Journal of Financial Risk Management
2012. Vol.1, No.4, 57-63
Online December 2012 in SciRes (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/jfrm) http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/jfrm.2012.14010
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 57
Study on Chinese Rural Drinking Water Option and Its Pricing*
Jian-Fei Leng, Lu Li
Business School, Hohai University, Nanjing, China
Email: firstname.lastname@example.org, email@example.com
Received September 21st, 2012; revised October 27th, 2012; accepted November 15th, 2012
The problems of Chinese rural drinking water have existed for a long time and are deteriorating. Deter-
mining the price of rural drinking water is beneficial for solving these problems to some extent. Therefore,
this article makes appropriate study on rural drinking water option and its pricing model. Based on the
theories of options and water option, we make description on the connotation of rural drinking water op-
tion and its trading principle as well as main entities. In addition, on the basis of traditional Black-Scholes
option pricing model and the actual situation of rural drinking water, we construct rural drinking water
option pricing model from different aspects. With the guiding price of rural drinking water option, it can
realize the optimum allocation of rural drinking water resource on the market.
Keywords: Rural Drinking Water; Water Option; Pricing Model
At present, Chinese rural population has attained 650 million,
according to the 2011 major macroeconomic data announced by
China National Bureau of Statistics on January 17, 2012. The
problems of Chinese rural drinking water exist for a long time,
because of the large population, the growing problem of water
pollution and many other constraints from society. With the ad-
vocacy of establishing water-saving society, it’s necessary to
construct water-conservation countryside. This is an important
guarantee for peasants to acquire sufficient and safe drinking
water timely and conveniently. Besides, it’s also beneficial to
improve quality of life and promote rural economic develop-
ment. Although the problems of the water-wasting and low use
efficiency exist widely, there is huge space for saving rural
drinking water resources. However, it lacks effective distribu-
tion mechanism which can reduce the risk of water rights trad-
ing and achieve the rational allocation of rural drinking water.
The study of rural drinking water option and its pricing is one
of the important parts of the mechanism, which plays an indis-
pensable role in alleviating current problem of rural drinking
water. Water option is a financial derivative product, which set-
tlement object is one or more water factors such as the price of
water, rainfall, water demand and inflow et al. It’s caused by
hedging the risk of water supply and demand. Using mature
options theories to manage the risk of water market has made it
a new research focus.
With these backgrounds, this article attempts to study Chi-
nese rural drinking water option and its pricing. Given the dif-
ficulty of data acquisition, this article only makes descriptive
definition on related concepts of rural drinking water option
and points out the principle and the transaction subject of its
trading. Meanwhile, on the basis of traditional Black-Scholes
pricing model and the characteristics of rural drinking water,
the article tries to build the water option pricing model of rural
drinking water. This will has constructive and pioneering sig-
nificance on taking full advantage of our rural limited water
resources and realizing the optimal allocation of it.
The paper is organized as follows: Section 1 is the introduc-
tion of the research. Section 2 discusses prior researches on
rural drinking water option and option pricing. Section 3 de-
scribes the connotation of water option and rural drinking water
option. Section 4 presents the option and its pricing of rural
drinking water. Section 5 draws some conclusions.
