Vol.2, No.4, 244-255 (2012) Open Journal of Ecology
The current state of the plant diversity in the Tlemcen
region (Northwest Algeria)
Smaïn El-Amine Henaoui*, Mohammed Bouazza
Department of Ecology and Environment, Faculty of Natural Sciences and Life and Earth Sciences and the Universe, University of
Tlemcen, Tlemcen, Algeria; *Corresponding Author: amine_33_ecoenv@yahoo.fr
Received 28 July 2012; revised 11 September 2012; accepted 20 September 2012
Tlemcen region is characterized by a Mediter-
ranean climate, with a remarkable vegetal cover.
The latter is influenced by the anthropozoo-
logical action. For that, we realized a phytoeco-
logical study based on the minimum area clas-
sical method [1] which allow s us to have a good
overview on plant biodiversity and better ana-
lyze and interpret the vegetation at different
levels (systematic composition; biological, mor-
phological and biogeographical characteriza-
tions; stratification; and plant species inventory
which we hope comprehensive). The results
show that our ecosystems are disrupted be-
cause therophytisation, before last vegetation
dynamics element [2], settles giving up a few
feet of cork and holm oaks spe cies of ancient fo -
Keywords: Phytoecology; Plant Diversity; Minimum
Area; Anthropic Action; Tlemcen (Western Algeria)
The nature and actual composition of Mediterranean
plant communities cannot be understood without taking
into account geological, paleoclimatic and anthropogenic
factors that marked the evolution of various ecosystems
specific to that biogeographical zone.
The current Mediterranean region can be defined by
evident floristic criteria since 50%, of some 25,000 spe-
cies in the Mediterranean climatic area [3,4] and more so
in the Mediterranean bioclimatic zone [5], are endemic [6].
Biodiversity includes three levels of biological vari-
ability: ecosystem complexity, species richness and ge-
netic variation [7].
Mediterranean plant biodiversity is the product, for
many, of a traditional and harmonious environment use
by man [8]. Despite the constant attacks they have suf-
fered, for over a millennium, Mediterranean forests still
offer, in some locations, a significant development.
The problem posed by the dynamics of non-tree struc-
tures (steppe, shrubland and lawns) can however lead to
the understanding that their current expansion has been
and is still under the human action impact, mainly through
fire and grazing, but also the clearing [9].
In most North Mediterranean countries (France, Spain,
etc.) these attacks are somehow controlled and give a
biological rise, while in the Southern Mediterranean coun-
tries (Algeria, Morocco, Tunisia, etc.) they continue in an
uncontrolled manner.
[10] emphasizes that “the analysis of the floristic rich-
ness of different groups and their biological and chrono-
logical characteristics allows to demonstrate their floral
originality, conservation condition and, consquently, their
The flora of Algeria is characterized by a remarkable
level of endemism (12.6% or 653 species listed on the
3139 including 7 endemic tree species [11].
However, Tlemcen region is not immune to Circum-
Mediterranean natural laws. It has a very diverse flora
and closely linked to various stressors. This vegetation
has been largely studied; we can quote [12-16].
The study is located in the north-western part of Alge-
ria. The study area is divided into two parts: one located
in the mountains of Tlemcen and the other near the coast
with rugged mountainous terrain (integral part of Traras
Mountains). The stations choice mainly depends on the
presence of pre-forest formations and shrubland. The
area studied is located between 34˚ and 35˚25' North and
0˚55' and 2˚30' west and covers a 9017.69 km² area. It is
limited geographically (Figure 1):
˗ To the north by the Mediterranean Sea,
˗ In the north-east by the wilaya of Aïn-Témouchent,
˗ To the east by the wilaya of Sidi-Bel-Abbès,
˗ To the west by Morocco.
The stations of our study area are: Zarifet, Aïn-Fezza,
Nedroma, Ghazaouet, Beni-Saf and Ouled-Mimoun (Fig-
ure 1).
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Station of Zarifet
Station of Ghazaouet
Sta t i o n of Be ni - S af
Sta t i o n of Ne dr oma
Station o f
St at io n o f
Figure 1. Location of study sites.
The stations were chosen based on the vegetation ho-
3.1. Biological Material
(See the biological spectrum): biological material.
