Paper Menu >>
Journal Menu >>
Advances in Ma terials Physics and Che mist ry, 2012, 2, 13-15
doi:10.4236/ampc.2012.24B004 Published Online December 2012 (htt p://www.SciRP.org/journal/ampc)
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. AMPC
Optical Properties of Mn2+ Doped Lead Phosphate (Lp)
Department of Physics, Science & Humanities, Tirumala Engineering College, Jawaharlal Nehru Technology University, Hyderabad, India
Doping of MnO (less than One mole %) in LP glass system promotes the transparency and the general quality of the LP glass.- Mn2+
occupying an Oh site in the LP glass network - The influence of the LP glass network on Mn2+ energy le vels and its electr onic st r u c-
ture seems t o be different when the con centration o f MnO is extremel y small (0.2 mole%) - The observation of single band of Mn2+
in this case probably correlates well with the observation of forbidden hyperfine EPR transitions in the same glass.
Keywords: Lead P hosphate; Optical Absorption Spectra; Ligand Coordination; Eutectic Mixture; Crystal Field Environment;
In this article the optical investigations made on [x (PbO - (1-x)
P2O5)] Lead Phosphate (LP) glasses and were discussed. The
objective of studying optical absorption spectra of Mn2+ doped
LP glass system is two fold. Firstly it is interesting to under-
stand the effect of magnetic ion like Mn2+ on the absorption
edge in particular and on energy bands in general of LP glass
system. Secondly it is much more interesting to study the
effect of lead phosphate glass network on the electronic struc-
ture and energy levels of Mn2+ ion.
The energy level diagram of Mn2+ is same in Oh and Td, the
spectra in the two geometry’s are distinct which is the most
interesting  aspect of the optical study.
There appear to be not many investigations on the electronic
absorption spectra of Mn2+ ion in glasses  probably for weak
and poorly, resolved optical absorption bands in glasses. How-
ever, there are some reports on optical absorption spectra of
Mn2+ doped silicate, [1-3] borate [1-2] phosphate [1-6] and
other glasses. As already mentioned, although Mn2+ can enter
into Oh or Td site in a glass, the absorption spectra observable
could be different depending on various factors.
However, optical absorption bands of Mn2+ are still exp ected
to appear in greater intensity if Mn2+ exists in Td - ligand coo r-
dination than when it exists in Oh - ligand coordination. Thus,
“Mn2 + i s an excellent ion for probing the local site geometry in
various glassy matrices even by optical absorption technique”,
even tho ugh its overal l absorpti vity is very lo w. Because of th e
number and energy distribution of distinct ligand field - sen si-
tive transitions observable, the potential value of Mn2+ for
structural diagnosis studies in glasses is very high, but so far it
has not been fully exploited. The present work aims at filling up
this gap to a certain extent.
The M n 2+ d oped LP glasses were prepared by taking PbO, ADP
and suitable quantity of MnO2 together and thoroughly mixing
and grinding the chemicals. Thus, the method of preparation of
the Mn2+ doped LP glasses is exactly same as describe in the
. However, certain observations in respect of liquidus tem-
perature and the time required for the melt to be maintained at
that temperature have been made. Since MnO2 in the eutectic
mixture of PbO and P2O5 is expected to undergo the chemical
2 MnO2 → 2 MnO + O2 ↑ (1)
It is observed that effervescen ce takes place at t he melt tem-
perature. Therefore, the time required to obtain clear, transpa-
rent and bubble free melt was longer in the case of MnO doped
LP glasses. These observations indicate that the presence of
MnO as an impurity promotes the ease with which the glasses
can be prepared. Further, the glasses obtained were less hy-
groscopic, chemically more durable with better homogeneity
and visibly more transparent than their corresponding undoped
LP glasses. These doped glasses were used for recording the
optical absorption spectra, sometimes, in conjunction with the
3. Results and Discussion
The optical absorption spectra in the range of 200 to 700 nm
typically for Mn2+ doped LP glasses with x = 0.35, 0.40, 0.45
containing higher concentration (0.7 mole%) of Mn2+ are
shown in Figure 1 as curves A, B, C, r espect ively. Fo r x = 0.50,
the spectrum is shown as curve D in Figure 2 respectively. It is
seen in all these spectra that both visible and UV regions are
totally free from any absorption bands due to Mn2+. At the same
time it is seen that, the absorption edges of these doped glasses
are almost unaffected within the error of ± 2 nm.
