Open Journal of Applied Sciences, 2012, 2, 228-235
doi:10.4236/ojapps.2012.24034 Published Online December 2012 (
Optical, Photophysical, Stability and Mirrorless Lasing
Properties of Novel Fluorescein Derivative Dye in Solution
Maram T. H. Abou-Kana
National Institute of Laser Enhanced Sciences, Cairo University, Giza, Egypt
Received August 24, 2012; revised September 25, 2012; accepted October 5, 2012
Novel laser dye, allyl 2-(6-(allyloxy)-3-oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl) benzoate [diallyl-fluorescein] has been synthesized. Its
chemical structure was confirmed by 1HNMR, IR, MS and elemental analysis. Its optical properties were experimen-
tally investigated. The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) efficiency was 0.29% in case of new dye while it was
0.23% in case of fluorescein by pumping the dye samples with a 532 nm (7 ns) pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Also, the thermal
and photostability techniques confirmed the higher stability of new laser dye.
Keywords: Laser Dye; Optical Properties; Amplified Spontaneous Emission; Thermal Stability; Photostability Property
1. Introduction
Dye lasers are the most versatile class of lasers with di-
verse applications in many scientific, industrial, medical
and military applications, ranging from spectroscopy to
potential counter measure devices. There is a growing
devote concerning of dye laser and the search for par-
ticular laser dyes that provide high laser damage thres-
hold and high photostability. The photophysical and las-
ing properties of laser dyes in liquid solutions show a
strong dependence on the molecular structure of the dye
[1-5]. Moreover, adequate substituent in the molecular core
can alter both electronic absorption and emission maxi-
mum due to change in mobility of electrons by the nature
of the substituent group in the parent dye [6-11]. This
structure modification may give rise to large changes in the
photophysical and optical properties [12-24]. For exam-
ple displacing the emission band to longer wavelengths
can be achieved by: 1) attaching electron-donating group
to the dye core [25]; 2) rigidifying the structure [26-28];
or 3) extending the conjugation of the chromophore
[29-31]. So, lasing properties should be redetermined.
Depending upon these results and trying to find novel
laser dye with high laser performance and photostability,
we carried out our previous work [32,33] and are now
dealing with new fluorescein derivative. The present in-
vestigation deals with synthesis, chemical structure con-
firmation by spectroscopic techniques, photophysical pro-
perties, optical properties, stability and amplified spon-
taneous emission efficiency were determined and com-
pared with the parent fluorescein itself.
2. Experimental
2.1. Materials
Fluorescein purchased from Aldrich chemical company
(England) has been used without further purification,
allyl bromide, potassium hydroxide, Dimethyl forma-
mide and conc. Sulphuric acid was purchased from Al-
drich and used without further purification. Solvents for
photophysical and laser studies were of spectroscopic
grade (Merck, Aldrich or Sigma) and were used without
2.2. Synthesis
Preparation of the new compound allyl 2-(6-(allyloxy)-3-
oxo-3H-xanthen-9-yl) benzoate [diallyl-fluorescein] 2 was
as follows: Fluorescein 1 (1 mmol) was dissolved in hot
ethanolic KOH solution (prepared by dissolving (2 mmol)
of KOH in 10 ml of absolute ethanol), and the solvent
was then removed in vacuo. The remaining material was
dissolved in dimethyl formamide (DMF) (10 ml) and
allyl chloride (2.2 mmol) was added. The reaction mix-
ture was heated under reflux for 10 min with continuous
stirring. The solid obtained upon cooling and dilution
with water was collected and purified by crystallization
from methanol solution to give orange crystals, m.p.
148˚C - 151˚C. The schematic reaction of the preparation
of new dye is shown in Scheme 1.
2.3. Measurements
1) The structure of the prepared new fluorescein laser
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJAppS
M. T. H. ABOU-KANA 229
2) Allyl Chloride/DMF
Reflux 10 m in.
Scheme 1. The schematic re action of the preparation of new
dye derivative was confirmed by Perkin-Elmer CHN 240
B. Column chromatography: Basic alumina [activity B
II-III (Brock-mann) ICN Biomedical for elemental ana-
lysis. 1HNMR was recorded with a Bruker NMR spec-
trometer WM 300 in CDCl3 with tetramethylsilane as
internal standard. Mass spectra (MS) were obtained with
a Varian 311A instrument using Electron Impact (EI)
2) Thermal stability of diallyl fluorescein and fluo-
rescein parent were measured under atmospheric nitro-
gen using Shimadzu TGA-50H. Liquid solutions of the
dye in different solvents were contained in 1-cm optical
path quartz cells carefully sealed to avoid solvent evapo-
ration during the experiments. Absorption and excita-
tion-emission spectra were measured by Camspec M501
uv-vis spectrophotometer and PF-6300 spectrofluorome-
ter respectively.
3) Optimum concentration of the dye as linear fluo-
rescence in ethanol was detected from its absorption and
emission spectra.