3.2. Method
Four areas and three strata were defined in the eco-
logical zoning. Areas are represented by the soil, climate,
species composition and topography. The strata are: the
tree layer, shrub layer and herb layer.
Among the different methods of studying vegetation,
we used the phytosociological or stigmatist method [1].
The survey includes the list of all species and for each
one with its rating of the abundance-dominance, social-
bility and reliability.
This minimum area [17] depends on the number of
annual species at the time of survey and therefore the
vagaries of rainfall and operating conditions [18].
For our case, the minimum area for Zarifet and Gha-
zaouet stations is 128 m2 and for Beni-Saf, Aïn-Fezza,
Nedroma and Ouled-Mimoun stations, the area is 64 m2.
The species recovery rate is theoretically defined as
the percentage of the soil surface, which would be co-
vered [17]. This rate, variable from one station to another
due to the vegetation control, remains very low.
Systematic Composition
Flora used for identification of taxa collected are: the
New Flora of Algeria and Southern Desert Regions [11],
the Mediterranean Flora [19], The Flora of the Sahara
[20,21], the Vast Flora of France in colors [22] and flowers
from Algeria [23].
The flora of the study area consists of 322 species or
10.26% of the flora of Algeria. They belong to the sub
branches of gymnosperms and angiosperms, with 62
(42.18%) and 193 families (18%) types (Table 2).
Gymnosperms constitute 1.55% of the study area un-
like with angiosperms which largely dominate. They
constitute 98.45% of shrubland with 84.21% of Eudicots
lant diversit
in the Tlemcen re
Northwest Al
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and 13.93% of monocots (Table 1 and Figure 2).
The distribution between the generic and specific
families is not homogeneous.
Table 4 and Figure 3 show us that the best repre-
sented families, on the generic and specific point of view,
are Asteraceae (52), Fabaceae (33), Lamiaceae (25), Lili-
aceae (17), Poaceae (19), the Boraginaceae (7), Cistaceae
(12), the Apiaceae (10), the Euphorbiaceae (11), Oleaceae
(8) and Brassica (8).
The floristic includes 55 families, 157 genera and 232
species for Zarifet station. We have 67 species and 61 ge-
nera belonging to 30 families in Aïn-Fezza. For Ghazao-
uet station, we have 46 families, 137 genera with 152
species. Ouled-Mimoun station includes 23 families and
62 genera with 71 species. We have 117 species, 99 ge-
nera belonging to 40 families at Beni-Saf. Finally Nedro-
ma station, we have 32 families, 58 genera with 67 spe-
cies (Table 3).
Table 1. The rates of angiosperms (Eudicots and Monocots)
and gymnosperms.
Stations Gymnosperms
% Eudicots
% Monocots
Aïn-Fezza 2.99 85.07 11.94
Ghazaouet 1.32 85.53 13.16
O. Mimoun 2.82 84.51 12.68
Beni-Saf 1.71 83.76 14.53
Nedroma 1.49 82.09 16.42
Zarifet 1.29 83.19 15.09
S tudy Area 1.55 84.21 13.93
N.B: There is only one species of ferns Pteridium aquilinum (L.) Kuhn
belonging to the family of Dennstaedtiaceae (New classification) [24] or
Polypodiaceae (Old Classification) [11].
Figure 2. Flora composition by class.
Other families
Figure 3. Composition of the flora by family.
5.1. Biological Types
For [25] analysis of biological type can give us infor-
mation on the environment influence on the local vegeta-
tion. These biological types are considered to be an ex-
perience of coping strategy of flora and vegetation to
environmental conditions and allow us to recognize, with
respect to the “vascular plants”, the following five main
biological types: phanerophytes, chamaephytes, hemicry-
ptophytes, geophytes and therophytes.
[26] Highlights the existence of a good correlation be-
tween biological types and many phenomorphological
[10] Emphasizes on the abundant flora heritage value.
Initiated studies, by [27], have focused on the variation
of different ethological types in the sclerophyllous for-
mations in the Mediterranean.
Many other works have been made in order to high-
light on one hand the relationship between the distribu-
tion of biological types and environmental factors in par-
ticular the climate (temperature and rainfall) [28-30] and,
on the other hand, the relations between the biological
types distribution and “the altitude and the substrate na-
ture” [31].
