Analysis of Awareness and Utilization of BIM in Civil
Seo, MyoungBae
ICT Convergence and Integration Research Division
Korea Institute of Construction Technology
Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea
Kim, JinUk
ICT Convergence and Integration Research Division
Korea Institute of Construction Technology
Goyang-Si, Gyeonggi-Do, Republic of Korea
Recently, Building Information Modeling (BIM) has emerged as a hot topic in the construction industry. However, the
application of civil engineering, both domestic and foreign, is minor because of the distribution in a wide area, highly liner dependence and
difficulty to take advantage of the standard library. Civil engineering requires a lot of time and financial resources compared to
architectural engineering. If BIM is completely applied to civil engineering, it will be possible to manage the schedule and cost using 3D
and facilitates effective communication between various stakeholders. For the application of BIM in civil engineering, we surveyed the
awareness, utilization and effectiveness of BIM on the civil engineering companies. Also, we derived necessary improvements and
analyzed new business areas for BIM application. The results of the study will be used as a reference of development for SOC civil
engineering BIM ordering guide and related standard.
Keywords- BIM, Civil Engineering, Infra structure, Utilization, standard
1. Introduction
In the construction field, BIM has been highlighted as a
hot issue. Various definitions exist for BIM. Ministry of
Land, which is the central government agent that generates
the construction has been establishing a digital model that
provides trustworthy evidence that can aid in decision
making during the life cycle of the facility based on the
biological or functional qualities of the facilities in all areas
of construction including buildings, civil, and plants as well
as collecting the business processing and defining it as BIM
[1]. In case of Korea, since 2012, PPS has prioritized the
application of BIM in construction of turnkey and design
competition of over 50 billion won, and by 2016, it will be
expanded as all constructions will be the targets. Currently,
researches related to BIM are being widely conducted.
However, in civil engineering areas such as road
constructions, BIM distributes in large areas and not only is
the linear dependence great but due to conditions that make
it difficult to apply the standard library makes application in
domestic and foreign areas very negligible.
In case of civil engineering, it consumes much more
expenses and air compared to construction, so if BIM can be
applied adequately, the effects would be much higher.
Therefore, BIM ordering guides in public organizations
related to civil engineering and development in related
standards is becoming considered as very important.
Therefore in this research, by taking civil engineering as
the target, awareness of BIM, practicality, evaluation of level
in business values will be surveyed and by understanding the
BIM application technical standard, and will be used as the
base resources for future civil related BIM research, public
ordering guide, and standard development.
2. Pre-Survey on BIM
2.1 Objectives of BIM
What is the essential reason of applying BIM? The
greatest and oldest BIM related International Organization
called buildingSMART is displays the words ‘better’,
‘faster’, ‘cheaper’ and recently, ‘safer’ and ‘green’ has been
added as well[2]. Eventually, in the perspective of the
company, the essential revenue would be ‘creating a lot of
revenue.’ The objectives mentioned earlier have been
consequence due to the revenue of each organization. Many
people already know and believe that in the near future, BIM
will be conducted in form of basic working system.
Therefore, diverse surveys have been conducted on factors
that prevent the activation of BIM.
2.2 Surveys regarding the awareness of BIM in domestic
and foreign areas.
According to the 2008 SmartMarket Report of United
States, based on the survey results of applied restraints of
BIM, lack in education and BIM professionals, lack in BIM
introduction expenses and will, and lack in costs have been
displayed as factors that restrain the activation of BIM [3].
According to the survey that was conducted BuildingSmart
Korea Organization and Construction Organization in 2008,
81% of the survey targets held BIM software, but those who
took advantage of it were small in numbers and difficulties
have been rising in terms of education and operation.
In terms of the survey results conducted by Ju Ki Bum
(2010) on construction companies, those who knew about
BIM were reported as 81.3%, but those who did not know
about BIM were reported as 16.3%. The restraint factor in
introduction of BIM were reported as confusion/absence of
government policy, lack of success cases of practical
application, equipments and products of high costs, and
absence of operators[4]. According to the research results on
Open Journal of Applied Sciences
Supplement2012 world Congress on Engineering and Technology
166 Cop
ht © 2012 SciRes.
survey analysis of application status of BIM in small and
medium architectural design office, 80% answered that they
do not use BIM and the 52% answered that they do not use it
because it is difficult to use. 20% responded that they do not
feel the need to use it[5]. However, the reported results are
content that are the overall area of construction or limited to
just the construction field, so it is currently difficult to
understand the awareness of BIM, application status, and
level determination.
3. Analysis of Awareness and
Application Status of BIM in Civil
In this research, in order to survey on the level of
awareness of users regarding BIM of civil engineering field,
increased usage of BIM and important changes, applicable
tasks, investment revenue sector, and importance of
preliminary research for application in BIM were conducted
and the results were analyzed. For this survey, targets were
25 companies that have the highest contractor ranking out of
all the engineering companies.
3.1 Distribution of Respondents
After analyzing the positions of the respondents, it has
been displayed that surveys were distributed between
directors(40%), officers(36%), chiefs (20%), deputy(4%) in
that order(refer to Fig.1). In terms of division between
working period in the company, those who were employed
for more than 10 years took up 80%, those who worked
below 5~10 years took up 12%, and those who took up
below 3~5 years took up8%(refer to Fig.2). As the result of
surveying the distribution of survey, more than 95% had the
position of chiefs or higher, and more than 92% had been
employed for more than 5 years. Those who had a lot of
experience and higher ranking were considered as more
reliable as level research regarding BIM took place.