Prior Researches on Water Option
Option Pricing Model
Option pricing model is the core option theory which ex-
perienced a long developing process. In 1900, French mathe-
matician Louis Bachelier (1900) firstly put forward the option
pricing model, while this model exists certain defects. Soon
after, Sprenkle (1961) proposed the buyer option pricing for-
mula, which assumed that the stock price is logarithmic distri-
bution and there is fixed mean and variance. This model partly
eliminates some of the defects of the Bachelier formula. Then,
Samnelson (1965) established a European call option pricing
model, this model considered that the expected rate of return of
options and the stock are inconsistent due to the differences in
risk characteristics. All these studies are the foundation of
Black-Scholes model. In 1973, Black and Scholes (1973) firstly
proposed the classic option pricing model in their famous paper
Options Pricing and Corporate Debate. Hereafter, Merton (1982)
published many papers about option pricing with important
promotion in several aspect, which made a breakthrough in
option pricing theory. Sing and Patel (2001) collected 2286
housing transaction data from 1984 to 1997 to estimate the
value of delay option. Besides the classic Black-Scholes model,
Cox, Ross and Robinstein (1979) put forward binomial option
tree model. In the new era, based on those classic option pricing
models, Han T. J. and Smit (2006) as well as Jiwook Jong
*Standards and Evaluation of Rural Water Conservancy Construction for
Well-off Society. Project Supported by the Specialized Research Fund for
the Public Causes of Ministry of Water Resources. (Grant No.: 201001037).
Evaluation on Sustainable Development of Chinese Aquatic Ecological En-
vironment. Project Supported by the Scientific Research Fundation of Phi-
losophy and Social Sciences of the Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions o
J.-F. LENG, L. LI
(2007) considered many other influencing factors to establish
many new model.
In China, Zhen Xiaoyin and Chen Jinxian (2000) analyzed
the generation mechanism and the main features of the new
options and then summarized the main types. Li shujin (2006),
Zhou Jun (2007) and Mei Zhengyang (2002) et al., have made
many researches on the option pricing model with stochastic
interest rate and stochastic volatility.
Water Rights and W ater Option
At present, there is little research on rural drinking water op-
tion and its transaction in developed countries. For the study of
water rights trading, in 1994, Rosegrant Mark W. and Renato
Gazmuri S. (1994) deemed that the allocation of water rights in
market is an effective way to improve the configuration of wa-
ter rights with the example of Chile, Mexico and California.
Hereafter, Bauer Carl J. (1997), Pigram John J. (1999), Charles
S. Sokile and Barbara van Koppen (2004) investigated different
countries to study the transaction of water rights. Based on wa-
ter law of Chile, Bauer Carl J. (1997) explored its water rights
trading, besides, Pigram John J. (1999) studied water rights
trading in Australia. In addition, Charles S. Sokile and Barbara
van Koppen (2004) made the Tanzania Rufigi Basin as an ex-
perimental object, then they discussed the effects taken by local
water rights management informal regulations on the water
users. As to water option, there is still in its infancy. In recent
years, Michelsen et al. (2000), Villenski (2002) and Ahmed
Hafi et al. have made preliminary qualitative researches on
water option from different angles and levels, all these studies
are based on water market environment of developed countries
as the background.
Zhang Yu (2002), Ge Yanxiang and Liu Weihua (2004) ex-
plored and studied water option from different levels, they
combined ideas of futures market with water resources and took
advantage of options system to make effective allocation of wa-
ter resource. Jiang Jianyong and Xue Yi made Zhejiang agricul-
tural water as study object, then they draw on ideas of options
to design water rights trading derivatives, namely agricultural
Water Option Pricing
Black-Scholes is a classic option pricing model which is
widely used in many aspects all over the word. However, there
is little reference can be found in other countries.
In China, Chen Jie and Xu Changxin (2006), Wang Huimin
and Qiu lei et al. (2008) as well as Dai Tiansheng and Zhao
Wenhui(2009), all of them have made related research. Chen
Jie and Xu Changxin (2006) combined theory of options with
water right trading, then they put forward water option trading
pattern and determined water option pricing model according to
the characteristics of fluctuations in the price of water rights.
Wang Huimin and Qiu Lei et al. (2008) conducted a prelimi-
nary study on the basic content of water option and its pricing
methods with the reality of our country’s regimen and water
market. With the example of eastern front of south-to-north
water diversion, they verified the feasibility of such method and
discussed the conditions of application of our water option
trading in detail. In the same year, Qiu Lei and Wang Hui et al.