Specifically, in Fig ure 2 the spectra of undoped and Mn2+
doped glasses (x = 0.5) are given together for comparison.
While the optical absorption edge at 258 ± 2 nm coincides for
both the glasses, it can be seen that the absorbance of undoped
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. AMPC
glass is higher than the absorbance of the Mn2+ doped glass. In
order to make proper comparison of the transparency of the
undoped and Mn2+ doped (high concentration, (HC)) glasses,
the absorption coefficients of these glasses have been calculated
at the average wavelength (550 nm) of the visible region. The
values are found to be
α = 10.7 cm-1 (undoped), α = 1.6 cm -1 (Mn2+ doped)
These values clearly suggest that Mn2+ doped glasses are at
least 7 times [i.e. ratio of α (undoped) to α (doped)] more
transparent than the undoped glasses. Thus the role of Mn2+
impurity in LP glass appear to be limited to promoting the ease
of glass formation, while having no effect on the absorption
edge. This appears to be due to the small concentration of Mn2+
impurity in the glass.
It is surprising that the Mn2+ in any of x PbO - (1- x) P2O5
glasses does not exhibit any d-d bands .
The Mn2+ ion (d5) has five unpaired electrons in the valence
shell distributed in the t2g and eg orbitals either in Oh or Td,
symmetry. In free ion state it will give rise to a number of free
ion terms in the increasing order of energy 6S, 4G, 4P, 4D, 2I, 2G,
2H, 4F, 2D, 2F, 2F, 2S, 2D, 2G, 2P and 2D. When the ion is placed
in a ligand field, these levels split further into number of com-
ponents depending on the strength of crystal field environment
[4,6]. The energy level diagram for d5 configuration has been
Figure 1. Optical absorption spectra of Mn2+ doped (HC) (LP)
glasses. 1(A) 0.35 PbO-0.65P2O5, 1(B) 0.40 PbO-0.60 P2O5, 1(C)
Figure 2. Optical absorption Spectra of undoped and Mn2+ doped
Mn2+(d5) they have been discussed in the literat ure extensively.
Since not a single band in the Mn2+ (HC) doped LP glass has
calculated by number of authors including Tanabe and Sugano
 and Orgel . Tanabe and Sugano or Orgel diagram for
been observed, it is felt that either con centration of Mn2+ is no t
sufficient or lead phosphate glass system as such has great in-
fluence on the absorption bands of Mn2+ ion. One fact that can
be concluded with certainty is that the Mn2+ in LP glass system
occupies an Oh site in which case the absorption bands are ex-
pected to be very weak. On the other hand if Mn2+ ion were to
be in a Td ligand coordination mixing of d-orbitals with p-or-
bitals is expected to take place . As a result, the absorption
intensity is expected to be 10 to 100 times more than that due to
the ion in the Oh environment.
Our efforts to increase the concentration of Mn2+ in the LP
glasses by the addition of higher quantities of starting chemical,
MnO2 have not been successful. With increase in the concen-
tration of MnO2, the lead phosphate glasses are found to gain
color but no specific bands of Mn2+ could be observed. This
indicates that higher amount of MnO2 does not lead to higher
number of Mn2+ ions and probably Manganese changes to other
oxidation states of Mn3+, Mn6+or even Mn7+. Therefore, for
increasing Mn2+ ions, the starting compound may have to be
different from MnO2.
