Investigation and Research on the Ordinary University
High Level Track and Field Sports Teams in Sichuan
Dawei Li1, Bin Wang2
College of Physics Education, Neijiang Normal University, Neijiang, Sichuan, China
Abstract: by using the method of literature, questionnaire and mathematical statistics and comparative analysis and
research method of sichuan university high level survey of the Track and field team, sichuan university high level Track
and field team and the analysis of existing problems and research, in order to sichuan university of high level Track and
field teams development to provide the reference.
Keywords: sichuan; Ordinary university; The high leve Track and field team; research
1. Introduction
Sichuan province is one of the earliest provinces try-
ing to do high level sports teams in China. In the past 20
years, it has made great achievement, while also existed
many problems, for example: imperfect competition
system, serious lack of excellent students, lack of funds,
low efficiency of coaches, "learning and training" con-
tradiction, etc. therefore, this paper made a further anal-
ysis on project layout, recruiting students, management
system, competition rules, financing Investment, training
effect and coaches of university track-and-field team in
Sichuan province. Trying to find out problems and pro-
viding provides the theory basis for the positive devel-
opment of the track team and the advance of sports level,
offering a force for functional department policies and
for the healthy development of track and field sports in
universities of Sichuan province. It has important theo-
retical and practical significance on improving the whole
quality of sports talent, training excellent sports talents,
promoting the development of competitive sports.
2. Research object and research me-
2.1 Research object
This paper takes 131 high level athletes, including
male 67, female 64 as the research object, who are from
9 universities in Sichuan, and they are Sichuan Univer-
sity(SU), University of Electronic Technology(UET),
Southwest Jiaotong University (SWJTU), Chengdu Uni-
versity of Traditional Chinese Medicine(CUTCM), Xi-
hua University(XU), Xihua Normal University(XNU)
and Southwest Oil University Institute of Cheng-
du(SOUIC). It also makes an investigation about experts
and coaches in the fields of track and sports training
project and university. It contains investigation 20 ex-
perts, 16 male and 4 female; investigation coaches 31,
23 male and 8 female.
2.2 Research Methods
2.2.1 Literature Study
2.2.2 Expert Interview
2.2.3 investigation method Questionnaire
Respectively issue questionnaires survey to coaches
and athletes of high level track and field in 3 universi-
ties, such as Sichuan University, University of Electron-
ic Technology, and Southwest Jiaotong University
(SWJTU). The Design of the Questionnaire and Validity
of Inspection The Design of the Questionnaire
Before making questionnaire, read lots of books
about social survey, research methods and athletic
sports. According to the research content and purpose,
interviews with experts, and on the basis of research
methods, in strict accordance with the basic require-
ments of the questionnaireˈadopt the suggestion from
supervisor and experts to design coaches and athletes
questionnaire, and finally carry on the questionnaire
validity and reliability test, to determine the feasibility
of the questionnaire. Combine close and open method to
design the athletes, coaches and experts questionnaire.
Inspect the questionnaire validity in the way of
agreement by experts. After two rounds to delete, sup-
plemented and adjustment, the questionnaire finally
complies with the requirements of the validity of the test. Questionnaire Reliability Testing
The reliability of the questionnaire inspection uses
two tests methods, respectively test the subjects of ex-
perts, coaches and athletes then test again, the time in-
terval of two measures for 15 days. Calculate two
questionnaires correlation coefficient by SPSS, experts
questionnaire R=0.892ˈp<0.01, coaches questionnaire
R=0.873 ˈP<0.01, athletes questionnaire R=0.854ˈ
Open Journal of Applied Sciences
Supplement2012 world Congress on Engineering and Technology
148 Cop
ht © 2012 SciRes.
p<0.01. To illustrate the high reliability, the reliability
of three copies agrees with requirements. Issue and recycling
From the mid of April to Augest in 2011, issue
questionnaire by onsite and delivery. Please look at the
following table. This investigation of the questionnaire
recovery is more than 70%, so the questionnaire can
meet the needs of the study.
