J. Serv. Sci. & Management, 2009, 2: 1-9
Published Online March 2009 in SciRes (www.SciRP.org/journal/jssm)
Copyright © 2009 SciRes JSSM
A Virtualization-Based Service System Development
Tong Mo
*, Zhongjie Wang
, Xiaofei Xu
, Xianzhi Wang
School of Computer Science and Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology, 150001, China.
Email: motong_hit@126.com*; rainy@hit.edu.cn; xiaofei@hit.edu.cn; wangxianzhi@hit.edu.cn
Received December 30
, 2008; revised January 24
, 2009; accepted February 18
, 2009.
Amazon and Taobao publish product introduction online for customers’ personal choice and become the successful
examples of modern service based on information and communication technologies. However, if they want to achieve a
complex service through composing some simple services, the research of service composition platform is still rudi-
mental. In order to achieve this goal, a virtualization-based service system development method is proposed. The ser-
vice elements are described standardized as service component at first. Then the service component is virtualized to be
a web service and is deployed on a service platform, which is similar to Amazon. Customers put forward their demands
on this platform and the platform will auto-match and dispatch task to the component to build a real-world service sys-
tem. Finally, an application in ocean logistics service is briefly introduced.
service description, service system development, service composition, service component, online publish-choice,
ocean logistics
1. Introduction
The services industry has increasingly grown over the
last 50 years to dominate economic activity in most ad-
vanced industrial economies. According to relating statis-
tics, in some developed countries above 90%’s labor
force are working for service industry and it occupies
over 70% of the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) [1]. The
era of service economy has arrived.
Assisted by development of information and commu-
nication technologies, service pattern has been trans-
formed from provider-customer traditional mode into a
complex social technical ecosystem [2]. More and more
service links and participators increase the cost of service
interoperation significantly. In order to reduce the cost, a
popular way of these new service systems is using a vir-
tualization-based service for composition. Providers dis-
play what they can provide through virtualized informa-
tion on the web, such as pictures and some textual de-
scriptions, to replace the physical display. And customers
can select and get what they want (or inversed) [3]. The
virtualization-based service can ignore the space-time
distance and make information transformation, service
composition and data collection more conveniently. On
one hand, it can reduce service cost such as time, money,
energy, etc; on the other hand, the original data that is
saved automatically provide strong support for analysis
and management. Some successful examples are Amazon
[4], Taobao [5], etc.
Though there are such a lot of effective applications,
most of them are “composition for physical services”.
What are published by provider or customer are physical
things, such as books, commodities, etc. The services, for
example, transportation, healthcare, consultation, etc., are
also remained in state of single publish-choice. But with
increasingly fining of social division, service has become
more and more complex and cross-domain. If customers
want to get a complex service that is composed by a lot
of service elements that are provided by multi-providers,
this kind of composition is always done by manpower.
But on the internet, the number of providers is much lar-
ger than the number in local range. So we need a com-
puter-assistant method that can develop a complex ser-
vice system by service composition.
The complex service system in this paper is not only
an information system, but also includes non-software
elements such as people and hardware. But the main idea
of the method is similar with that we use software ser-
vices building business information system based on the
idea of Software as a service (SaaS) in software engi-
neering [6]. Travel service gives us a good reference in
this domain. A travel program can be seen as a composi-
tion of the single service elements such as showplace,
catering, accommodation, transport, etc, and they are still
often composed by the travel agents or tourists them-
·The benefits of these new service system develop-
ment methods are as follows:
·Fast service query on-line and selection.
·Computer-assistant composition based on customers’
Copyright © 2009 SciRes JSSM
C all
Selec tAss ig n
Platform Virtualized
Deployment Abstract
Service Interaction
Figure 1. Big picture of building complex service based on virtualized service elements
voice and individual adaptation.
·Assign the service element in real world with the
invoking and controlling service on web.
The rest of this paper is organized as follows. The
big picture of the method is shown in Section 2. In Sec-
tion 3, how to describe service elements is discussed
and the virtualization method is proposed in Section 4.
In Section 5, the arithmetic of service matching is
briefly introduced and an application prospect is dis-
cussed based on a case of ocean logistic in Section 6.
