Advances in Ma terials Physics and Chemistry, 2012, 2, 162-164
doi:10.4236/ampc.2012.24B042 Published Online December 2012 (
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. AMPC
Use of Compressive Reac tor for Associated Petroleum Gas
B. S. Ezdin, A. A. Nikiforov, V. E. Fedorov, A. E. Zarvin, S. A. Konovalov, V. V. Kalyada, I. V. M ishchenko
Department of Applied Physics, Novosibirsk State Universit y, Novosibirsk, Russia
Received 2012
The possibility of using of a pair of compression piston - cylinder with the unique performance features for the conversion of hydro-
carbon s are discusses. The experi mental facility en ables working in the p ressure range that would be unattainab le in diesel engines.
The necessary degree of compression is managed and maintained by the computer system with a feedback.
Keywords: Oxidation; Natural Gas; Assotiatied Gas; Chemical Compression Reactor
1. Introduction
For the past two decades, researchers in many countries try to
invent a direct method of natural and petroleum gas conversion
into heavy hydrocarbons bypassing a gas synthesis stage. The
idea is t o cr eate a co mpact hi gh-perfor mance mobi le p rocessing
unit to use it directly in the oil processing industry.
2. Experiment
Methods were developed to produce the synthesis gas and other
produ cts of associated gas fro m the natural gas in the ch emical
compression reactor - diesel engine for exampl e [1,2].
Research team headed by A. Nikiforov, has worked out a
method of a surface TECH-oxidation [3]. The covering resis-
tant to the thermal cycling, is highly resistant to abrasion and
heat. Th e coeffici ent of frictio n between th e two co verin gs do es
not exceed 5 * 10-2. Sur faces in the reacti on zone can withst and
operating temperatures of more than 2000 K. One of the pers-
pective applications of this innovation is to use a pair of com-
pression "piston - cylinder" with the unique performance fea-
tures for the conversion of hydrocarbons.
We have developed an original compression reactor to pro-
duce synthesis gas and for the controlled oxidation of asso-
ciated gas to ethers and peroxy compounds. The reactor con-
sists of piston and cylinder that are cooled. They are driven by a
crank mechanism with tension rod. This mechanism provides a
translational-rotational motion of the cylinder without lateral
forces on the piston. The reactor has a system of measuring
pressure in the reaction volume in real time. The construction
provides the controlled regulation mechanisms of the cylinder
upper dead point. These mechanisms have a response time of
0.1 seconds and an accuracy of 10 microns. Other mechanisms
feed the reacting mixture in the reaction volume with a mini-
mum response time of 0.5 ms. There is a system cooling the
piston and the cylinder of the reactor in order to maintain an
optimum gap between them. The working volume of the reactor
is 0.1 to 0.6 liters. The optimal frequency of reactor operation is
up to 10 Hz. The reactor is equipped with systems collecting
reaction products, systems separating raw materials that didn’t
react to bring them back to the reactor entrance. Hardware-
software system supporting the reactor provides on-line data
and enables to manage the reactor mechanisms in order to op-
timize and to increase the reaction outcome percentage.
The set in cludes the elect romechani cal reacto r startup syste m
and the s yst em collectin g the excess en ergy released d uring th e
chemical reactions. Without lubrication as the surface to sur-
face friction coefficient is low, there is no influence of lubri-
cating materi als durin g the process of chemical rea ctions in side
of the reactor. The reactor construction enables to have a pres-
sure above 100 atm in the chamber. This pressure in its turn
enables a wide range of chemical reactions. The pressure con-
trol mechanism inside of the reaction volume provides informa-
tion about the processes taking place during the reaction. The
appearance of the reactor, as well as remote control systems is
shown in the photographs (Figures 1-3).
We have carried out a series of primary research of the
process of the controlled chemical reaction in the chamber up to
the stage of the gas mixture oxidation and generation of ether
and peroxide compounds.
Figure 1. The appearance of the reactor. In the foreground is the
engine with a crank mechanism and tension ro ds .
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. AM PC
Figure 2. The pr oc es s remote control system ..
Figure 3. All the information about the proc es s is transferre d to the
operator's monitor.
