Creative Education
2012. Vol.3, Supplement, 177-180
Published Online December 2012 in SciRes ( DOI:10.4236/ce.2012.37B046
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Implementation of Team Project in “Foundation
Gang Wei
Department of Civil Engineering, Zhejiang University City College, Hangzhou 310015, China
Received 2012
Foundation treatment is required course of the architectural engineering direction of civil engineering
specialty in Zhejiang university city college. For students’ characteristics and the problems in teaching,
learning the engineering education of CDIO model and reforming the assessment criteria and the form of
homework, 18 extra-curricular additional projects and 14 curricular knowledge expansion projects were
added in the curriculum. The capabilities of students on teamwork, civil engineering design, and commu-
nication were developed through teamwork. Through this educational reform and practice it, it won the
praise of students.
Keywords: CDIO Model for Engineering Education; Teamwork; Foundation Treatment
Foundation treatment is a required course of the architectural
engineering direction of civil engineering specialty in Zhejiang
university city college, and it is also the key course of construc-
tion projects in our college. In the teaching process the follow-
ing issues were found that: (1) Existing materials more content
are main classic and sophisticated theory, so that it upgraded so
slowly. But the new techniques and methods of foundation
treatment continue to appear, so the textbook content can't sa-
tisfy students' needs for knowledge, and hasten to add new
extra-curricular knowledge; (2) the students are lack of enthu-
siasm for study. If the teachers adopt the mode of teaching and
"scripted" spoon-fed ground treatment knowledge to their stu-
dents, it will make student lose interest in studying and lack of
enthusiasm in learning. (3) Students’ skills on teamwork ,
communication can’t be developed under the traditional mode
of teaching, but those abilities are very important parts of CDIO
As the new techniques and methods of foundation treatment
appearing, how to integrate existing curriculum content and
collect the extra-curricular information which can be closely
integrated with the engineering practice are crucial. After it,
student can grasp the knowledge efficiently in the limited time,
and also improve the students' enthusiasm for learning at the
same time. In teaching practice, CDIO engineering education
mode was learned and the teaching content were adjusted to
supply the extra-curricular knowledge, expand curricular
knowledge, and develop students' teamwork, communication
capabilities by the form of team projects.
Specific Reform Ideas
It includes: (1) deepening supplementary items of extracur-
ricular knowledge which is original of book report. Students
hope to participate in the teaching actively in survey. So class-
room teaching mode was reformed to change the mode used by
the teacher lectures. Book report tem was hold in the classroom
since 2009, which is done by students for reading report on the
latest ground-based approach. Meanwhile, because the project
needs spending time outside the course, it is equivalent to
layout operations. Book report activities were held 10 times in
2009, 11 times in 2010, 12 times in 2011 totally. From the re-
flecting of school and students point of view, reporting activity
is good and got warm welcome from students. The reporting
activity will be added up to 18 times in 2012. First, decline the
team number to reduce the students who fish in trouble water
and allow more students came to present reporting; second, it
enables students to understand latest ground-based processing
technology related to course; (2) add curricular knowledge
expansion projects. Students express their textbook homework
is too boring and few students preview the course which suns to
14 times. So the expansion project of curricular knowledge was
proposed instead of homework. It is also a form of teamwork,
and requires students preview textbooks courseware in advance
to supply the knowledge and case which textbooks doesn’t not
The corresponding outline of the civil engineering profes-
sional CDIO is “Civil Engineering Major excellent engineer
training program”. Specific training capacity and weight for
this course after the reform includes: (1) the ability to query
information or electronic documents (2 weight); (2) explore the
field of civil engineering, new problems, new development
actively (1 point); (3) cultivate teamwork and collaboration (3
points); (4) having the organization, coordination and leader-
ship (0.5 points); (5) be good at the technical division of labor
and cooperation, and common goals (0.5 points); (6) having the
awareness and ability of the exchange and communication (1
points); (7) having the ability to communicate the use of writ-
ing, graphics, electronics and multimedia (2 points); (8) adept
at verbal expression, to organize reports and meetings to ex-
change (1 point); (9) master of civil engineering design prin-
ciples, processes and methods to make comprehensive use of
civil engineering expertise (5 points) where the full weights is 5
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
After the reform, the total score of the “foundation treatment
course” is composed as follows: (1) named and usually perfor-
mance, accounting for 20 points; curricular supplementary item
(2), accounting for 10 points; (3) extracurricular supplementary
item, accounting for 30 points; (4) final papers, accounting for
40 points.
Specific Rules for the Operation
Supply Extra-curricular Knowledge Item
The specific steps are as follows:
(1) Determine the subject. Not to repeat the same time keep
up the pace, choose a new foundation approach, to enable stu-
dents to broaden their horizons and expand their knowledge and
teaching materials. Determine the following topics: 1) root piles;
2) the length of pile composite foundation (pile of twin); 3)
low-strength concrete piles; 4) squeezed branch pile; 5) mi-
cro-piles; 6) screw piles; 7) Y-type and X-immersed tube pile; 8)
cased Secant Pile; 9) broken Stone Pile (plasma solid gravel
pile); 10) cast thin-walled cylindrical piles (piles); 11) bored
pile grouting technology; 12) nail-shaped and bi-directional soil
cement mixing pile; 13) of SMW method; 14) Drainage DJM;
15) Blasting; 16) low-temperature freezing (low temperature
brine and liquid nitrogen The); 17) manual digging pile; 18)
bubble mixed light soil.