Finally the paper comes to the conclusions.
2. Big Picture: Virtualization-Based Service
System Development
The big picture of building a complex service based on
virtualized service elements is shown in Figure 1.
The process of this method includes three main phases
and can be divided into eight steps.
Deployment phase:
Step1. The key elements of service such as behavior,
actor, and resources are packaged as service components.
Step2. The service components are virtualized as soft-
Step3. The virtualized service components are de-
ployed onto the service platform.
Matching phase:
Step4. Customers log in the platform and input their
individual demands through the interfaces that fits the
habits of people. These demands are transformed into a
standards XML format file.
Step5. According to the customer’s demand on specific
steps of service, platform will filter the relevant compo-
nents, and get a smaller set of candidates. If some of the
demands can find eligible components, the components
closest to the demand will be reserved as a substitute.
Step6. According to the partial and overall demand of
service, platform will match the candidate’s components
and feedback all the results in line with the demand. The
result will be ranked with customer-defined policies to
facilitate customer’s choice.
Step7. Customer can self-edit the service based on the
results, and submit a satisfactory outcome of the choice.
Scheduling phase:
Step8. Platform will assign the work to the software
component that is selected by customer. And the tasklist
of the component will add a record. Then the actor will
execute service interaction following the tasklist with
The key techniques and challenges in three phases are
as follows:
·Standardized expression of the elements
In order to find what the customer want easily, the
published things should comply with certain standards.
The providers and customers often have different under-
standing and description with the same service element
based on their own backgrounds and angles of view. This
gap can be merged easily by similarity judgment and
further communication likes a phone call or face to face
talk in single-service-choice. But in complex service
composition, cumulative effect of these gaps may make
the result meaningless. Both of the above two successful
composition platforms have a standard mode for each
owner to show their goods and payment. But in this
situation, a standardized expression for service is more
complex than for physical goods. It not only contains the
functional contents (input, output, precondition, quality
index, etc), but also some other related elements. For
example, the actor may be a very important factor that
affects the customer satisfaction, and what they use is
also need to be shown.
·Invoking service on web and assign the service ele-
ment in real world
The service that published on web is not just a literal
description of a variety of formats. It also can be called
just as we operate software. A similar scene is that if we
use telephone to appoint a service, there must be a call
Copyright © 2009 SciRes JSSM
center (front) as a kind of interface. So for each service
behavior, it also needs a software interface which is de-
ployed on web for us to call. Though we publish and
choose our service on web; it finally should be mapped
and implemented in the real world. In Amazon, the book
that a customer selects and chooses is just a virtualized
image of real book on-line, but what the customer finally
gets is that real book.
· Matching service based on customers’ voice
Based on customers’ voice, the most suited groups of
services should be selected automatically. These results
are collated by the integral sufficiency and key Quality of
Service (QoS) parameters.
These three techniques and challenges will be dis-
cussed in the following sections.
3. Service Component: A Uniform Descrip-
tion of Service Elements
3.1 Information that Needs to be Described
Because there is still lacking a recognized definition for
behavior that applies to all service fields, it is very hard
to give a complete description of it. However, we de-
scribe it in order to establish a unified environment for
customer and provider to choose and publish. So we only
need to focus on the information that is used frequently in
establishing the relationship between service demand and
supply. A comparison with product behavior will help us
to understand it more clearly.
The most important information is the function of be-
havior. It means what this behavior can do and what is
the result of it. Though we can still use a binary group
input, output as we describe the function of produc-
tion behavior, the input and output of service behavior
are mostly not physical things. For example, transforma-
tion behavior changes customers’ position, so the input
and output are the start points and end points respectively.
In addition to input and output, quality index is another
important part of service behavior function. Sometimes,
for the same input and output, different performance of
quality may means different services. In precedent, for
the same transformation, the service may either be a
normal one or an express one according to different time
that should be spent on it.
Though we talk about service behavior and emphasize
the difference from production, resource is also an im-
portant factor that impacts customers’ choice. This re-
source is a kind of support for service behavior rather
than the result. That means this resource is the thing that
will be used during the service and impact customer’s
service experience.
In the field of manufacturing, customers just concern
about the final product while don’t care who made it. But
because interaction is a major feature of service behavior,
there could be some special request on the behavior actor.
