) and skills of si mu lation (M = 1.77, S.D. = 0.77).
Technical a nd V ocatio nal Teache r s’ ICT Skills
Attributed to Their Demographic Characteristics
A one-way anal ysis of vari ance was co n du cted to exp lor e the
role of age on levels of ICT skills (Table 2), the impact of
teaching experiences on levels of ICT skills (Table 3), and the
impact of level of qualification on levels of ICT skills (Table 4 )
among technical an d vocation al teachers.
Mean and Standard Deviation for ICT Skills Groups (N = 329).
ICT Skills Mean S.D.
Microsoft Excel 2.48 0.83
Digital video and animation 2.27 0.83
Simulation 1.77 0.77
AutoCAD software 3.25 1.0 7
Computer-ai ded des ig n a n d draf ti ng 2.62 1.02
Programming langua ges 1.83 0.72
World Wide Web 2.75 0.81
Total 2.42 0.64
Note: Not skill at all (1); less skillful (2); Moderately skillful (3); Skillful (4);
Very skillfu l (5).
Means an d st a ndard de v ia tions by age groups.
Age (years) N M S.D.
Below 33 87 2.63 .55
34-41 84 2.35 .59
42-49 122 2.38 .69
50-57 36 2.23 .64
F (3,325) = 4.691, p < .05.
Means an d st a ndard de v ia tions by teac hing expe r ience.
Teaching experiences (years) N M S.D.
Below 10 105 2.63 .56
11–18 101 2.30 .61
19–26 87 2.3 9 .70
27–34 36 2.2 7 .63
F (3,325) =5.946, p < .05.
Means and standard deviations of ICT skills by qualification.
Level of qualification N M S.D.
Diploma 40 2.30 .57
Bachelor 262 2.42 .64
Master 27 2.66 .64
F (2,326) = 2.576, p > .05.
As shown in Tabl e 2, subjects were divided into four groups
based to their age (Group 1: below 33; Group 2: 34 to 41;
Group 3: 42 to 49; Group 4: 50 to 57). There was a statistically
significant level of ICT skill among the four groups: F (3, 325)
= 4.691, p = .003. The effect si ze, calcul ated using eta squ ared,
was 0.05, which in Cohen’s (1998) terms would be considered
a small ef fect size.
Teachers’ teaching experiences were divided into four cate-
gories: below 10 years; 11 to 18 years; 19 to 26 years; 27 to 34
years). There was a statistically significant different of ICT skill
among the four groups: F (3, 325) = 5.95, p = .001. The effect
size, calculated using eta squared, was 0.03, which in Cohen’s
(1998) terms would be considered a small effect size.
The impact of level of qualification on levels of ICT skills
(Table 4) was analyzed using One-way ANOVA. Teachers
were divided into three groups according to their level of quali-
fication (diploma, bachelors and masters). There was no statis-
tically significant difference at p > .05 level in ICT skill scores
for the four groups: F (2, 326) = 2.579, p = .077. The effect size,
calculated using eta squared, was 0.02, which in Cohen’s (1998)
terms would be consi dered a small ef fect size.
An independent sample T-test was condu cted to compare th e
ICT skills for male and fe male teachers ( Table 5). There was a
significan t differen ce ICT skill le vels bet ween male s (M = 2. 50;
S.D. = 0.68) and females (M = 2.29; S.D. = 0.53); t (327) =
2.91 , p = < .004. Four categories of ICT skills were found to be
significantly different between male and female respondents.
Those skills were: Microsoft excel with p = < .03, digital video
and animation with p = < .04, AutoCAD with p = < .01, and
CAD with p = < .00. This magnitude of differences in the
means (eta sq uared = 0.10), in Cohen’s (1998) terms, would be
considered a large effect size.
A one-way analysis of variance was performed to discover
the difference of ICT skills as a function of type of training
(basic ICT course, related to ICT integration in teaching and
learning process, related to Web, multimedia and programming
languages, did not attend any course) and the available of ICT
facilities in schools on levels of ICT skills among teachers.
There was a statistically significant difference at p < .05 level
in ICT skill scores as a function of types of training attended
A.-O. ALAZAM ET AL.
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Results of t-test on the differen ces of ICT s kills as a f u n cti on of gender.