4) Some important photo-physical parameters of the
new di-allyl fluorescein dye were determined from its
absorption and excitation-emission spectra. Fluorescence
quantum yields were measured by using the optically
very diluted solution (2 × 10–6 M) relative method [34,35]
with solution of fluorescein as reference in 0.1 M NaOH
(φf = 0.79) [36].
5) The fluorescence lifetime (τf), were measured by
using nitrogen laser (laser photonics LN1000) of pulse
duration of 800 ps and wavelength 337.1 nm. The maxi-
mum energy per pulse was 2 mJ. The fluorescence signal
was registrated with a fast phototube (Hamamatsu
R1328U-03) through optical fiber. The fast phototube
(+H.V) powered by power supply at 400 V and con-
nected to the 300 MHz eZ-digital oscilloscope (DS-1530)
attached to the computer processing unit for processing
the spectrum.
6) The amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) spec-
trum and its efficiency of 2 × 10–4 M of dye in ethanol
have been measured using the experimental setup in our
previous work [32]. The dye sample is pumped by 532
nm of second harmonic Nd-YAG laser (Continuum
PL7010), 7 ns pulses at a repetition rate of 5 Hz. The
exciting light was directed towards the surface of cell
sample with a combination of concave lens (f = 10 cm)
and a cylindrical lens forming a line shape of dimension
~ 0.3 × 10 mm. The pump fluence was 71 mJ/cm2. The
pumping energy (input energy) was measured via a beam
splitter (4%) and using Gentec energy meter (Model
QE50). The ASE output was focused by convex lens (f =
15 cm) onto the Gentec power meter head (model XLE4).
The ASE spectrum was recorded using the Oplenic spec-
trophotometer which was connected to a computer unit
for processing the spectrum.
7) Thermal stability of the diallyl-fluorescein and
fluorescein itself were measured using Shimadzu TGA-
50H. Photo stabilities of fluorescein parent and its new
derivative were measured using the above setup as a
function of number of pulses ranged from (0 - 50000)
3. Results and Discussion
The chemical structure of the diallyl fluorescein dye was
confirmed by 1HNMR, IR, mass spectroscopy as well as
elemental analysis. 1HNMR spectra shows that, (DMSO)
δ = 4.45 - 4.67 (m, 4H, OCH2), 5.08-6.12 (m, 6H,
CH=CH2), 6.53 - 8.29 (m, 10H, ArH’s) ppm. While
FT-IR spectra of diallyl fluorescein shows that, the ab-
sence of strong absorption bands characteristic for the
phenolic OH as well as the carboxylic acid OH at 3200 -
3500 and 2500 - 3400 cm–1, respectively. The IR spec-
trum revealed also strong absorption bands due to C=C
stretching vibration mode at 1641 cm–1 of vinyl group;
and C=C stretching at 1596 cm–1 of phenyl group. Also
the structure of the new laser dye 2 was confirmed by the
presence of the correct molecular ion peak at the mass
spectrum; ms: m/z (%) 412 (M+). On the other hand,
elemental analysis was: Anal. Calcd. for C26H20O5: C,
75.72; H, 4.89. Found: C, 75.60; H, 4.50.
Thermal stability also measured and represented in
Figure 1. It shows that the fluorescein started decom-
posing at 200˚C and its weight losing was 88.76% up to
the temperature studied (1000˚C) while diallyl fluo-
rescein started decomposing at 220˚C and its weight los-
ing was 77.47% up to the temperature studied (1000˚C).
Figure 1. TGA of fluorescein and diallyl fluorescein.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJAppS
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJAppS
Absorption and emission spectra (shown in Figures 2
and 3 respectively) of the different concentrations of the
new dye in ethanol show optimum concentration (2 ×
10–4 M) at which maximum linear fluorescence was de-
tected by exciting the sample dye with 420 nm wave-
length, while absorption profile was changed at concen-
trations higher than that optimum concentration. Also,
emission intensity decrease at concentrations higher than
optimum concentration (shown in Figure 4) which may
attributed to inner filter effect or/and the formation of its
dimer form. In case of fluorescein dye, its dimer form at
concentration higher than 10–5 M [37].
Photophysical properties of diallyl-fluorescein in dif-
ferent media polarities:
The electronic absorption and emission spectra of 2 ×
10–4 M (Figure 5) was measured at room temperature in
different solvents of different polarities [Δf] with f given
by the relation [38].
200 300 400 500 600 700 800
absorption intensity a.u.
Wavelength nm
Figure 2. Absorption spectra of different concentrations of diallyl fluorescein dye in ethano.
400 450 500 550 600 650 700 750 800
emission intensity a.u.
Wavelength nm
Figure 3. Emission spectra of different concentrations of diallyl fluorescein dye in ethanol.
M. T. H. ABOU-KANA 231
0.0000 0.0002 0.0004 0.00060.0008 0.0010
Emission intensity a.u.
[di-allyl fluorescein] conc.
2x10-4 M
optimum conc.
Figure 4. Emission intensity as a function of different dye concentrations in ethanol.