(2008) still studied the eastern front of south-to-north water
diversion, they used “Two part season-of-use price model” to
make inter-provincial price of water pricing and used mean-
reversion model to simulate the underlying asset price of water
of such options. Dai Tiansheng and Zhao Wenhui et al. (2009)
conceived that assessing the value of water options was a key
issue in water options trading. With the foundation of real op-
tions, they established evaluation model of water option’s value
and gave the analytical expression of the value of water rights,
which provided an important basis of scientific decision-mak-
ing for market participants and can effectively avoid risks.
Comments on Prio r R es earch
From the prior researches we can see that there are few re-
searches on the water option trading which introduced options
pricing theory. Currently, the study of options pricing for water
is still in its infancy and the research background is very narrow,
most of study objects are the water market environment in de-
veloped countries. While in China, with the theories of options,
many scholars have focused on water rights trading and trading
pattern as well as water option pricing model. However, due to
the limitations of macroeconomic conditions, the current related
studies are all general qualitative introductions or a simple
quantitative study with an experimental unit, while the study of
rural drinking water is almost none. Therefore, this article tries
to explore the water option and the pricing on rural drinking
water in China with the object of rural drinking water, which
makes up for the bank of studies in rural drinking water market
to a certain extent.
Basic Connotation of Water Option and Rural
Drinking Water Option
Basic Connotation of Water Option
Basic Connotation of Water Option
Water option is a standardized contract or agreement which
stimulates that the option buyer has the right to buy a certain
volume of water from the seller at a specific price within a spe-
cific time in the future and the option seller also has the right to
sell the buyer a certain amount of water under the same condi-
tion. When requested to exercise the option, the water option
seller is obliged to sell a certain amount of water prescribed by
the contract price. However, in order to acquire the right to buy
water, the option buyer need to pay a certain premium to the
seller as compensation, this premium is often referred as water
option price. Actually, water option is a financial derivative
product which settlement object is one or more factors. Gener-
ally speaking, financial options can be divided into call options
and put options, so can water option. The holder of call water
option has the right to purchase the specified water rights in the
determined time or period with pre-agreed price, while the
holder of put water option has the right to sell the specified
water rights in the determined time or period with pre-agreed
price. In the contract of water option, the price reached by the
two parties of transaction is called the exercise price or strike
price. The date of water option implementation is called matur-
ity date, exercise date or expiry date.
American water option can be executed within the validity
period at any time, while the European water option only can be
executed on the expiry date. Therefore, water option can be di-
vided into four sorts. They are call European option, put Euro-
pean option, call American option and put American option. The
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
J.-F. LENG, L. LI
holder of call European water option is entitled to purchase the
specified water rights on the due date. The holder of put Euro-
pean water option has the right to sell the specified water rights
with exercise price on the due date. The holder of call Ameri-
can water option can buy the specified water rights with exer-
cise price before the maturity date. And the holder of put
American option call dibs on selling the specified water rights
with exercise price before the expiry date. American option is
usually more difficult to analyze than European option, and
some of its properties are always derived by the nature of
The Different Features of Water Option Compared with
In the financial market, financial option is often regarded as a
significant tool of avoiding the risks of commodity market and
an important complement to cash market.
In contrast with the cash market, financial option can evade
risks of price and investment financing effectively with its ad-
vantages such as price discovery advantage, hedging advantage
and risks diversification advantage et al. However, in terms of
water resources, water option has its own uniqueness because
of its special nature. These features mainly reflected in its trad-
ing purpose, underlying assets and execution condition.
1) Different purpose.
Financial option is primarily used to avoid price risk and the
risk of investment and financing, while water option is used to
avoid the risk of water supply and adjust the allocation of water
resources. With the development of water market, the rule of
the financial market can also be introduced into water market.
2) Different underlying asset.
In general, the underlying asset of financial option is a com-
modity price, while the underlying asset of water option is the
price of water rights. The uniqueness of this price is determined
by the particularity of water resources. Under the macro-control
of China, the changing trend of the water price is very different
from that of commodity price adjusted by the full market.