Table 1 Issue and recycling
Type issue recycle valid recovery effective rate
Athletes 140 134 131 95.7% 97.7%
coaches 35 33 31 94.2% 93.9%
Experts 20 20 20 100% 100%
2.2.4 Expert Interview
According to research results to write interview out-
line, then please experts answer related questions by
written or oral.
2.2.5 Mathematical Statistics Method
Analyse statistical data by SPSS.
2.2.6 Logical Reasoning
Carefully compare, analyse, summarize and expound
the researching view by logical knowledge and method.
3. Results and Analysis
3.1 External Factors Analysis on the Development of
High Level Track and Field Team in Ordinary Uni-
versity of Sichuan province
3.1.1 The Project Layout of University High Level
Sports Teams in Sichuan
The project layout in 9 ordinary universities of high
level sports teams is traditional items: track, swimming,
basketball, also includes Go, KongFu and Taekwondo.
table2Distribution table of ordinary university high level
sports teams
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3.2 Internal Factors Analysis on the Development of
High Level Track and Field Team in Ordinary Uni-
versity of Sichuan province 3.2.1 Team Mode of Uni-
versity High Level Track Team in Sichaun
Table3 team mode of high level track sports team
(N=31) frequency % order
school 19 61.3% 1
province&school 9 29.0% 2
province team school-run 3 9.7% 3
According to table 3: school takes up 61.3%, prov-
ince & school is 29.0%, and province team school-run
takes up 9.7%. At present, the ordinary university high
level sports teams in Sichuan province form proper mo-
tion team organized with characteristics of sports. Prov-
ince team school-run, Sports authority distributes funds
directly to college, realizing the real meaning manage-
ment of high level athletes in the school. Universities
and province professional leagues joint team together,
schools are responsible for athletes' culture study and
students' identity management, professional leagues are
responsible for the athlete's training, schools take part in
the contest, when the professional leagues have du-
ty,they are on behalf of the professional leagues to take
part in the game.
Table 4 School athletics team training system (N=31)
frequency % order
one-stop training system 5 16.7% 3
Introduction system 4 13.3% 4
University-centered system 14 46.7% 1
School association system 7 23.3% 2
Above all, now University-centered system takes up
46.7%, School association system 23.3%, one-stop
training system 16.7%, Introduction system 13.3%.
3.2.2 Athletes Sources
Table 5 identity before entering the college
(N=131) frequency % order
High school students 76 57.6% 1
Sports students 38 29.0% 2
Athletes in Sports Team 7 5.3% 4
Retired Athletes 10 7.6% 3
From table 5˖high school students 57.6%˗sports
stude nts 29.0%˗retired Athletes 7.6%˗Athletes in
sports team only 5.3%. Sports level in College athletes
generally is not high. The large proportion of students is
from ordinary schools, and this part of players only has
little importantce to improve college athletic sports.
3.2.3 Learning and Training Contradiction of Athletes in
High Level Track and Field Team
Table 6 daily training influents study
(N=131) frequency % order
No influence 32 24.4% 2
Some influence 79 60.3% 1
Much influence 16 12.2% 3
Serious influence 4 3.0% 4
Apparently no influence is 24.4%˗while some in-
fluence, much influence and serious influence is 60.3%,
ht © 2012 SciRes.149
12.2% and 3.0%ˈwhich shows athletes are influenced
by study. High level athletes spend much energy and
time on training and contests, at the same time, they also
should finish study test, it is quite difficult for them.
Table 7 how to deal with games and courses
(N=131) frequency % order
Exemption 9 6.9% 4
Deferment examination 48 36.6% 2
Not included in the performance 11 8.4% 3
Tests give bonus 55 42.0% 1
Others 8 6.1% 5
As you know, “tests give bonus” and deferment ex-
amination is relatively 42.0% and 36.6%, the forst two.
In the survey, most of universities take measures reduce
scores or some requirements in athletes’ study , such
they can graduate.