Arrange a specific time for each subject in a specific week at
the same time. Extracurricular project subject arrangements
need to consider the convergence of content and teaching mate-
rials. For example, “the length of the pile composite foundation
(rigid-flexible combinations pile)” should be reported in the
second chapter of the composite foundation theory is finished;
“outing pile of rubble (pulp solid gravel pile)” in the fourth
chapter of the deep dense: cement fly ash (CFG pile gravel pile),
lime pile and the soil pile finished report; cement mixing me-
thod finished nail shape with bi-directional soil cement mixing
pile of SMW method should be reinforced in chapter 6 chemi-
cal after the report.
(2) Grouping of students. Base on the elective list, teachers
press 2 to 4 pairs are grouped into 18 groups. Students need to
replace the group may agree, and tell the teacher. Then select
the team leader by the group members themselves, reported to
the teacher. Finally, the subject of each group needs to deter-
mine the specific reporting time by the head of the ballot. Then
Fill in the information in Table 1.
(3) Tell students about the project implementation methods,
requiring a clear member of the division of labor.
Teacher uses an example to enable students to understand the
report content before a case such as the plastic casing concrete
piles (TC pile) steps. Students get together, first discuses topics,
and then gather, collate information, produce PPT, write text.
The report normally includes: the principle of this method (the
mechanism), scope, design methods, construction techniques,
construction procedures, machinery and equipment, construc-
tion notes, laboratory and field tests, projects and methods,
quality management and inspection methods, cite specific en-
gineering application. Meanwhile, we must answer the follow-
ing questions: 1) why is the technology to make; 2) technolo-
gical innovation point; 3) advantages and disadvantages of the
technology; 4) the scope of application of this technology.
Finally turn over the results of including text and PPT, the
text format “Rock and Soil Mechanics” papers template layout,
requiring the complete content, format, complete content of the
PPT requirements, and beautifully produced.
Members of the group came to power using the PPT forms
(auxiliary video or animation) make a report, display text, to
introduce students to the latest ground-based approach, the time
control in about 10 minutes. Introduced after the students,
teachers ask questions, teachers and students together to discuss.
Teachers finally conclude our discussion of control in about
five minutes. The whole event time is controlled in about 15
Specific division of the group 3 before class to find informa-
tion, write the text, the production of the PPT. One person is
responsible to explain the theoretical part, and a person respon-
sible for explaining actual case, one person is responsible for
answering the questions of teachers and students in class. (If the
team is the group of four people, two people responsible for
displaying the remaining two people assigned by the instructor
to answer questions; if the team is a 2 group, 2 per capita to
participate in the show, one of whom is also responsible for
answering questions).
(4) Assessment methods. The team project is the most diffi-
cult assessment methods, such as inappropriate and will cause
students to muddy the waters into a small number of people
doing other people robbing, while individual scores are difficult
to distinguish.
Table 1.
The list of extracurricular project team and scores table.
Sequence Title Leader, te am member s Report time/week Teacher score Group score Score of other team Final score
Supply items of the extra-curricular knowledge out of 30
points. Scores of specific composition and scoring criteria are
as follows: text accounted for 10 points; PPT production ac-
counted for 10 points; speech and answer questions accounted
for 10 points. Specific score consists of three parts: 1) teachers
ratings, the weight of 0.4; 2) team self-assessment, a weight of
0.3, average limit ( 24 points), while the highest score low-
est score difference is not less than 5 minutes fill in table 2 by
the team members, after consultation, sign and turned over by
the head of the teacher; 3) group peer assessment, weight of 0.3.
Each member of the other groups, complete table 3, the playing
team points, signature, and then taken by the head of the aver-
age, and paid teachers. In this way, you can get the team aver-
age, combined with the team self-assessment, and you can get
the scores of each team member. For example: the average
score of 24 points and a team self-assessment, head of the 27
points the rest of the team 24 points, 21 points, respectively.
Teacher’s score of 20 points, peer assessment of the other
groups were divided into 22 points. Weights can be the team's
average score: 20*0.4+24*0.3+22*0.3=21.8. The average point
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
of team self assessment is lower than 2.2 points, so the head of
a score of 27-2.2=24.8 other team members were 21.8 points,
18.8 points. The highest score of students will not exceed 30
Teachers give students about to clear the entire process of
project operation in the first class, and all students are divided
group, a clear report on the subject to report on time. Each item
in the next class on the publicity results, shown in Table 1, so
that students know their results. The last lesson, summarize the
average ranking of all teams, to identify the best team (top three)
in recognition to motivate students to compete.