ICT skills Gender N M S.D. df t p
Male 206 2.56 .86
Microsoft Excel 327 2.179 <030
Female 123 2.36 .75
Male 206 2.34 .89
Digital video and animation 327 2.078 <.038
Female 123 2.14 .70
Male 206 1.81 .81
Simulation 327 1.234 .218
Female 123 1.70 .71
Male 206 3.36 1.09
AutoCAD 327 2.497 <.013
Female 123 3.06 1.03
Male 206 2.78 1.07
CAD 327 3.755 <.000
Female 123 2.35 .85
Male 206 1.87 .77
Programming langua ges 327 1.518 .130
Female 123 1.75 .63
Male 206 2.79 .84
World Wide Web 327 1.000 .318
Female 123 2.70 .74
Male 206 2.50 .68
Overall ICT skills 327 2.91 <.004
Female 123 2.29 .53
(F(3, 325) = 3.324 , p = .020). The effe ct size, calcul ated usin g eta
squared, was 0.03, which in Cohen’s (1998) terms would be
considered a small effect size. Those attended training related
to Web, multimedia and programming languages obtained a
significan tly higher mean scores than others (Table 6)
The availability of ICT facilities in school is divided into in-
adequate, adequate and highly adequate. Based on one-way
ANOVA, no statistically significant difference of ICT skills
among teachers was found based on the availability of ICT
facilities (F(2, 326) = 1.007, p = .367. The effect size, calculated
using eta squared, was 0.02, which in Cohen’s (1998) terms
would be consider ed a small effect size.(Table 7)
Means and standard deviations of ICT skills by types of training.
Type of training N M S.D.
Bas ic ICT course 135 2.36 .60
Related to ICT integration in teaching
and learning process 33 2.31 .68
Related to Web, multimedia and
programming languages 1 29 2.56 .61
I did not attending course 32 2.27 .77
F (3,325) = 3.24, p < .05.
Table 8 shows the levels of ICT usage in the classroom. It
showed that 36.8% of respondents frequently used ICT in the
classroom, 0.6% of teachers did not use ICT at all in the class-
room, 33.1% of teachers quite frequently used ICT in the
classroom, 21.6% of teachers seldom used ICT in the classroom,
and 7.9% of teachers very frequently used the ICT in the class-
room. The study shows that almost 70% of the respondents
used I C T in the classroom at a moderate l evel .
Means and standard deviations of ICT skills by the availability of ICT
ICT availability N M S.D.
Adequate 91 2 .36 .72
Highly adequate 207 2.44 .60
F (2,326) = 1.007, p > .05
Levels of ICT Usage in the Classroom .
Not at all
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We condu cted a ch i-square analysis (Table 9) to determine if
ICT integrat ion is dep endent on selected demograph ic variables
(gender, age, teaching experience, level of qualification, ICT
availability in school). Of these variables, only one variable,
that is, level of qualification appeared to have some influence
on the ICT integration in classroom (Χ2(8) = 24.24, p = 0.01).
Only those with a bachelor degree tend to integrate ICT more
frequently than the others.
In respect of the research question number one as to the level
of ICT skills among technical and vocational teachers in Ma-
laysia, this study found that ICT skills among technical and
vocatio nal teachers was moderate (M = 2.42, S.D. = 0.64). The
skills o f AutoCAD software were at a high level ( M = 3.25, S.D.
= 1.07), and the skills of programming languages (M = 1.83,
S.D. = 0.72) and simulation (M = 1.77, S.D. = 0.77) were at a
low level. The data derived from teachers’ questionnaire indi-
cate that a vast majority of the teachers participating in this
study have a moderate level of ICT skills for all seven catego-
ries of ICT skills were at moderate levels. The respondents
were found to be skillful in one particular category of skills,
AutoCAD skills. They had the lowest level in one category of
skills, that is, simulation skills.
Literature has highlighted the importance of ICT skills for
teachers for a greater integration of ICT into technical and vo-
cational education (Buntat et al., 2010; Paryono and Quito,
2010; Sukri, 2010; Usman and Pascal, 2009; Kumar et al.,
2008). Related tudies have shown that different skills and tech-
niques needed to teach engineering subjects in technical and
vocational schools; these skills include CADD, AutoCAD,
animation, video clips with multimedia, and simulation (Abdu-
lrasool and Mishra, 2009; Alseddiqi et al., 2009; Jamsek and
Kocijaancic, 2007). The findings of this study about teachers’
ICT skills are in congruence with previous studies. In this study,
a vast of majority of technical and vocational teachers pos-
sessed moderate levels of ICT skills. These results are consis-
tent with other published studies (Mahmud and Ismail, 2010;
Rosnaini, 2006; Bakar and Mohamed, 1998).
With respect to the research question number two as to
whether there were significant differences between teachers’
ICT skills and their demographic factors, the findings of this
study showed significant differences between teachers’ ICT
skills and gender. These results are in agreement with other
studies (Jowarneh et al., 2007; Sharif and Osman, 2005). Sur-
prisingly, although all teachers have equal opportunity to sit in
the training programs organized by MOE, the results indicate
that male teachers have higher levels of ICT skills than female
teachers, and these results are in contrast to other studies. In a
study by Jowarneh et al. (2007) of vocational teachers, it was
found that female teachers have higher levels of ICT skills
compared t o male teachers.
ICT int egration as a function of gen der, age, experien ce, an d f acilities.