Pentan e was used as a raw material. Main interest is the start
up of a chemical reaction in methane and methane mixture to
higher hydrocarbons. The calculated curve of methane and
methane mixture oxidation indicates the necessity to maintain
the reacti ng mixture pressu re at the level of 90 atm. According
to evaluations the pressure increase transfers the reacting sys-
tem from the mode of chain ignition to the quasistationary
mode of branched-chain oxidation, providing a high reaction
rate at relatively low temperatures. It also minimizes the influ-
ence of heterogeneous processes resulting in the formation of
deep oxidation products.
The experimental facility enables working in the pressure
range that would be unattainable in diesel engines. The neces-
sary degree of compression is managed and maintained by the
computer system with a feedback. That would be unavailable in
the alternative systems.
Samplin g from the reacti on vo lume was mad e thro ugh a spe-
cial channel drainage products from the compression chamber.
The analyzed sample was collected in an evacuated container
and transported to the analyzer. The analysis was performed
using the branching and the identification by GCMS-QP2010
Plus the company Shimadzu (Japan). Chromatographic column
used Supel Q-PLOT 30 m long and 0.32 mm inner diameter.
Search for sample components was performed by treating the
chromatograms of the total ion current. Identification of the
observed peaks in the chromatogram was performed by match-
ing the observed mass spectra and mass spectra of NIST elec-
tronic library.
The result of analysis of such samples at a compression
pressure of 60 atm shown in Table 1, and a fragment of the
chromatogram - in Figure 4. As expected, in mixtures with
high oxygen concentration was achieved complete combustion
of the reagents with the formation of the final products: carbon
dioxide and water.
We expect that the regime of mixtures with low oxygen con-
tent (up to 7%) would work in a chemical reactor mode conver-
sion of hydrocarbon and / or partial oxidation. The result of the
first tests setting in this mode are shown in Table 2, a fragment
of the chromatogram - in Figure 5. The analysis revealed the
presence of complex hydrocarbons.
Thus, this technological installation can be used as a free
piston engines with a low coefficient of friction, as well as to
achieve the parameters corresponding to the nonequilibrium
processes of synthesis of hydrocarbons. At present, successive
iterations are working to raise the pressure in the reaction vo-
lume in order to expand the exp erimentall y accessib le regio n to
study the effect of pressure on the processes of synthesis and
partial oxidation.
Table 1. Analysis of the composition of a sample number 12/05.
Number o f
the peak Re tention time ,
minutes. мин Peak area,% The substance
(chemical formula)
1 1.266 58,48 N2 and СО in the sum
2 1.266 10,04 О2
3 1,266 1,92 Ar
4 1.266 4,81 СН4
5 1.349 3,10 СО2
6 1.466 1,91 С2Н4
7 1.571 1,72 С2Н6
8 1.930 1,1 H2O
9 3.253 0,96 Propene C3H6
10 3.453 12,57 Propane С3Н8
11 6.573 0,11 Ethylene oxide C2H4O
12 7.984 0,22 Isobutane C 4H10
13 8.449 1,04 2-But ene,(Z ) C4H8
14 8.753 1,65 n-Butane, C4H10
15 8.965 0,25 2-Butene C4H8
16 9.117 0,07 2-Butene, (E) C4H8
17 13.757 0,0 4 С6Н6
Figure 4. Detail of chromatograms of sample number 12/05.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. AM PC
Table 2. Analysis of the composition of a sample number 17/06.
Number of the
peak Re tentio n time,
minutes. мин Peak area,% The substance
(chemical formu la)
1 1.266 37,26 N2 and СО in the sum
2 1.458 0,06 С2Н4
3 1.567 2,74 С2Н6
4 1.933 0,72 H2O
5 3.216 45,16 Propene C3H6
6 5.210 0,16 Dimethyl ether C2H4O
7 7.865 0,68 Isobutane C4H10
8 8.264 4,22 2-Butene C4H8
9 8.567 7,23 Butane, C4H10
10 8.764 1,21 2-But ene,(Z) C4H8
11 9.117 0,07 2-Butene, (E) C4H8
Figure 5. Detail of chromatograms of sample number 17/06.
3. Acknowledgements
The work is performed with the financial support of the grant
from the Russian government No. 11.G34.31.0046 for public
support of scientific research under the guidance of leading
scholars in Russian universities (leading scientist - K.Hanyalich,
NSU).and by the Ministry of Education and Science of the
Russia, project No. 1.22.12.
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