Creative Education
2012. Vol.3, Supplement, 21-24
Published Online December 2012 in SciRes ( DOI:10.4236/ce.2012.37B005
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
A Study on the Issue Analysis for the Application of BIM
Technology to Civil Engineering in Korea
Ki Beom Ju, Myoung Bae Seo
ICT Convergence and Integration Research Division, Korea Institute of Construction Technology(KICT),
Ilsan, Rep. of Korea
Received 2012
As conducted in the field of construction, the utilization of BIM (Building Information Modeling) is be-
coming a hot issue for many public work projects. Also, its market seems to be expanded as BIM is ap-
plied in procurement constructions. In this study, it examined the current state of BIM application that is
being utilized in Civil Engineering nowadays for the BIM technology application while analyzing the is-
sues raised regarding its application. The analyzed issues - Break off of BIM data in each construction
stage, lack of cooperative system, insufficient standard library and guideline, etc. - were classified in
terms of process infrastructure and system, and each measure for improvement was derived. It is advised
to establish the method of strategic approach and detailed action plan for the execution of the improve-
ment measures.
Keywords: BIM; Standard; BIM Technology; Issue Analysis
Currently, in the same way as construction field, interests regard-
ing the application of BIM (Building Information Modeling) in
Korean civil engineering projects have been increasing and it
has been recognized as the means of competitiveness as
technological adoption is being accelerated.
According to the presentation given by Korean Procurement,
from the year 2012, turnkey design competition construction of
over 50 billion won have to apply BIM as an obligation.
If this trend leads on, it is considered that the application of
BIM in civil engineering field will take place in the near future,
but in the industry, preparations have not been made sufficiently
and various problems recognized by practitioners still exists.
In this research, reports were conducted by basing on the
BIM market structure of Korean civil engineering field, and
civil engineering companies that are using BIM or are in plans
of using BIM in the near future have been reported based on
their awareness, level, and problems regarding BIM, and
improvement that can be made to effectively apply BIM onto
the civil engineering field has been briefly suggested.
For the research method, the BIM application status of Ko-
rean civil engineering has been investigated to analyze the
problems. Secondly, problems are investigated through litera-
ture review. Thirdly, based on the survey regarding interests of
BIM that was conducted by the Korean Construction Technol-
ogy Research Center, similar surveys were re-surveyed in order
to examine the changes over the past 2 years as well as recog-
nizing changes in problems of BIM technology. Lastly, ana-
lyzed and examined problems are classified in order as the re-
search was progressed.
BIM Application Status in Public Organizations
Of South Korea
Since civil facilities are facilities maintained by the nation,
public organizations become in charge of orders and mainte-
nance management. Amongst the ordering information of the
public organization, when 6 representing cases (refer to Table 1)
are observed, it is displayed that BIM technology is being ap-
plied in different civil facilities such as bridges, rivers, dams,
and railways. Most are applied in the designing stage, and it has
been reported that the major usages are for process manage-
ment and stimulation and advertisement.
Table 1.
Ordering STatus of Public Organizations in South Korea.
Main Content Related Business
Ministry of Land,
Transport and
Maritime Affairs
Review of the
appropriateness of the
accomplishment such as
drawings and quantities
Multifunctional Adminisrative
City Four Bri dges in Geum
The Korea Land &
Corporation (LH)
3D Process
Managem ent (4D) and
Barrage Structural Reformation
Proejct of Young San River 3in
process) Water Proof
Construction Project in
Saemangeum (7in process)
Korea Rural
Corporation (KRC)
3D Process
Managem ent (4D) and
Restoration of Nakdong
River(4 in process ) Young Ju
Dam Construction of Industrial
Water Supply in DaSan Coastal
Industral Area
Korea Water
Corporation 3D Process Stimulation Ho Nam High Speed Railways
Capital H i gh Speed Railways
Korea Rail
Network Authority
3D Mileage Stimulation
“Design Utilization of
3D Stimulation”
Outer Circular Highway in
Korea Expressway
3D Process
Managem ent (4D) and
Restoration of Nakdong River
(4 in process)
K. B. JU, M. B. SEO
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
In case of private construction companies, in order to certify
the effects of BIM in bridges, subways, and harbors, it has been
reported that it is being introduced in form of experiments.