3) Different vesting conditions.
For financial option, the vesting condition of call option is
when the commodity price of cash market is higher than the
price stipulated in the option contract. While for water option,
its vesting condition is when the supply of real-time water is
lower than the water supply specified in the option contract.
4) Different exercise time.
Because the cycle of water use structural adjustment is lon-
ger than others, the option buyer should inform option seller the
needs of exercise beforehand. Then, the water options seller can
adjust water use timely and effectively.
5) Different mechanism of negotiation.
Water is affected largely by the uncertainty weather. In the
contract, arbitration institution or a mechanism of re-negotia-
tion should be agreed in advance so that it can avoid uncontrol-
lable situation and unnecessary waste of water resources by ne-
gotiating and amending the content of contract.
6) Different configuration.
The introduction of water option configuration is a beneficial
supplement to the water market. Due to the complication of
water rights trading formalities, the introduction of water option
can facilitate water rights trading and increase the use value of
Rural Drinking Water Option
Connotation of Rural Drinking Water Option
Rural drinking water option is a specific use of water option
in rural areas. It’s a standardized contract or agreement between
water users which stimulates that the option buyer has the right
to buy a certain volume of water from the seller at a specific
price within a specific time in the future and the option seller
also has the right to sell the buyer a certain amount of water
under the same condition.
Rural drinking water option can also be divided into call op-
tion and put option, according to the actual situation of the
characteristics of rural drinking water and water users. Call
option of rural drinking water is a call option contract formu-
lated with the system of water option trading. The underlying
asset of the option is the rights of rural drinking water which
should be negotiated when signed contract between the two
parties, rather than change with the water price in the market.
According to the characteristics of rural drinking water, the
maturity date of rural drinking water option stipulated in the
contract can have an appropriate extension. As to the price of
option contract, it is the fee that water users should pay to the
empty side in order to get the rights of buying drinking water
option. Generally speaking, the royalty is much lower than the
price in water rights market.
After buying the contract of rural drinking water option in
accordance with a certain exercise price, water users have right
to ask the seller to give them specified amount of water rights
with order execution price if they need, regardless the fluctua-
tion of water rights price within the validity period of the con-
tract. If the water users do not apply to exercise the rights in
due date, the option contract should be abolished. Similarly, the
basic elements in the contract of put rural drinking water option
are accordance with that of call option. The difference is that
the holders of put option have right to sell their drinking water
option in the put option contract.
With the implementation of option system, there are two
methods for drinking water option. One is that water users can
buy a call option with a lower price through selling water rights,
and the price is so called premium. The other one is that water
users can purchase put option while holding water rights as well.
The option design of rural drinking water can not only reduce
the market risks of water users but also regulate the rational
allocation of rural drinking water resources effectively at the
Principles of Rural Drinking Water Option Trading
The same with ordinary financial option trading, rural drink-
ing water option need to follow certain principles when enter-
ing into a transaction.
1) Principle of efficiency.
Efficiency principle of rural drinking water option must
come first. This principle requests that the value of rural drink-
ing water rights must be converted to the large use of water
resources value in the transaction. At the same time, it also
should promote conservation of rural drinking water resources
and encourage water use efficiency.
2) Principle of not prejudicing the third party’s interests.
The trade of rural drinking water option will produce the ad-
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 59
J.-F. LENG, L. LI
justment of interest between the two parties. Besides, the re-
lated rights and obligations should occur between buyers and
sellers and not cause any loss of the third party. That is to say
rural drinking water option trading should not make injury of
the third party’s interests as a precondition. Otherwise, the third
party has the right to proceed in accordance with legal proce-
3) Principle of ecological environment protection.
Ecological environment is an important factor related to
Chinese people’s livelihood and the development of its national
economy. Furthermore, the countryside is the strong backing of
economic development. Therefore, we must take ecological en-
vironment protection into consideration when carrying out the
trade of rural drinking water option.