Χ2 (4) = 9.58
(12) = 17. 65 0.13
Teaching experienc e
Χ2 (12) = 23. 25
Level of qualification
Χ2 (8) = 24.2 4
Χ2 (8) = 3.31
Χ2 (12) = 9.0 6
The present study also found significant differences of teach-
ers’ ICT skills as a function of their age and years of teaching
experience, in that younger teachers had higher ICT skills than
others. These findings are in congruence with other studies
(Kotrlik and Smith, 1989; Department of Education and Train-
ing, 2006; Lau and Sim, 2008) that reported that teachers’ age
has statistically significance with ICT skill scores and that
younger teachers have higher levels of ICT skills. Moreover,
tho se with fewer years o f teachi ng experi ence ar e the on es with
higher levels of ICT skills th an those with more years of teach-
Regarding the effect of type of training on teacher’s ICT
skills, t here were signi ficant differences between ICT skills an d
type of training at the 0.05 level of significance. These results
are in agreement with other studies (Mahmud and Ismail, 2010;
Ozden, 2007), which also indicate that teachers lacking ICT
skills is due to lack of pre-service and in-service training.
Moreover, the results of this study showed that the teachers
who did not attend any ICT course had lower ICT skill scores
than those who attended ICT courses. As shown in Table 6, the
highest scores were for teachers who attended training related
to Web, multimedia and programming languages. Notably,
these are part of the training curriculum of MOE.
With respect to the influence of ICT availability and level of
qualification on teachers’ ICT skills, there were no significant
differences at the 0.05 level of significance. These results are
not consistent with other studies (Oqunkola, 2008; Kumar et al.,
2008; Wozney et al., 2006), which indicated that ICT availabil-
ity influenced teacher’s ICT skills significantly. The difference
in the findings may be attributed to the presence of adequate
ICT resources in schools that participated in this study. The
teachers have had greater opportunities to enhance their ICT
skills with ICT resources available in their schools. We also
tested if there was a significant relationship between technical
and vocational teachers’ level of ICT use in the classroom and
their ICT skills, the findings of this study indicated that there
was a significant and positive correlation between teachers’
ICT skills and ICT use in the classroom. These results are in
agreement with few other studies (Drent and Meelisen, 2008;
Tezci, 2009; Agyei and Voogt, 2011). However, this finding is
in contradiction with a study by Kumar et al. (2008) that ex-
plored teachers’ readiness to use computers in secondary
schools in Malaysia. They found that there were no significant
linear relationship between teachers’ ability and skills about
using software and their actual use of computers. A chi-square
analysis to determine if ICT integration is dependent on se-
lected demograph ic variables (gender, age, teaching experience,
level of qualification, ICT availability in school) showed that,
of these variables, only one variable, that is, level of qualifica-
tion appeared to have some influence on the ICT integration in
classroom (Χ2 (8) = 24.24, p = 0.01). Only those with a bache-
lor degree tend to integrate ICT more frequently than the oth-
This study examines the levels of ICT skills and ICT use in
the classr ooms among tech nical an d vocation al teachers in Ma-
laysia. The findings indicated that the level of teachers’ ICT
skills was moderate, and the skills of AutoCAD software were
at a high level and the skills of programming languages and
simulation were at low level. Furthermore, there were signifi-
A.-O. ALAZAM ET AL.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
cant differences between teachers’ ICT skills and their gender,
age, years of teaching experience and type of ICT training, but
not with levels of qualification and ICT availability. In addition,
a vast majority of teachers who participated in this study were
frequent users of ICT in classroom teaching. However, the
study reveals that they ‘quite frequently use’ and ‘frequently
use’ ICT in classroom (70%) with only 8% heavy users. As
ICT is an important tool in education, teachers should be using
ICT very frequentl y in their teaching.
We need to increase the level of ICT usage in classroom.
Based on this present study, ICT usage in vocational and tech-
nical classroom is at a moderate level only. The level of ICT
usage in cl assroom may be attr ibuted to the skil ls they have. As
shown by the study, there was a significant correlation between
ICT use in the classroom and teachers’ ICT skills. But, it was
also discovered that the respondents’ ICT skills were not very
high. If it is true as found, some serious actions have to be tak-
en to ensure th at teachers do have the skil ls needed for them t o
integrate ICT I teaching vocational and technical subjects. The
study also showed that there were significant differences be-
tween teachers’ ICT skills and their gender, age, years of
teachin g experience and type of ICT trainin g, however it is not
reflected in ICT integration. In fact the study showed that ICT
training do influence ICT skills acquisition by teachers, where-
by those teach ers who atten ded trainin g obtained a significantly
higher ICT skills those who did not attend the training, but
based on chi-square analysis, attending ICT training has no
influence on ICT integration. This is something we need to
ponder. They have been trained in some ICT course and they
have skills, yet they do not integrate ICT in their teaching. The
relevant authority needs to find reasons as to why the ICT inte-
gration in vocational and technical classroom is low.
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Abdullah, N. A., Abidin, M. J. Z., Wong, S. L., Majid, O. & Atan.
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