5.2. The Biological Spectrum
The biological spectrum [32] is the percentage of va-
rious biological types.
This percentage is substantially the same in regions far
away geographically, which show an analogy with living
[26] Recommends the use of biological spectra as in-
dicators of the distribution of morphological and proba-
bly of physiological traits.
Table 5 and Figure 4 show clearly that the distribution
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Table 2. Composition in families, genera and species of flora.
Families Genera Species
Asteraceae Crassulaceae
33 1 51 3
Fabaceae Violaceae
20 1 30 2
Lamiaceae Resedaceae
15 1 25 2
Poaceae Solanaceae
13 2 18 2
Liliaceae Orchidaceae
10 2 17 2
Cistaceae Gentianaceae
5 2 12 2
Euphorbiaceae Aristolochiaceae 3 1 10 2
Apiaceae Thymeleaceae
7 1 9 2
Brassicaceae Pinaceae
6 1 7 2
Oleaceae Araceae
3 1 6 1
Renonculaceae Acanthaceae
4 1 7 1
Boraginaceae Apocynaceae
5 1 7 1
Caryophyllaceae Palmaceae
4 1 7 1
Rosaceae Buxaceae
4 1 5 1
Fagaceae Frankeniaceae
1 1 5 1
Scrofulariaceae Zygophyllaceae
4 1 4 1
Plantaginaceae Fumariaceae
1 1 5 1
Primulaceae Globulariaceae
1 1 4 1
Cupressaceae Juncaceae
2 1 3 1
Iridaceae Cesalpinieae
1 1 4 1
Linaceae Chenopodiaceae
1 1 4 1
Ericaceae Plumbaginaceae
2 1 3 1
Malvaceae Oxalidaceae
2 1 2 1
Dipsaceae Orobanchaceae
2 1
3 1
Convolvulaceae Polypodiaceae
1 1 3 1
Geraniaceae Asclepiadaceae
1 1 2 1
Rubiaceae Rutaceae
3 1 3 1
Caprifoliaceae Campanulaceae
2 1 3 1
Terebinthaceae Myrtaceae
1 1 2 1
Rhamnaceae Salicaceae
2 1 3 1
Valerianaceae Papaveraceae
1 1 1 1
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Table 3. Inventory of families as a percentage (Study sites).
Families Aïn-Fezza
(%) Ghazaouet
(%) O. Mimoun
(%) Beni-Saf
(%) Nedroma
(%) Zarifet
Poaceae 4.48 6.58 8.45 9.40 4.48 5.17
Asteraceae 17.91 15.79 19.72 20.51 17.91 14.66
Liliaceae 4.48 4.61 2.82 3.42 8.96 6.47
Cistaceae 2.99 5.26 4.23 4.27 1.49 4.74
Lamiaceae 10.45 11.18 9.86 8.55 4.48 7.33
Fabaceae 5.97 7.24 18.31 7.69 14.93 9.48
Apiaceae 2.99 5.26 1.41 4.27 1.49 3.88
Euphorbiaceae - 1.97 2.82 3.42 1.49 2.59
Boraginaceae 2.99 2.63 - 0.85 2.99 1.72
Oleaceae 1.49 2.63 2.82 0.85 2.99 1.72
Brassicaceae 5.97 2.63 5.63 1.71 2.99 2.59
Other families 40.30 34.21 23.94 35.04 35.82 39.66
Table 4. Floristic composition per family (Study area).
Family Number of species %
Poaceae 19 5.90
Asteraceae 52 16.15
Liliaceae 17 5.28
Cistaceae 12 3.73
Lamiaceae 25 7.76
Fabaceae 33 10.25
Apiaceae 10 3.11
Euphorbiaceae 11 3.42
Boraginaceae 7 2.17
Oleaceae 8 2.48
Brassicaceae 8 2.48
Other families 120 37.27
of biological types in the vegetation in the same station
and between stations is heterogeneous:
˗ Aïn-Fezza and Ghazaouet stations follow the pattern:
Th > Ch > Ph > He > Ge
˗ Ouled-Mimoun station follows the pattern: Th > Ph >
CH > He > Ge
˗ Beni-Saf station follows the pattern: Th > Ch > He >
Ph > Ge
˗ Nedroma station follows the pattern: Th > Ch > He
and Ph > Ge
˗ Zarifet station follows the pattern: Th > Ch > Ph > He
and Ge
˗ The study area follows the pattern: Th > Ch > Ph >
He > Ge
For all the stations studied, therophytes have the high-
est rate (39.41%), reflecting the high population pres-
In addition to human impacts, the therophytisation tra-
ces its beginnings to the phenomenon of desiccation
[12,15,33-36]. The latter present therophyty as a form of
resistance to drought, and to drylands high tempera-
Despite the therophytes importance, the chamaephytes
keep a particularly important place.