4) Principle of sustainable use.
Water resource is an important strategic resource of national
economic development which can’t be renewable. Once the
water resources is contaminated, it will certainly affect the
harmony between human and nature, what’s important is that it
will have a direct impact on the ability of human survival and
development. Consequently, we must adhere to the principle of
sustainable development in the procedure of rural drinking
water option trading. Meanwhile, we should try to make water
resources development, utilization, protection and management
5) Principle of ability to pay and voluntary of water users.
Trade of rural drinking water option is mainly to regulate
drinking water resources between farmers. The deed will make
a reasonable allocation of water resources as well as improving
water use efficiency. Therefore, during the transaction of rural
drinking water option, we should consider the ability to pay of
farmers and make a reasonable transaction price. Meanwhile,
we shouldn’t force farmers to trade in order to ensure the effec-
tiveness of rural drinking water option trading, so the voluntary
of water users must be taken into account.
6) Principle of government regulatory.
The prominent position of government regulatory in water
option trading is determined by the public properties of water
resources, it’s also a necessity of eliminating government need
to strengthen power of supervision in the transaction of rural
drinking water option, such as building related legislation sys-
tem, understanding rules of rural drinking water option, clear-
ing transaction-related powers, duties and responsibilities. At
the same time, government regulatory must be public and trans-
parent so that it can ensure the fairness of such regulatory.
Study on Option and Its Pricing of Rural
The Basis of Pricing Model
Option Pricing Model
Currently, there are two widely used option pricing models.
The first one is called binomial option tree model, a simplified
treatment to the changes of underlying asset value base on dy-
namic programming method. This model is intuitive and has
great flexibility applied to any of the underlying asset. No mat-
ter what option there is, this model can be used to define the
price. Furthermore, this model can also apply to option pricing
in the market environment and trading conditions change over
time. The traditional binomial model is based on neutral risk
and no arbitrage principles. The single-phase binomial model is
In the equation, is the price of European call option, at the
end of the first period the price of call option will either rise to
or fall to Cdr risk-free interest rate. Based on the sin-
gle-phase binomial model, the n-phase binomial model can be
The other pricing model is called Black-Scholes model,
which is by means of mathematical tool of partial differential
equations and the method of mathematical statistics to price the
option. It’s an extension of the binomial pricing model and a
cornerstone of modern financial economic theory and financial
theory. For the pricing of fair value option which remaining
validity is more than two months and does not pay dividends,
there is a positive effect on it. For the high value-added or
highly impaired option, however, there is an obvious bias. Es-
pecially, the more close to the maturity date, the greater the
option valuation error will be. The equation of Black-Scholes
model will be introduced in detail in the theoretical basis of
Theoretical Basis of Option Pricing
The most famous option pricing model of financial engi-
neering is B.-S. pricing model, the theoretical basis of this arti-
cle. In 1973, Black, F. and Scholes, M. J. (1973)  of Ameri-
can University of Chicago put forward the B.-S. model and
made detail discussion on pricing of stock option, which is a
great breakthrough of option pricing theory. In general, the
assumptions of Black-Scholes model including the following
factors. Firstly, the change of underlying asset price should
abide by generalized Wiener Process, that is to say, the price of
underlying asset follows a lognormal distribution. Secondly,
using total income to oversell derivative assets is allowed.
Thirdly, there is no transaction costs and tax and do not exist
risk-free arbitrage opportunities. The last assumption is that
risk-free interest rate is a constant and all maturities are the
same. With the premise of these assumptions, we can obtain
Black-Scholes differential equation of derivative asset price.
t is the value of call option at time with the
underlying asset price
. is risk-free interest rate. r
represents the volatility of the underlying asset price. is
the validity of the option. is exercise price. And in the equa-
Then, we can obtain the pricing formula of call European op-
tion by solving the Black-Scholes partial differential equation.
In the equation,
dt and are the stan-
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
J.-F. LENG, L. LI
dardized cumulative normal distribution function.