The problems in BIM expressed in the application of public
organization are based on the fact that most important usage are
implemented in form of process application for advertisement
instead of actual process management. This makes re-cycling
insufficient, and was analyzed as a problem.
Prblems and Restraits in Introduction Seen
Through Resources
When problems from the thesis related to BIM presented in
Korea are extracted, Son Bo Shik and the rest 1 (2008) stated
that changes in the process, software selection, systematization
of information, education, list of required condition, and parts
about performance measurement are in the lacking state and are
identified as important improvements that need to be made in
order for BIM application to take place. Seo Jong Chul and the
rest (2009) pointed out the problems related to the introduction
and application of BIM as related to education, secure of library,
compatible data, and data ownership. They also explained that
provision of standard development of equipments and institutional
guidelines is urgent. Kim Hwa Sung (2010) pointed out the
problems related to application of BIM during the construction
stage as the lack of reliability in the design model, performance
improvement on the program, delay caused by design switch
for BIM, rising costs, problems in responsibility of drawing as
well as mentioning that improvements and standards are needed
in e related systematic improvements. In addition, Jun Gi Hyun
and the rest (2011) pointed out the problems related to the lack
of professionals, low efficiency compared to the costs, and
adhesion of existing methods.
Including the major information included above, the prob-
lems that are identified as problems are the lack of task process
for BIM standards, standardization of information technology
and resources, appropriate BIM ordering instructions including
comprehension about the employer, price realization following
the increase in costs, construction of library, difficulties in col-
laboration, contractor following the problems of ordering me-
thods, absence of the subcontractors of the construction, prob-
lems in the evaluation method of completed BIM, classify-
cation system and absence of data format, absence of certifica-
tion system, interface problems that require all the data that is
needed in the analysis during the design phase, as well as ex-
planation over various problems. The fact that these problems
are being describe can be understood that the BIM application
and research are actively conducted.
Analysis of Changes in Perception of CIvil
Engineering Companies
This research analyzed 3 criteria out of 90 survey criteria and
researched on what kind of changes occurred in the BIM mar-
ket during the last 2 years. These were the changes in interest
regarding BIM, transformation of restraints, and changes based
on factors. This survey was conducted on 20 of the top 50 civil
engineering companies.
Changes in Interets about BIM
During the last couple of years, BIM has been greatest inter-
est for construction companies, so diverse efforts have been
displayed in order to apply it onto practices of construction
companies. According to research results, regardless of experi-
ence in application of BIM, the response to recognition of BIM
was 83.2%, which is 5% greater compared to the results in
2010. Also, regarding the BIM interest report, the percentage
increased from 93.5% to 96%. These results display that suffi-
cient base expansion occurred for BIM technology (Figure 1).
Changes in Restraints Regarding Introduction of
According to the survey (2009) results regarding restraints of
BIM application that was conducted in the United States, lack
of education and BIM professionals, BIM introduction ex-
penses, lack of will to introduce BIM, and lack of costs have
been considered as restraints that hinder activation of BIM. In
terms of restraints in Korea as reported through the 2010 Ko-
rean Construction Technology Research Center, lack of infor-
mation and education, lack of standard and guidelines, lack of
operators, lack of will of the executive officer, and absence of
successful cases in practical application, and confusion and
absence of government policy have been displayed in order.
Even in 2012 reports, restraints have been analyzed as being
similar. When 2 unique traits within the reported information
are analyzed, the reason why the number of no-requests from
users has increased in contrast to 2010 is because the base has
been expanded but due to the slowdown in the construction, the
ordered amount was not satisfactory. Thus, it was considered
that the cause could be found, and the fact that H/W, S/W has
high costs is being displayed as an constant problem.