Table 8 How to solve the contradictions
(N=31) frequency % order
Reduce the requirement of culture course 20 64.5% 2
Holiday (including weekends) make up a missed lesson 1 3.2% 4
Extended learning time 13 41.9% 3
Reduces The Training Time 1 3.2% 4
Get scores by training & contests,
not taking nondegree courses 26 83.8% 1
others 1 3.2% 4
In table 8, “get scores by training & contests, not
taking nondegree courses” and “reduce the requirement
of culture course” is 83.8% and 64.5%ˈ taking the first
two, the reason is sports training and culture education
have different rules. Excellent athletes need a lot of time
to train; they can't step by step as the general cultural
courses of study. If you want to change this kind of situ-
ation, you need to deeper discussion from the system,
and further open and introduce new ways.
3.2.4 Training Time of Athletes in High Level Track and
Field Team
Table 9 traing time
(N=31) times per week frequency % time frequency %
1~2 2 6.4% below 90m 3 9.7%
3~4 8 25.8% 90~120m 10 32.3%
Beyond 7 3 9.6% 150m 17 54.8%
5~6 18 58.0% beyond 120~150m 1 3.2%
In table 9: “semester training(not including holidays)
and whole year training(including holidays)”is 51.1%
and 32.8%ˈwhich shows the plan of high level track
and field team in Sichuan is very good. In addition, “5~6
˄time/week˅and 90~120m”is 58.0% and 54.8%ˈand
is shows training time in most universities is valuable,
the detailed training plan is arranged by each university.
Now the university training has gradually entered the
regularization, and its measure standard only stays on
training time.
3.3. Coaches' Construction of High Level Track and
Field Team
Table 10 the proportion of men and women
(N=31˅ frequency %
Men 23 74.2%
Women 8 25.8%
At present, the proportion of coaches is large, men
coaches have 23, 74.2%, and women coaches have 8,
25.8%, which has some relationship with coaches’
working reason.
3.3.1 The Structure of Coaches
Table 11 working situation
(N=31˅ frequency %
Full-time 6 19.4%
Part-time 25 80.6%
Part-time coaches accounts for 80.6%; Full-time ac-
counts for 19.4%. Visibly, in high level track and field
teams, coaches are mostly physics teachers, full-time
coaches are not many. Part-time coaches not only finish
teaching task, but also serve as the other school sports
work. Some coaches even undertake administrative
3.3.2. The coaches' age and title structure
Table 12 title
(N=31˅ frequency %
Instructor 7 22.6%
app:ds:associate app:ds:professor 20 64.5%
Professor 4 12.9%
Coaches' title structure reports their creativity. At
present, 64.5% is associate professor, the first, associate
professor of coaches have richer teaching experience
and the theory training. At present, associate professor
title is given priority in high level track and field team,
the coach's title structure is reasonable.
3.3.3. The Coaches' Education and Experience
Table 13 education background
(N=31˅ frequency %
Bachelor 19 61.3%
Master 12 38.7%
The coaches' education can reflect whether the
coaches can use of the knowledge of the multidiscipli-
nary to guide the training and competition. At present,
coaches' education in high level track and field teams
mostly is in the bachelor degree (61.3%), the master
degree is little (38.7%), which has certain gap with the
requirement of the ministry of education, and it puts
forward to 2005, the proportion of university teachers
with master degrees, the teaching research universities
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reach above 80%; general universities reaches more than
3.3.4. Factors Influent the Coaches Improve
Table 14 factors influent training
(N=31˅ frequency % order
Coaches evaluation system 7 22.5% 8
Coaches of full-time 12 38.7% 4
Education and title 3 9.6% 9
Dedication to work 10 32.2% 5
Teaching time and experience 8 25.8% 6
Sports experience 8 25.8% 6
Leader supports 14 45.1% 3
Train funds 19 61.2% 1
Train time 15 48.3% 2
According to the results of the survey, firstly, "train
funds" 61.2%, shortage of funds is a common problems,
to some extent, it affects sustainable development of
training work in Sichuan province.