300 400 500 600 700800
2[E-4] diallyl fluo.
Wavelength nm
absorbance intensity a.u.
Emission intensity a.u.
Figure 5. Absorption and emission spectra of 2 × 10–4 M diallyl fluorescein in ethanol.
21 42
 
where (ε) is the dielectric constant and (n) is the refrac-
tive index of the solvent. Table 1 summarizes some
spectral data of diallyl-fluorescein dye in different sol-
The absorption of dye is not strongly affected by sol-
vent polarity, whereas the small shifts in the position of
absorption spectra indicate a little change in dipole mo-
ment of dye on going from ground state to excited state.
The emission spectra are significantly influenced by the
medium. With increasing solvent polarity, the fluores-
cence maximum shifts to longer wavelengths from 497
nm in hexane [Δf = 0.091751] to 528.5 nm in ethanol [Δf =
Absorption cross-section σa and the emission cross-
sections σe were calculated in ethanol solution according
to the equations: [39,40].
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJAppS
ee f
where: ε is the molar extinction coefficient; λe is the
emission wavelength; n is the refractive index of the sol-
vent; c is the velocity of light;
is the fluorescence
quantum yield;
is the fluorescence life time; E(λ) is
the normalized fluorescence spectrum since
. Also, fluorescence quantum yield “φf
and fluorescence life time f
of fluorescein and di-
allyl fluo in ethanol were determined and summarized in
Table 2.
To examine the validity of the prepared new dye for
lasing action, we measured the ASE efficiency (defined
as the ratio of the energy of the dye laser output to the
energy of the pump laser incident on the dye sample).
The ASE as a function of wavelength was observed for 2 ×
10–4 M diallyl fluorescein dye in ethanol as shown in
Figure 6. The measured ASE energy versus the input
pump energies are shown in Figure 7 where the thres-
hold energy was ~ 4 mJ. The average ASE efficiency
extracted from this input-output energy measurements
were 0.29% in case of diallyl fluorescein while it was
0.23% in case of fluorescein.
To study the photostability of fluorescein parent and
its new derivative, the fluorescence intensity was moni-
tored as a function of the number of pump pulses at repe-
tition rate 5 Hz, pumped energy 8 mJ/pulse. It was found
that, the fluorescence intensity decreased to nearly 42%
in case of fluorescein while in case of its new derivative,
it decreased to nearly 46% as shown in Figure 8.
Table 1. Photophysical parameters of dye in different sol-
vent polarity.
Solvent [Δf]
abs. .emi.
Ethanol 0.41584 459 528.5 0.58
DMF 0.377111 457 523 0.60
Acetone 0.374482 457 522 0.53
DMSO 0.373593 456 518 0.71
Iso-propanol 0.36977 455 510 0.79
THF 0.30838 456 507.5 0.54
1,4-Dioxane 0.125892 455 502.5 0.66
Hexane 0.091751 454 497 0.52
Table 2. Maximum wavelength of absorption “λab(max)” and emission “λem(max)”; molecular extinction coefficient “ε”;
cross-sections of absorption “σa”, and emission “σe”; fluorescence quantum yield “φf” and fluorescence life time τf of fluo-
rescein and diallyl fluo in ethanol.
Dye in ethanol λab(max) λem(max) ε) L.M–1·cm–1 (103)σa (10–17) cm2σe (10–16) cm2 f
τf (ns)
Fluorescein 449 518.5 4.2 1.62 2.78 0.51 6.8
Diallyl fluorescein459 528.5 12.399 4.77 3.90 0.58 6.2
450 500 550 600
ASE intensity a.u.
Wavelength nm
Figure 6. ASE of 2 × 10–4 M of diallyl fluorescein in ethanol.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. OJAppS
M. T. H. ABOU-KANA 233
0510 1520 25
Output energy microJ
Input energy mJ
di-allyl fluo.
fluoresc e in
Figure 7. ASE efficiency of diallyl fluorescein and fluorescein in ethanol.
010000 20000 30000 40000 50000
Fluorescence intensity a.u.
Number of pulse
a di-allyl fluo.
b fluorescein
Figure 8. Fluorescence intensity as a function of the number of pumping pulses at repetition rate 5 Hz and pumping power 8
mJ of 532 nm Nd-YAG laser.
4. Conclusion
In this work, we reported efficient laser operation from
novel synthesized diallyl derivative of fluorescein. Electro-
nic absorption, emission and fluorescence quantum yield
in different solvents were measured. The solvent polarity
and viscosity have great effect on tunability properties of
new dye. Absorption cross section, emission cross sec-
tion and fluorescence lifetime of the new dye were inves-
tigated and compared with that of fluorescein itself. Un-
der the same experimental condition, the ASE efficiency
was 0.29% in case of new dye while it was 0.23% in case
of fluorescein dye with threshold energy of the order
of about 4 mJ. Also, thermal stability and photostability
measurements confirmed the higher stability of new flu-
orescein derivative returns.
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