Figure 1.
Interests about BIM.
Figure 2.
Restraits to Introduction of BIM.
K. B. JU, M. B. SEO
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Changes in Needs Needed for Introduction of BIM
In the needs survey regarding the problems have to be pre-
determined in order for BIM to become activated in Korean
civil engineering field, the restraints of the will of the executive
officer and decision-makers, technological support of solution,
applied technology and standards have been reported as sig-
nificantly decelerated, but areas such as the absence of gov-
ernment policy, economical efficiency in case of practical
application of BIM still remain as insufficient and are being
questioned (Figure 3).
Classification of Problems and IMprovement
When problems listed on chapter II, III, are combined,
they can be classified into different problems such as problems
on task process needed for application of BIM, lack of collabo-
ration system and mind, lack of library, absence of standards,
and absence of professionals. When each of the problems are
divided, they can be divided into 3 kinds such as Improvements
in project implementation, Improvements in Information Infra,
and Improvement of system.
Figure 3.
Needs that are required for introduction of BIM.
Table 2.
Classification of Problems and Improvement.
Problems Area
- Lack of Support System in Task Process needed for
application of BIM
- Lack in Workability i n t he design model
- Lack in the will of ma king changes happen
- Lack in Coll aboration System and Collaborat i on
Area of Project
- Lack of Library
- Lack of Compatible Data
- Lack of Standard Guidelines
- Lack in Funct ions of the S of t ware
- Lack of Object Classification
Lack of Recycled Information
Informat i on Infra
- Lack of Professionals
- Lack of National Policies
- Existence of Intellectual Property Rights such as
data and drawings
Lack of Ordering Method and evaluation/veri f i cation
system of BIM data
Improvement in Terms of Project Implementation
In the design where BIM is applied, the task process change
from 2D design to 3D design has to be accompanied. However,
currently, in the transition stage, costs have been rising and
problems have been rising for collaboration system during the
stage where 2D design is changed into 3D. Regarding the prob-
lems of the process, adequate reconstruction of project con-
ducting process regarding BIM design or through the IPD (In-
tegrated Project Delivery), introduction of overall ordering
method, maximized process that consider changes in construc-
tion tasks and transformation of groups have to be searched. In
addition, in terms of strategies of the nation, plans that consider
the changes in the process have to be provided.
Improvement in the Area of Information Infra
Problems such as development of standard and guidelines,
secure of data compatibility, and secure of library can be con-
sidered as problems that are relevant to base infra needed for
the application of BIM. IFC standards and international stan-
dards are basically applied, but parts that have to be fixed to fit
the domestic environment have to be researched first in order to
prevent expansion and confusion of BIM base. In terms of im-
provement on infra, procedural improvement on development
of standard guidelines and expansion of various standards are
Improvements on the System
Improvements on ordering methods, provision of evaluation
system, authentication system, education system, and adver-
tisement which have to be improved in terms of systems are
parts that have to be strategically approached by the govern-
ment. All content in the system directly influence on the Indus-
try, cooperational system with the organization and applications
on diverse committee as well as other considerate approaches
are needed.
In the current domestic situation as recognition and application
of BIM is expanding, this research has expressed the possibility
of solving everything and diagnosed the problems regarding
BIM. Also, research was process in order to verify these
In addition, during the past 2 years, changes in awareness of
issue were analyzed and by dividing the problems, the need of
strategic approach was suggested. In order to solve these prob-
lems, improvement of performed procedures of the project,
infra aspects, and system aspect have to be applied for com-
plementary research and support has to be accompanied.
This research was implemented as a part of the important
business (12 major-commission) Infra BIM information model
standard and development of verification technology) of Ko-
rean Construction Technology Research Center.
K. H Jun, S. H Yun”Developing Construction Object Library for BIM
K. B. JU, M. B. SEO
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
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