Similarly, put European option is the following one.
Pricing Model of Chinese Rural Drinking Water
Assumptions of Rural Drinking Water Option
By comparison with general merchandise, water resource has
certain characteristics. In addition to the market mechanism,
water resource is also affected by many factors, such as the
national macro-control and precipitation. Rural drinking water
option is similar to European non-arbitrage option and there is
no transaction costs to both sides of option trading. Besides, it
is also assumed that water market is a perfectly competitive
market and the risk is neural. Therefore, we must do hypothesis
on the basis of Black-Scholes model, otherwise it will lead to
considerable error in the procedure.
There is a certain relationship between the assumption of ru-
ral drinking water option and that of basic option. Rural drink-
ing water option is the specific use of basic option in rural
drinking water. All the assumptions of basic option apply to
rural drinking water. As the rural drinking water has its own
characteristics, the fowling assumptions of rural drinking water
are based on that of basic option with the characteristics of rural
1) No arbitrage opportunities.
Water resource is both a public resource and a natural re-
source which easily forms a natural monopoly due to the objec-
tive reasons of space. In order to prevent the monopoly in the
rural drinking water option trading and ensure the use effi-
ciency of water resource, both our nation and local government
should make limitations to the transaction of water rights, pre-
venting behalf of arbitrage in water rights transaction. There-
fore, there is no arbitrage opportunity in rural drinking water
2) Price of rural drinking water abides by unequal jump ran-
At present, water market is not a completely efficient market
and rural drinking water market is more imperfect. The reflec-
tion of water price information on rural drinking water market
is insensitivity. Only when external information has a certain
degree effect on the transaction of rural drinking water rights,
can decision-makers amend water price, otherwise, the price of
water will maintain the original form and not change. Therefore,
the price of rural drinking water has the characteristic of un-
equal jump, the change of rural drinking water price can be
either positive jump or negative jump and this magnitude of
jump is random.
3) No dividend payment.
There is no dividend issued in the process of rural drinking
water option trading.
4) Compound option.
The investment entities of rural drinking water rights have
the right to choose during the transaction of water rights. In the
investment decision-making process of water rights, there in-
volves a number of decisions and each decision will affect the
next decision-making. The transaction of rural drinking water
option is also an issue of multi-period decision-making, so it’s a
5) No transaction costs.
Transaction of rural drinking water option includes many
kinds of costs, such as costs of surveys and information collec-
tion, costs of option value discovery, costs of signing option
contract, costs of prior development of trading rules and costs
of subsequent implementation of management, supervision and
protection. Since water resource is public resource, the state
will bear costs of prior development of trading rules and sub-
sequent implementation of management, supervision and pro-
tection. For traders, they only should be responsible for very
little transaction costs of each. Therefore, in the study of this
article, it can be approximated seemed as no transaction costs.
6) Water resource market is perfectly competitive and the
risk is neutral.
Pricing Model of Rural Drinking Water Option
Based on Black-Scholes pricing model and the particularity
of rural drinking water trading, this article only discusses
European option of rural drinking water and does not consider
the American option. We can determine the pricing model of
rural drinking water option based on theoretical basis of
Black-Scholes pricing model without considering the transac-
tion investor made before the maturity date. Assume that inter-
est rate is constant and calculated based on one-year Treas-
ury bill rate. As the average interest rate of funds gained by
water rights traders, traders can borrow or lend funds freely
through certain channels. Borrowing interest rate and loan in-
terest rate are equally, all are risk-free interest rate. Assume
change of rural drinking water price follows Geometric
Brownian Motion and the lognormal distribution. In addition,
rural drinking water option is an option without arbitrage op-
portunities, and there is no transaction costs between the two
sides of option. Meanwhile, water resource market is a per-
fectly competitive market and the risk is neutral. We can obtain
the value of water option.
is the average price of water in market on rural
drinking water pricing day.
is exercise price. is risk-free
interest rate. is current time. is the maturity date of rural
drinking water option.
d and are the cumulative
normal distribution function of 1
d and 2 respectively.
represents the volatility rate of water option price.