For Zarifet and Ghazaouet stations, the rate of phan-
erophytes is low, despite a semblance of sylvatic envi-
ronment. This is mainly due to the floristic richness of
these stations, and the recent invasion by therophytes.
For Beni-Saf station, the rate of phanerophytes remains
very low; the results clearly show its degraded state. It is
dominated by therophytes, chamaephytes, hemicrypto-
phytes, phanerophytes and geophytes.
Some authors like [37] explain the abundance of hemi-
cryptophytes, in North Africa, a greater richness in or-
ganic matter in forest and elevation. This explains the low
percentage, of hemicryptophytes in Ghazaouet station,
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Table 5. Percentage of biological types. (N.S: Number of species).
Aïn-Fezza Ghazaouet O. Mimoun Beni-Saf Nedroma Zarifet Study area
Biological types
N.S % N.S % N.S% N.S% N.S% N.S % N.S%
(Ph) 9 13.85 24 16.22 15 21.7410 8.938 12.31 34 15.45 52 16.94
(Ch) 17 26.15 43 29.0514 20.29 35 31.2515 23.0849 22.27 65 21.17
(He) 7 10.77 14 9.469 13.0413 11.61 8 12.3127 12.27 38 12.38
Geophytes (Ge) 5 7.69 11 7.433 4.35 7 6.25 7 10.7727 12.27 31 10.10
Therophytes (Th) 27 41.54 56 37.8428 40.58 47 41.9627 41.5483 37.73 12139.41
Figure 4. Percentage of biological types.
which varies between 1.23% and 4.57%. For Aïn- Fezza,
Ouled-Mimoun, Nedroma and Zarifet stations we see a
very small percentage of hemicryptophytes although these
stations are in a high altitude. Beni-Saf station has a high
percentage of hemicryptophytes despite a low altitude.
Among the species encountered, we have:
Aegilops truncialis Fagonia cretica
Ajuga iva Galium verum
Avena sterilis Gnaphalium luteo-a lbum
Bromus rubens Hippocrepis minor
subsp. munbyana
Brachypodium distachyum Hordeum murinum
Bellis annua Hirchsfeldia incana
subsp. adperssa
Convolvulus althaeoïdes Lagurus ovatus
Centaurea pullata Linum strictum
Centaureum umbellatum Lobularia maritima
Delphinium peregrinum Malva sylvestris
Erodium moschatum Micropus bombycinus
Evax argentea Melilotus speciosa
Euphorbia heli oscopiae Mercurialis annua
Fumana thymifolia Ononis natrix
Fedia cornucopiae Papaver rh oeas
Paronychia argentea Scrofularia can i na
Prasium majus Taraxacum obovatum
Reseda alba Trifolium stellatum
Raphanus raph a n istrum Tuberar ia guttatae
Sinapis arvensis Vicia sicula
Scorpiurus muricatus Veronica persica
Verbascum sinuatum
Despite the therophytes importance, the chamaephytes
keep an important place in the vegetation of the study
area. They are most common in shrub land and are better
adapted to drought [38]. They are found in pastures and
fields. This distribution is described by [31] in agreement
with [28] and [39].