For example, a pretty miss front may reduce customers’
complaints and an automatic response system could offer
make them angry. Customers often put forward a number
of requests to the actor to guarantee the behavior can be
implemented smoothly.
3.2 Definition of Service Component
Based on the above analysis, we have gotten all the
key elements that are needed for the establishment of
the relationship between service demand and supply,
and we use service component to depict it. Service
component is a package of service actor and a behavior
performed by this actor including all the supportive
elements in conceptual level. It is the basic unit of ser-
vice system offering a predefined functionality and
able to communicate with other components. Reus-
ability and independent execution are two important
characteristics of service component and it can be
plugged into different service systems. The structure is
shown in Figure 2.
Basic Information
Service Component
Identification AnnotationVersion
Actor InformationBehavior Information
Basic Information
Internal Structure Information
Provider Information
Usability Information
SupportResource Information
Function Explanation
Level Explanation
Level Description
QosMetrics Value Range
Type Input
OutputQos Metrics
Figure 2. The structure of service component
Copyright © 2009 SciRes JSSM
As it is shown in Figure 2, service component gives us
a unified format to describe the behavior that is needed in
service by both customer and provider. It can be easily
described by formal description language and here we
use XML as a description language. The details are
shown as follows:
·Basic Information: It involves the most basic infor-
mation of a component, such as identification, annotation
and version. Identification includes ID No. and name.
Annotation is a text of narration. Version often includes
Version No., creator and creating date.
·Actor Information: Actor is one of the two cores of
service component. It describes the main body that pro-
vides service function in this component. In software
domain, the main body of a traditional web service is a
section of code and don’t need to be further introduced.
In service domain, the main may be human, software,
hardware or a group of these things. It includes the fol-
lowing ingredients:
Basic Information. Such as ID No., name, etc.
Internal Structure Information. Sometimes, the actor
of a behavior may be not executed by one entity but by a
team or a group of entities. So the composition of actors
is shown in this subsection.
Provider Information. Provider is the organization
that the actor belongs to.
Usability Information. It shows the time when the
actor can be used.
SupportResource Information. SupportResource is
the thing that is needed and used by actor during the
execution of service behavior. Sometimes, it is a little
hard to distinguish a resource to be a SupportResource or
a part of actor. Here we use an example to illustrate the
nuance. In logistics service, a transport function is pro-
vided by a component. In this component, there is a truck
driver and a truck that belongs to a cargo. In this cargo, if
the truck driver just drives that truck, then they can be
looked as a group, the truck is a part of actor. If the truck
driver and truck don’t have a binding relation and just
many-to-many, the truck can be seen as a SupportRe-
source for the truck driver.
·Behavior Information: Behavior is the other core of
service component. As the same with traditional software
behavior description; it also focus on the function de-
scription but adds one unique service character-service
Table 1. A case of service component package real service element
Natural language description of service element Service component description
The name of truck driver is ZhangSan. He is a self-employed truck driver.
His cell phone No. is 13936831568.
<tns:description>Self employed</tns:description>
He works from 9:00 AM to 7:00 PM everyday.
His business is truck transformation <tns:behavior>
The normal speed of delivery is an average of 80km/h and carrying capac-
ity is 5t.
Copyright © 2009 SciRes JSSM
Function Explanation.
Type. It is a quote to a concept of service domain
ontology. The subjectivity of service naming has
brought a lot of inconvenience to service query. So the
ontology will give us a standardized solution. Unfortu-
nately, it is very hard to build industry recognized do-
main ontology, so we often use a conventional concept
for substitution.
Input & output (I/O). The same with software, the
I/O is the main reflection of function. Sometimes, the I/O
is information, but the type may not only be an electronic
data, but also some papery stuff such as documents,
graph, table, etc. In most cases of service behaviors, re-
source is another kind of I/O. For example, patients may
get some drugs from a medical care; a repair service is
another typical case.