From the view of investor, option reflects the rights of in-
vestment choice or the value of investment opportunities in the
future. We can regard the right to use of rural drinking water as
a call option. Investors need not rush to decide whether to im-
plement the water right immediately or not, they can decide
whether to delay the investment of the water right by under-
standing the market further to improve their initial evaluation
results on cash flow of each period project. Therefore, based on
the theory of delay, it is available to acquire the pricing model
of delaying rural drinking water option.
In the equation,
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 61
J.-F. LENG, L. LI
max 0,CImax 0,CI
where represents the current value of delaying rural drinking
water option. I is required investment. Cis net cash flow of
the project during its implementation period.
interest rate. u and represent rising factor and falling
factor respectively. is the adjustment coefficient.
According to the assumptions of pricing of rural drinking
water option, drinking water option in rural areas can be re-
garded as a decision model of compound water option based on
unequal jump compound water option. Option price of rural
drinking water is divided into price of call European option and
price of put European option. Order as maturity date,
zero-coupon bond with maturity date is , price of
rural drinking water rights is
subject to the following jump diffusion process.
,T ,T W
dt rtdtt d
dt rtdtt dyr dydtmdy
Considering that current price of rural drinking water right is
0, expectation is , maturity date is .
C0, 0 is
call European option price of rural drinking water with maturity
is the price of zero-coupon bond with
maturity date , the exercise price is . The call European
option of exercise is
T,PTPT KPT KC
E B TPTIKE BTI
Qis the martingale measure. Make unit of account
to , we can deduce the formula.
With calculating, we can got that
The pricing formula of call European option of rural drinking
water is the following one.
0 is current price of rural drinking water.
is maturity date. is call Euro-
pean option price of rural drinking water with maturity date
is the price of zero-coupon bond with maturity date
. The exercise price is
is a constant and a process of
intensity in Poisson distribution.
is risk-free interest rate,
that is the growth rate of rural drinking water. is current
represents cumulative probability distribution func-
tion of standardized normal distribution variables. is the
random part of price changes. j
Uj is independent and
identical distribution random sequences.
12 dtdd t,Tt
t is the criterion of continuous compounding rate
of return of rural drinking water right price.
,t is the
volatility of the price of water rights in rural drinking water.
is the rate of return of rural drinking water right price,
represents the compensation measure of
Based on these pricing models of option under different
situations, we can calculate the guiding price of rural drinking
water option. The guiding price can conduct the transaction of
rural drinking water option and optimize the allocation of rural
drinking water. For the investors of rural drinking water re-
source, they can also judge the level of market price according
to the price calculated by the model and decide to buy or sell
water option, thus achieving the optimal allocation of water
resource through market
Options are important financial derivatives, so water option
has its own incomparable superiority during water rights trad-
ing. Establishing trading patterns of rural drinking water option
can bring many advantages, such as perfecting current alloca-
tion of rural drinking water resource reasonably and effectively,
improving the utilization of rural drinking water, reducing the
contradictions brought by the uneven distribution of water re-
sources and enhancing its value in use. Based on the traditional
Black-Scholes pricing model, this article determines the pricing
model of rural drinking water option without considering the
transaction investors made before the option maturity date.
Taking the effectiveness of investor decision-making into ac-
count, this article also builds pricing model of delaying option
of rural drinking water. In addition, this article regards rural
drinking water option as decision-making model of compound
options and also establishes option pricing model of rural
drinking water based on unequal jump compound options. With
these pricing models of option under different situation and
guiding price of rural drinking water option calculated accord-
ing to the different needs, it can absolutely promote the alloca-
tion and the rational use of rural drinking water as well as
making contribution to the further development of rural eco-
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Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
J.-F. LENG, L. LI
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 63
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