Figure 1. Distribtion per position
Figure 2. Distribution per
working period
3.2 Increase in Usage of BIM and Important Changes
When a question was asked on the year-on-year increase
in usage of BIM, 40% responded that the number is below
10% and those who responded as below 10%~50% were
reported as 40% (refer to Fig. 3). The response to answering
the question about the important changes of BIM varied.
40% responded that the changes were increased, 56%
answered that it is average, and only 4% answered that it
became lower (refer to Fig. 4).
Figure 3. In crease in usage of BIM
compared to earlier year
Figure 4. Importance in Changes
of BIM
According to the survey result, the usage of BIM in civil
engineering field is continuously growing and the level of
awareness in users has been increasing as well.
3.3 Tasks that are to be applicable on BIM
For the question that inquired about which method BIM
would be applied if it was introduced, the highest was 15%
in which they stated that they want to utilize it for
The next highest was 10% with interference check,
quantity, process management, design and production of
drawing. Also, those included in the 8% were structural
analysis, maintenance management of facilities, automatic
quotation, and feasibility study. However, visualization,
analysis, and regulation check were relatively low (refer to
Fig. 5) .
By following the application of BIM according to the
research results, as the 2D delivery system switched into the
3D delivery system, it has been analyzed that it will create
effects in stimulation and interference check. Thus, even
though BIM can be utilized as a very strong tool for this law
card, there have not been sufficient amount of education or
applied cases regarding the content, resulting in a relatively
low outcome in the task where application is desired.
The rest of the opinions such as landscape management,
asset management, facility obsolescence forecast have been
reported as possible for application
Figure 5. Tasks that desire to apply BIM
3.4 Prediction of revenue in contrast of investment
through the application of BIM
In order to make predictions about the revenues, 8 items
were derived and were distinguished into 3 stages with
increasing state, no changes, and decreasing state. According
to the survey results in making prediction regarding the
revenue, the highest number was 92% stating that
ht © 2012 SciRes.167
multilateral communication and comprehension will become
increased. In addition, opinions which stated that optimistic
influence in marketing will increases took up 84%, those
stating that on-site safety will increase took up 80%, and
52% stated that task abilities in progressing projects will
become enhanced. On the other hand, there were negative
answers stating that productivity of employees will decrease,
project costs will increase, and project circulation time will
increase were high in numbers (refer to Fig. 6).
According to the survey result, due to the 3D
visualization, more distinct modeling has been made possible
as when compared to 2D formation. This led to amplification
in communication and comprehension, optimistic aspects of
marketing, and making it possible for prediction of site
safety leading to high revenue following pre-recognized
dangerous elements.
However, in relative terms, following the complexity of
modeling comes with the reduction in productivity of
employees as well as purchase expenses of BIM related
software, increased amount of time in production following
the complexity of the model, and acquisition costs of
professionals have been analyzed to cause negative influence
on the revenue structure. These are assignments that need to
be solved in introducing BIM to the civil engineering field.
Figure 6. Prediction of returning revenues from investment through the
application of BIM
Analysis of Importance that needed for application of BIM
In order to analyze the importance, 14 kinds of survey
items were derived and were divided into 3 stages such as
increase in the importance, no significance, and decrease in
the importance.
In the level of analysis results regarding the importance
in the application of BIM, importance of enhancement in
BIM software and compatibility between BIM software
applications took up the highest responds of 92%. Next were
opinions that stated the importance of educational training
regarding BIM application as well as detailed information
through 3D resulting product and possibility of production
took up 80%. The next highest responses were regarding
modeling service that can easily be used outdoors and
interests regarding BIM as well as owners and executive
officers. On the other hand, the opinions pointing out the
importance of cost reduction of BIM software was relatively
low. Therefore, the level of importance regarding software
cost was analyzed as the lowest (refer to Fig.7).
Figure 7. Importance needed for application of BIM
4. Conclusion
Based on the survey result on engineering companies,
application of BIM in the civil engineering field is
continuously increases, and the awareness of importance was
very high. Especially, it has been reported that introduction
of BIM in stimulation, interference check, calculation of
quantity, process management and drawing production
would cause a large effect. When BIM is introduced, the
areas that would display the biggest effects in contrast of the
investment are multilateral communication and increase in
comprehension, increase in positive impact of marketing,
and increase of site safety. On the other hand, it has been
reported that there are concerns regarding reduction in
productivity of employees, increase project costs, and
increase in the project time. The importance of application in
BIM have been reported as the functional enhancement of
relevant software and interoperability between software.
In order to do so, software manufacturing companies
related to BIM have to strengthen the cooperation system
and in addition to the national plans and policies needed for
settlement practices, development of related standards,
training program and education of BIM practitioners have
been considered as urgent. In addition, in order to
materialize the BIM product and clarify the scope of work,
related guidelines would be considered as important. This
research can be applied for future BIM ordering guideline
and evidence of related standard developed as well as basic
5. AcknowledgmentG
This research was conducted as a part of the major
project(12 important-commissions) in Development of Infra
BIM Standard and Verification Technology of KICT (Korea
Institute of Construction Technology) and we are thankful
for this opportunity. GG
[1]Ministry of Land, Construction Field BIM Application
Guide, , 2010
[2]Offical Website of Buildingsmart,
168 Cop
ht © 2012 SciRes.
[3] McGraw Hill Constrcution, SmartMarket Report, 2008
[4]Ju Gi Bum, Shin Yoon Suk, Basic research on the
improvement on construction design price following the
application of BIM, Thesis Collection of Technical
Thesis presentation of Korean Construction Institute,
v.10, n.2, pp.171-174, 2010
[5]Park Ha Neul, Hwang Young Sam, Research on survey
analysis on the current status of BIM application on
small and medium sized architecutral design offices,
Korean Construction Conference 30th No.1, pp109-110,
ht © 2012 SciRes.169