QoS Metrics. A set of quality parameters are used
to evaluate the result of service behavior. Some of them
can be obtained directly from the basis data. Some of
them are gained via further computing, statistics or
analysis. Some typical parameters are time, cost, cus-
tomer satisfaction, etc. For each parameter, it needs to
show the related data, data’s acquiring method and the
Level Explanation. In traditional web service, each
function of a software component has only one perform-
ance. But in service domain, with the same terms of be
havior and the actor, the service component may have
different performance. This distinction is reflected by
different SupportResource and the value of QoS parame-
ters. For example, in logistics service, a transport com-
ponent’s actor is a person and the behavior is transport.
For the same task, if the actor does it by a car, the time
will be less than an hour and the cost will be 100 RMB;
on the contrast, if the actor does it on foot, the time will
be more but the cost will be less. So we use service level
with different SupportResource and QoS metrics value
range to make a distinction. It is a unique character of
service component and what makes it most different from
software component.
Level Description. Including identifying informa-
tion and a text of narration.
SupportResource. The SupportResource will be
used in this level. It is a subset of the SupportResource in
actor information.
QoS Metrics Value Range. This is the value bound
of quality parameters.
A case of service component is shown in table 1, and it
shows a service component of transformation. The natu-
ral language description of service is in the left and the
right is the XML based service component description
follows the above structure. For example, the normal
speed of delivery is an average of 80km/h and weight is
5t. So it has a service level named normal and has two
QoS parameters: speed and weight. Of course, it may
have other levels, such as a high-speed which may load
less. As a complete service component description is too
long to show, we just excerpt some critical segments to
this paper.
4. Virtualization Method of Service Component
Service component is only a standard document for pro-
vider to publish his service and for customer to query eas-
ily. In contrast, the software virtualized version provides a
user interface to show how to use the real service element
packaged by component and record the running informa-
tion. It is similar as the relationship between web service
and the functional software system. According to the dif-
ference of actor and business level, the service component
can be divided into human component, software compo-
nent, hardware component and composite component.
4.1 Virtualization Method for Human Component
Human component represents the behavior that is exe-
cuted by people or mainly depends on people. It is the
dominant component and the difficulty of service de-
scription. But software human behavior is not a new topic
and there has been already a well-formed specification:
WS-HumanTask [7]. It is used with another specification:
BPEL4People [8] which will also be referred in sector
4.4 to define the process of human-machine interaction.
Though WS-HumanTask focuses on software domain, it
provides us with fairly fine basis to draw on.
In our opinion, the software of human component is
just like a software client of the real people. Component
user can use that as software to assign work to service
executants just like what we do by cell phone, email or
even verbal order. This software client includes three
main parts: tasklist, log and interface.
In the view of the idea of WS-humanTask, a job as-
signed to the actor of a component is treated as a task and
the tasklist is a task schedule for the component. It re-
cords when, where, to whom that the component need to
provide service. It is a kind of continuously information.
Log is the utilizing history of the component. It includes
serial number, date and time, source, type, event and user.
The two parts above are used frequently to record the
call of components. All the functions of software service
component are invoked through the interface. The outside
world can call it just like calling general software interface.
According to different uses, the interfaces are divided into
common interface and service function interface.
Common interface corresponds to the general func-
tions of all software service components, for example,
query component’s information, amend component’s
state, manage task list and log, etc. This kind of interface
doesn’t relate to specific service and is just used to query
and manage its own information.
Service function interface represents a typical service
function of component, such as transporting, packing,
checking container, etc. This kind of function is reflected
in the form of service task and service interface is the
interface of a task.
Copyright © 2009 SciRes JSSM
The steps of making an XML file of service compo-
nent to be software are as follows:
Step1. Building new software which is named same
with the service component and adding an empty tasklist
and log file.
Step2. Initializing the software and generating the
common function of it: tasklist management and log
Step3. Adding the query function of software and link-
ing with the XML file of service component.
Step4. Building the service function call interface and
the parameters is the input of service behavior.
Software interfaces of a component are shown in Table
2. The left is the XML based service component descrip-
tion, and the right is the corresponding interfaces. For
example, this component has an actor, and the provider of
actor is named ZhangSan, so we can get this information
by call the interface hasProvider (actor).