3.3.5. Practice facilities and other basic security
Table 15 Training ground and equipment can meet the
(N=131˅ frequency % order
Fully meet the need 27 20.6% 2
Basically meet the need 93 71.0% 1
Can’t meet the need 11 8.4% 3
71.0% of ground and equipment can meet the need,
which shows most universities can meet the training
need in ground and equipment.
3.4 Development Countermeasures of Universities
High Level Track and Field Team in Sichuan Prov-
3.4.1 People-oriented, overall development, practically
and effectively solve the contradictions
University, as the base for training personnel, on the
one hand, develops sports and education, has the advan-
tages of overall development personnel training. Cur-
rently in the cultivation of college high level athletes, the
contradictions between learning and training are more
apparent. The present universities sports teams should
strengthen athletes' supervision and management on
study, and the credit system management. According to
the task of training, athletes can choose the appropriate
course; such there may be more comfortable time to
ensure learning and training. Most universities for out-
standing students in competition give part of the elective
credits to encourage college athletes to learn. To streng-
then the connection and communication between each
colleges, and clear accountability, build an environment
for graduate college athletes. Taking scientific method in
the training, at the same time to think that this is in line
with the concept, maximize the ease study and training,
outstanding talents with all-round development in train-
ing goal.
3.4.2 Broaden the channels of recruit students; make
great efforts to build a dragon training system
Our country should make efforts to guide college
high level sport teams to enroll more excellent sports
reserve talented person from all kinds of traditional
sports school and sports characteristics school. China's
“one-stop” training system is an effective way to train
high level athletes; in the recruitment of students we
should learn effective experience, in the policy to give
outstanding athletes some priority. For a special perfor-
mance athletes direct an exemption to school. “One-
stop” training mode has obvious advantages: first, sys-
tematic learning, student athlete uninterrupted attend
study which help students to master the knowledge.
"One-stop" training mode secures the training efficiency
of the high level athletes. Second, the student athletes
accept systematic training from the birth which lay good
sports foundation, and create the possibility to obtain
higher levels later. Finally, a dragon pattern can fully
mobilize students' learning interest and form a good ha-
bit of studying, and do the all-round development of
morality. So building a "one-stop" athletes training lin-
kage system accelerates cultivation of sports reserve
talented person and broaden the main channel of ama-
teur training.
3.4.3 Promote the combination of sports and education;
create a high level coach team
The coach team of high quality is the key of improv-
ing sports training level, excellent coaches is undoubted-
ly the powerful guarantee of athletes achieving good
results. In the coaches training, ministry of sports streng-
thens the cultivation of physics teacher in university.
Through holding sports coaches post training to syste-
matic train college sports trainers, improve the coaches’
study and application of advanced training method and
idea. And also improve the ability to analyze and solve
problems, improve the ability of scientific research and
management, develop the coaches' spirit of innovation
and initiation. To continuously introduce and train of
highly educated coaches, improve coaches' level of
scientific research ability, improve the structure of the
coaches’ team, construct a complete set of scientific
training program. At the same time, organize college
coaches go abroad or to study advanced management
experience and training experience and innovation con-
cept, and constantly improve the coaches' ability.
3.4.4 Strengthen the application of scientific research
method in sports training
In the university's track and field training, diagnosis
and analysis of action and training methods is general
lack, the existing training methods and means still focus
on coaches' experience, university's science and tech-
nology ability doesn't sufficient play in the process of
training, college sports training should continuously
improve the content of science and technology and in-
novation, and apply the advanced technology and the
concept into athletes' practice, effective feedback ath-
letes common physical stamina and technical training
ht © 2012 SciRes.151
indexes, and necessarily monitor athletes' physiological
and biochemical indexes, the coaches not only depend
on their own teaching experience for judgment, also on
the power of science and technology to monitor the ath-
lete's body. At present, our province most college team
is not his own research team and laboratory, and has a
large gap comparing domestic or international teams.