Figure 3 gives the absorption spectra of both undoped and
doped (low concentration, (LC)) LP glass for x = 0.5.
The absorption coefficients calculated for undoped and doped
glasses are α = 7.6 cm-1 (undoped) α = 4.3 cm-1 (Mn2+ doped),
which suggest that doped glass is again more transparent (1.8
In order to detect the presence of any weak absorption bands
due to Mn2+ in this particular LP glass (Figure 3). The absorp-
tion spectrum of doped glass has been recorded with the un-
doped glass in the path of the reference beam to compensate for
the host network absorption. It is interesting to note that the
effort led to the detection of a weak but definite absorption
band at 261 nm (38,310 cm-1) shown in Fig ure 4. A compari-
son of the peak position of this band with the bands reported in
the literature  indicates that it should be attributed to 6A1g →
4A2g (F) transition. This observation seems to be peculiar for
LP glass with x = 0.5 containing low concentration (LC) of
Figure 3. Optical absorption spectra of undoped and Mn2+ doped
(LC) 0.50Pb O -0.50P2O5 (LP) glass.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. AMPC
Figure 4. Optical absorption spectrum of Mn2+ ion in 0.50PbO-
The result s clear ly suggest th at MnO in concen trat ion s less th an
one mole % has no significant effect on the absorption edge or
energy bands of lead phosphate glass system. However, it defi-
nitely promotes the transparency and the general quality of the
LP glass formation.
The effect of lead phosphate system on the energy levels of
Mn2+ seems to be such that the absorptivity of the forbidden
bands of Mn2+ is extremely low or zero. Clearly this is due to
Mn2+ occupying an Oh site in the glass network.
The influence of the LP glass network on Mn2+ energy levels
and its electro nic structure seems t o be different when the con-
centration of MnO is extremely small (0.2 mole%). The obser-
vation of single band of Mn2+ in this case probably correlates
well with the observation of forbidden hyperfine EPR transi-
tions in the same glass.
I express my sincere thanks to university grants commission
(UGC), New Delhi, India for the encouragement and financial
assistance to Minor Research Project ”Structural Investigation
of Low Melting Glass Systems”. I am thankful to Prof. M. Sa-
lagram, for his guidance and suggestions. I am also thankful to
Sri Rajesh C Shah, Correspondent, Prof. T.V.Rao, Principal,
Pragati Mahavid yalaya Degre e College, Gujarat i Pragati Samaj
for their help and constant support. I also express my sincere
thanks to Sri K. Vidya Sagar Rao, Chairman, M. Narashimulu,
Secretary, Dr. Parameshwar Reddy, Academic Director, A.
Mahesh Babu, Execute Director, and Dr. Dargaiah, Principal
Tirumala Engineering College, Hyderabad, India for their help,
encouragement and constant support.
 J. Wong and C.A. Angell，Glass: Structure by Spectroscopy”,
Dekker, New York (1976).
 Y.Nagaraja Naidu, J.Lakshmana Rao and S.V.J. Lakshman Solid
State Comms. Vol. 81, No. 5 p.437 (1992.
 A. Paul “Chemistry of Glasses”, 2nd Edn, Chapman and Hall,
 N. Satyanarayana Polyhedr o n 4, p p. 6 3 3 (1 985).
 K.Bingham and S.Parke Physics and Chem. of Glasses 6, pp. 224
 J.L. Rao, G.L. Narendra , B. Sreedhar and S.V..J.Lakshman Phy.
Stat . Sol (b) 152, pp.151 (1989).
 C. Dayanand R.V.G.K. Sarma, G. Bhikshamaiah and M. Sala-
gram. Non-Crystalline. Solids 167, pp.121 (1994).
 Y. Ta nabe and S . Sugano. Phys. Soc. Japa n 9, pp.753 ( 1954).
 L.E.Orgel J. Chem. Phys. 23, 1004 (1955).