4.2 Virtualization Method for Software Compo-
nent and Hardware Component
SaaS is a model of software deployment where an appli-
cation is hosted as a service provided to customers across
the Internet [9]. So customer doesn’t have to take care
about software maintenance, ongoing operation, and can
on-demand pricing. It is gaining a great deal of attrac-
tions today and more and more businesses are adopting
SaaS for cost-effective software management solutions as
well as business structure and process transformations
[10]. These well-packaged software services can be called
directly and don’t need any form of repackaging [11].
Of course, there are also many legacy systems that is
developed using the traditional way. If we want to use the
function of these old systems, we need to package some
function interface as a web service. The research of web
service packaging technology is fairly mature so we
won’t go details in this paper.
In fact, there is no pure hardware component, because
a behavior can hardly be implemented by hardware alone.
This kind of component usually packages two types of
One can be carried out by big machine which is inde-
pendent and has a high degree of automation, such as
Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) machine. But it
still needs a command from the outside world. For this
type of component, we need to issue a task order to the
operator, and the call mode as well as virtualized method
is the same as the human component in Sebsection 4.1.
The only difference is that the hardware takes place to be
the main body of the actor.
The other is the behavior of the automation equipment
which is controlled by its own software system. Packag-
ing this kind of component involves developing a special
interface for the system. A typical application is the
Global Position System (GPS).
Table 2. The result of a component that is software virtualized
Service component Function of software virtualized comonent
Schema of
<tns:description>Self employed</tns:description>
The return values of these
functions are a string of the
Behavior of
callService(component, level,
inputstring) // The value of
inputstring is a string that is
composed by the input of the
behavior and separator. In this
case, the inputstring is
“Harbin Westgreat Street
207# @@@ 2008-11-21
11:00”. The reurn value of
this function is a taskid.
getResult(component, taskid)
// Get the result of the service
task. The return value is a
result object.
Task and
log func-
Copyright © 2009 SciRes JSSM
4.3 Virtualization Method for Composite Com-
The three types of service components mentioned above
are basic components executed by single actor. But in the
actual process of service, many acts of service process
are scheduled following the relatively fixed mode, and
some of the components are ordered with the regular
emergence of high-frequency. In order to simplify the
selection of components and service matching, reduce the
computational complexity, and improve the efficiency of
the service schedule, we combine these components a
larger one for further reusability. It is similar with the
establishment of the large size software component and
web service in the software domain.
Because the three basic components are all packaged
as software, we can directly draw on the existing standard
used to build a large size web service to build composite
service component. The common industry practice is
using Web Services Business Process Execution Lan-
guage (WS-BPEL) [12] and WS-BPEL Extension for
People (BPEL4People) [8] to specify the information
interactions between software service, and orchestrate
them as a process. At the beginning of a BPEL process,
<partnerLink> and <variable> is used to define the link
of service and declare variables. The process is combined
by <sequence> which is a group of activities that is called
one by one, and <flow> which is a group of parallel ac-
tivities. In the main body of process, <invoke> is used to
call a service and <receive> is used to wait the service to
callback. The control of the implementation logic in-
cludes <switch>, <while> and <pick>. The other details
of BPEL and BPEL4People can be found in documents 8
and 12.
5. Computer-Aided Service Selection and
Service component and virtualization is a kind of com-
puter understandable way for service elements describing,
saving and calling. So the computer can pre-select and
match the service and provide us options, when custom-
ers make a complex service needs. And it can release us
from the heavy work of comparison, calculation and
communication, when there are more and more service
The needs of customers’ are a lot of constraints on to-
tal or local quality indicators, such as function, time, cost,
credit, etc. Service selection and matching is choosing
appropriate service components and organizing them
correctly to satisfy the customers. It equals to a multi-
objective optimization problem and we use a genetic al-
gorithm (GA) based service matching algorithm (SMA)
to achieve it.
The input of SMA includes four parts: QoS parameter
trees, service flow model, constraints sets, and service
components sets.
QoS parameter trees are a set of key performance in-
dicators of services and are used to evaluate the quality.
The name and calculation method of these parameters are
relatively stable and are divided by industry.
Service flow model is a XML file that is parsed from
customers’ voice. On one hand, it shows which simple
parts the complex service includes; on the other hand, it
describes the sequential logic of these simple parts and is
used as the basis for some types of parameters such as
Constraints sets are the other part of customers’ voice.