University leaders give attention, and play the university
scientific research ability, provide the necessary support,
the university sports level, which is the development
task of high level track and field teams.
3.4.5 Increase the funds investment, advance industriali-
zation process of college sports
The lack of training funds is a common phenomenon
of high level sports teams, lack of money has also been
restricted the development of high level sport teams;
fund is the material basis of high level sport teams. On
the one hand, education funds used to education are very
limited, college sport must change operation pattern un-
der the planning economic system, and continuously
through providing high levels competitive sports and
college sports venues service paid open, meet the de-
mand of the sports culture. In our province, university’s
track and field high level sports teams dig deeper in their
economic value, walk into the market, develop their own
sports brand value, and get right to speak, and actively
seek social sponsorship, further promote the sports in-
dustry commercialization.
3.4.6 Increase the number of competitions; improve the
athlete's actual combat sports level
Survey suggests: Sichuan province of high level
track team each year besides taking part in a sports
meeting in the school, every two years or four years at-
tends to a province sports meeting, and these games lev-
el is not high, the aim is to make over, not reflect a good
The truth is also the scope and opportunity of con-
tests for college track and field athletes is very few, and
the motivation is to solve their own credit problem or
graduation. The shortcoming of the sports and competi-
tion ability is generally one of the disadvantages. Vari-
ous universities should make full use of games to pro-
mote the development of high level sport teams. There-
fore, the department of education and sports should ac-
tively create a condition, increase the chance to play.
3.4.7 University high level sports teams leagues the pro-
fessional, which may be a realistic way
The present training level of track team of universi-
ties high level is far not to compete in the international
game, to be a high level track team, jointing the profes-
sional leagues is also a way out. China's competitive
sports reserve talented person training forms "amateur-
sports team-the professional leagues" training system. In
this system, our country cultivates a large number of
coaches, management personnel, research personnel and
professional sports talents, invests a lot of money for
improving the construction of sports facilities and train-
ing conditions. Sports system currently almost holds all
the advantages of talent, scientific research, and capital,
with the success of the Olympic Games, the gap is in-
evitable bigger and bigger. After the expansion of ad-
vance education, the fund is more scarce, used to run
high level sports teams funds little and little, which lead
to the gap between education systems and competitive
sports system is big. In research that most coaches think
key of college high level sport teams’ level is not high,
this is because the students’ quality is not high. In our
country sports training system, sports department had
been mastering the rights of sports selecting talents and
the competition. Based on the above reasons, team mode
of universities and professional leagues do joint, though
for a long time, it does not form, but the development
direction of college high level sports teams jointing the
professional leagues will gradually become the main
4. Conclusion
Concl usio n˖ (1) management regulations of high
level athletes in university are not scientificˈsome ath-
letes do not adapt, therefore, management regulations
need to be improved. (2) the number of game experience
is very short, low training motivation influence athletes
to raise the level; (3) lack of learning time, training fati-
gue, no interest in study are the important factors on
high level track and field athletes' study; (4) the univer-
sities physical teachers mainly consist of high level track
team coaches, full-time coaches are less; (5) the lack of
funds for training high level track and field athletes is
the common problem. (6) Scientific training and re-
search in high level training should be raised.
Sugge stions ˖˄1˅Broaden the channels of recruit
students; make great efforts to build a dragon training
system˗˄2˅People-oriented, overall development,
practically and effectively solve the contradictions˗
˄3˅Increase the number of competitions; improve the
athlete's actual combat sports level˗˄4˅Promote the
combination of sports and education; create a high level
coach team˗˄5˅Increase the funds investment, ad-
vance industrialization process of college sports˗ Give
full play to the advantages of university resources, inter-
disciplinary research, improvement of scientific training;
Strengthen cooperation between sports colleges scientif-
ic research units of sports. (7) Properly deal with the
contradiction between culture study and sports training;
Implement separation of training and teaching to ensure
development of competition and group coordination. (8)
Learn foreign institutes experience on high level sport
teams, make efforts to increase competition opportuni-
ties, improve the athletes' sports level.
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