Curricular Knowledge Expansion Projects
Its objective: according to the teaching materials by students
looking for extra-curricular material as a supplement other than
the teacher lectures to deepen students’ understanding of course
content knowledge. Requirements prior to download course-
ware learning, not allowed repeating with the courseware.
The specific operational procedures are as follows:
(1) Determine the subject. Arrange it for a total of 14 times,
specific topics are as follows: 1) 3rd class-replacement; 2) 4th
class-dynamic compaction; 3) 5th class- rubble pile; 4) 6th
class-pulverized cement gray gravel pile (CFG pile); 5) 7th
class- heap load preloading method; 6) 8th class-the vacuum
preloading method; 7) 9th class -soil cement mixing method; 8)
Section 10 sub-class-high pressure jet grouting method; 9) 11th
class - grouting method; 10) 12th class-civi l synthet ic materials;
11) 13th class-reinforced earth retaining wall; 12) 14th
class-anchor and soil nailing; 13) 15 classes-Underpinning
technology; 14) 16th class - rectification technology.
(2) Grouping of students. Teachers first elective list, arrange
3 to 5 pairs, a total of 14 groups, Leader elected by the students
themselves. Each subject prepared by the three groups. The
group order to determine the subject of each group. Each team
for a semester prepares three questions in this way. Give stu-
dents a clear title and report time listed in Table 4.
(3) The division of labor and assessment methods. Specific
reporting content, the process is similar to the extra-curricular
knowledge supplementary item, with emphasis on actual case.
The students work together turned over to the group before
class text and PPT.
Classroom time is limited, the general arrangement of a
group report, so the head of the drawing of lots to determine
which group came to power before class. Score from the team
self-assessment (weight 0.4) and teachers' ratings (the weight of
0.6) composition. The team self-assessment is done by the team
members signature, and turned over by the group head (see
Table 5), and average is limited (to 8), and the highest
score lowest score difference of not less than 2 minutes.
Teachers, students turned over to the PPT and text, as well as
the coming to power of the performance of the group, given the
scores. Combined with the project self-assessment, take the
average final score of the 3 curricular items project team from
the results of each member.
Usage of BB Platform
Teachers and students use the BB platform together. Teach-
ers upload before a week classes. Extra-curricular, curricular
projects are uploaded the final students grouping list in a timely
manner. Student uploads achievement timely each time after
class. Students advance through the BB platform download
courseware, preview and make appropriate curricular project
courseware, you can download and learn from others' results.
Other Instructions
(1) The teaching schedule is ready, and arranges the items of
each class before the first class.
(2) The first lesson is critical, the project should be explained
clearly points to the students group to elect the leader, deter-
mined by the head of the ballot title and reporting time. Give
good information to each head of hair staple. Extra-curricular
group include: teaching schedule, Table 2, Table 3, the proj ect
implementation manual (extracurricular); curricular team in-
cludes: Table 4 and Table 5, the project implementation ma-
nual (class within).
Table 2.
Teams self assessment form (Extra-curricular projects).
Group number Score Average mark Signature
Group leader
Table 3.
Other teams score table (set of ratings).
Group number Score Average mark Signature
Group leader
Table 4.
Curricular project team list and scores table.
Sequence Leader, team members Reporting time
( weeks )- Title Teacher score Team self-ratings The final results
1 Group leader:
Group member:
3 --- Replacement
7 ---Preloading
12 --- Geosynthetics Group leader: (_score), group member:
(_score), group member(_score)
Table 5.
Team self-evaluation form (Curricular projects).
Group number Score Average mark Signature
Group leader
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
(3) Implementation of the project's biggest challenge is the
control of teachers' time. From the time a lot of teaching mate-
rials, how to accurately control the time has become a big
problem. Accounted for a class project for the allocation of
time, the general content of textbooks, cases accounted for a
class, named time can be flexible. Don’t arrange extra-curricu-
lar projects for much cycles of the curriculum.
(4) The subject of teaching materials after the reform before
the operation about one hour each time, a total of 15 times,
namely 15 hours. After the reform, each student needs to do
four projects (an extra-curricular and curricular), which has less
time before the reform.
The student response is very good since implementation of
project. There were 36 people came to report extra-curricular
project for each class, and 14 people came to power reporting in
the curricular project, so almost all students have the
opportunity came to power exercise. The following students’
attention are much focused when the students speech on the
stage. The activities not only improve students’ learning
initiative and classroom attention, broaden students' knowledge
and understanding of the latest methods of ground treatment,
but also exercise the student’s teamwork, independent learning,
and writing text, the production of PPT and communication
ability .
Wei Gang, Zhang Shimin, Wei Xinjiang. The reform of teaching and
practice foundation treat ment curriculum. Journal of Shanghai Poly-
technic College of Urban Ma, vol. Supp.1: 99-100, 2009. (In Chi-
Translated by Gu Peihua, Shen Minfeng, Lu Xiaphua.
Re-understanding of the engineering education - International CDIO
training mode and methods. Beijing: Higher Education Press, 2009.
(In Chinese)