They are divided into three types: local constraint is the
constraint for one simple part; partial constraint is for two
or more simple parts and global is for all the simple parts.
All of the constraints are described according two for-
mats: The first one is simple condition which is a triple
form <qp, mo, value>; qp is quality parameter, mo is
mathematical operator and value is the number and unit.
For example, “time < 5 hour” is a simple condition. The
other one is complex condition which is a logical expres-
sion of simple condition. For example, “if time < 5 hour
then money = 100 RMB else money = 50 RMB”. All the
constraints have a weight to show the importance for
Service components sets are the sets of service com-
ponents classified according to service domain.
The output of SMA includes four parts: service com-
ponents set, result of evaluation, and scheduling plan.
Service components set are the components selected for
each simple parts of the complex service. Result of
evaluation is the sufficiency of the service components
set to the customers’ voice. Scheduling plan is a set of
information for calling the service components, including
time, place, and other useful information.
·Implementation logic
The implementation logic of SMA is the same with
GA, and the principle of algorithm is shown as follows:
1. Initial population (first generation)
2. Determine the fitness of each chromosome/ individ-
3. Repeat:
Perform selection
Perform crossover
Perform mutation
Determine the fitness of each individual
Until the stopping criterion applies
4. Return last population
The key operations of SMA are follows:
Chromosome coding
A chromosome can be seen as a result of service selec-
tion and matching. It is a set of gene with a certain order
and each gene represent a service component. For exam-
ple, in a travel services, a chromosome is a complete
tourist routes and genes are attractions, transport, ac-
commodation, catering, etc. A population is a set of the
chromosomes that in the domain of this complex service.
Copyright © 2009 SciRes JSSM
Genetic operation
Generating: The population is generated following a
random way and the population size is fifty. Each gene in
one chromosome is generated by the service component
that has the same function type. Here we use a
pre-selection technique to limit the scope of the service
components. We filter out those components which do
not meet the local constraints before the SMA. So the
service composition is under the condition of the compo-
nents that meet the local constraints and if some of the
gene can’t find eligible components, the components that
are closest to the demand are reserved as a substitute.
Selection/Reproduction: Here we use a mechanism for
the survival of the fittest and the worst five chromosomes
fall into disuse. Another mechanism in SMA selection is
differential reproduction. The chromosomes are put into
the breeding pond according to a [0,2] probability which
is calculated by its fitness.
Crossover: New chromosomes are generated by ex-
changing the genes in the same location of two randomly
selected chromosomes. Considering the characteristics of
service composition, we crossover the chromosomes un-
der niche protection. Niche presents a common feature of
the same species in biology. In service composition,
some simple parts of a complex service are also required
to have some same features. For example, some parts
should be provided by the same provider. So the niche
protection is used to avoid the broken of these same fea-
tures through the crossover.
Mutation: Mutation changes some genes of a chromo-
some and brings some new genes to the population. In
SMA, the chromosome and the position of genes are se-
lected randomly.
Fitness determination
In SMA, we use customer satisfaction to be the fitness
of a complex service and use penalty function method to
determine the satisfaction.
)()()( cNcPcf −=
The f(c) is fitness of a chromosome and it equals to the
positive satisfaction P(c) minus the negative impact N(c)
of those constraints that are not bound to meet.
The satisfaction of the chromosome P(c) is expressed as
∑ ∑
= =
1 1
There are n genes in a chromosome and
is the
weight of gene i. For each gene, the number of QoS pa-
rameters is m, and
is the weight of parameter j.
iS is the satisfaction function of the QoS parameters
j of gene i.
is the additional contributions to the
satisfaction of those genes that are intrinsic satisfaction
6. Case Study
The full container load (FCL) export business is one of
the core businesses in ocean logistics service domain. It
is a deep-division-business and the business chain can be
broken down into a number of coupling parts of lower
level. Because of the high degree of specialization, one
participator is usually responsible for one single-part in
the business chain. So in a FCL export business, it often
involves many organizations and in most cases the num-
ber is greater than five. This situation leads extremely
large cost for establishing business relations such as time,
money and energy. At this stage in the industry, this
problem is mainly solved through a long-term coopera-
tive relationship. However, it makes the service to be a
low-optional one and very likely to run another way
counter to the trend of “On-demand”. The contradiction
is a typical problem exists in many service fields that
have similar characteristics. So we choose it as case
background and try to verify the virtualized service eco-
system’s convenience and improvement on efficiency of
system building.
A typical FCL export business mainly includes five
parts: booking cabins, container yard choice and con-
tainer allocation, loading goods, export declarations, and
container gate-in. According to business needs, these
parts can be further divided into different levels. For ex-
ample, the part of loading goods includes container pre-
paring, truck distributing, goods transformation etc. All
of these can be seen as different sized behaviors and can
have the providers. Firstly, they are packaged into service
components according to the rules above. The main
components for the five business links are shown in Fig-
ure 3. Figure 4 shows a matching result according to a
customer’s requirement. As soon as the customer con-
firms a solution from the result set, the platform will send
the task message to the real actor through the virtualized
software, and start the service
7. Conclusions
Nowadays, though service develops rapidly, the system
for behavior service is still rudimentary and lacks coor-
dination. The results of this paper try to make up for this.
Although the virtualized system is still in the simulating
and testing stage, it opens a brilliant prospect that we can
orchestrate behavior service just like what we have done
in web service domain.
Figure 3. Service components deployed on the platform
Copyright © 2009 SciRes JSSM
Figure 4. Matching result
From the case test we can find that, though the initiali-
zation of platform and add service component may cost a
lot, for each using, it just needs less cost to edit cus-
tomer’s demand. A prominent advantage of virtualized
system building is that the cost (time, money, and energy)
is less impacted by the number of provider. In contrast to
this, the cost in traditional system increases dramatically
when the provider number grows. Though they use stabile
service chain to improve the running condition, the custom
degree is also limited. Sometimes, getting a full accordance
with the wishes of customer solution from a large number
of candidates by manpower can be an unpractical mission.
Because the service matching is auto-calculated in virtual-
ized system building, so it can release us from the complex
computation and compare work, and we become able to
pay attention to work more meaningful. At the micro level,
we can use statistical methods and data mining to find
which component and which combination is often used and
then further explore the reasons and the law. At the macro
level, based on statistics for a period of time, we may find
the evolution of each part in a service business chain from
an ecosystem angle.
Future work includes: establishing a sound interface
system, applying this system into real service, and refin-
ing the component matching algorithm.
8. Acknowledgement
Research works in this paper are partial supported by the
National High-Tech Research and Development Plan of
China (2006AA01Z167, 2006AA04Z165) and the Na-
tional Natural Science Foundation (NSF) of China
[1] J. Spohrer and P. Maglio, “Emergence of service science:
Services sciences, management, engineering (SSME) as
the next frontier in innovation,” Nordic Service
Innovation Workshop, Oslo, Norway, 2005.
[2] P. Maglio, S. Srinivasan, J. T. Kreulen, and J. Spohrer,
“Service systems, service scientists, SSME, and innovation,”
Communications of the ACM, New York, Vol. 49(7): pp.
81-85, 2006.
[3] J. Spohrer and P. Maglio, “Emergence of service science:
Services sciences, management, engineering (SSME) as
the next frontier in innovation,” Nordic Service
Innovation Workshop, Oslo, Norway, 2005.
[4] http://www.Amazon.cn.
[5] http://www.Taobao.com.
[6] T. Mo, J. M. Xu, Z. J. Wang, Y. F. Ma, H. Y. Huang,
Y.Wang, A. Liu, J. Zhu, and X. F. Xu, “SCS: A case
study on service composition in automobile supply
chain,” Journal of Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin,
China 2008 Supplement 1. pp. 323-329, 2008.
[7] http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/download.php/275
[8] http://xml.coverpages.org/bpel4people.html.
[9] http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/SaaS.
[10] SaaS 2.0: Software-as-a-Service as Next-Gen Business
Platform, Saugatuck Technology.
[11] SaaS Integration Platforms: The Looming SaaS Deployment
and Support Dilemma, Saugatuck Technology.
[12] http://www.oasis-open.org/committees/wsbpel.
(Edited by Vivian and Ann)