For our case, we recorded a percentage of 21.17% and
among the species encountered, we have:
Ampelodesma mauritanicumGlobularia alypum
Asteriscus maritimus Galactites tomentosa
Atractylis gummifera Helianthemum helianthemoïdes
Chamaerops humilis
subsp. argentea Halimium halimifolium
subsp. halimifolium
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Cistus monspeliensis Helichrysum stoechas
Calycotome intermedia Inula viscosa
Cistus salviifolius Jasminum fruticans
Daphne gnidium Juncus maritimus
Daucus carota Kundmannia sicu la
Eryngium tricuspidatum Lavandula dentata
Echinops spinosus Lavandula stoechas
Erica arborea Lavandula multifida
Erica multiflora Nepeta multibracteata
Ferula communis Pallenis spinosa
Frankenia laevis Psoralea bituminosa
Phlomis bovei Thapsia garganica
Reichardia picroïdes Ulex boivinii
Ruta chalepensis Ulex parvif lo ru s
Sideritis montana Viola arborescens
Sedum acre Viola odorata
Senecio vulgaris Globularia alypum
Teucrium fruticans Galactites tomentosa
Fumaria capreolata Helianthemum helianthemoïdes
Halimium halimifolium
subsp. halimifolium
Thymus ciliatus subsp. coloratus
Hemicryptophytes, with a percentage of 12.38%, are
still poorly represented in the study area we find:
Asperula hirsuta Dianthus serrulatus
Atractylis humilis Echium vulgare
Anchusa azurea Echium parviflorum
Andropogon hirtus Echium italicum
Bellis sylvestris Geranium sylvaticum
Centaurea soltitialis Geranium robertianum
subsp. purpureum
Convolvulus tricolor Inula montana
Carduus pycno-cephalus Leontondon hispidulus
Dactylis glomerata Marrubium vulgare
Plantago lagopus Sonchus arvens i s
Plantago serraria Salvia verbenaca
Ranunculus repens Solenanthus lanatus
Ranunculus bulbatus Tr a g opogon porrifolius
Rubia peregrina
They seem to increase in forest and high altitude. The
dominance of hemicryptophytes is then an obstacle to the
installation of phanerophytes.
Despite the low participation of phanerophytes species;
they are dominant by their biomass, thus constitute the
bushes and forests. They are abundant in the vegetation
of Ghazaouet, Ouled Mimoun and Zarifet stations, which
still bears witness to the existence of a forest and/or a
pre-forest formation.
These are usually Quercetea ilicis species:
Arbutus unedo Myrtus communis
Buxus sempervirens N icot ian a g lauca
Cupressus sempervirens Olea europea
Cistus ladaniferus
subsp. africanus Pinus halepensis
Clematis flammula Populus alba
Crataegus oxyacantha Pistacia lentiscus
Ceratonia siliqua Pistacia terebinthus
Colutea arborescens Phillyrea angustifolia
Fraxinus ornus Phillyrea angustifolia
subsp. eu-angustifolia
Genista tricuspidata Phillyrea angustifolia
subsp. media
Juniperus oxycedrus
subsp. oxycedrus Phillyrea angustifolia
subsp. latifolia
Juniperus phoenicea Pinus maritima
Lonicera implexa Periploca laevigata
Lonicera biflora Rhamnus lycioïdes
Ligustrum japonicum Rhamnus alaternus
Rhus pentaphylla Viburnum tinus
Rosmarinus officinalis Withania frutescens
Rosa sempervirens Ziziphus lotus
Rosa canina Quercus ilex
Robinia pseudo-acacia Quercus coccifera
Rubus ulmifolius Quercus suber
Ricinus communis Quercus faginea
subsp. tlemceniensis
Tetraclinis articulata
We note that the absence of nanophanerophytes is cer-
tainly linked to severe erosion in the region but, espe-
cially, the power of the winds [40].
Finally, geophytes are everywhere; the least repre-
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sented with only 10.10%. Representation of the latter
remains higher in the shrub land (10.77% in Nedroma)
than in the pre-forest formations and forest (7.43% in
Among this group we have the Liliacaea, the Iridaceae,
the Orchidaceae and Araceae represented by the follow-
ing species:
Allium roseum Agropyron repens
Asphodelus microcarpus Ballota hirsuta
Aristolochia longa Bellevallia dubia
Aristolochia baetica Gladiolus segetum
Asparagus stipularis Iris planifolia
Asparagus acutifolius Iris unguicularis
Asparagus albus Iris tingitana
Asparagus officinalis Muscari neglectum
Arisarum vulgare Muscari comosum
Ornithogalum umbellatum Stipa tortilis
Ophrys tenthredinifera
subsp. lutescens Stipa tenacissima
Orchis italica Tulipa sylvestris
Smilax aspera
subsp. altissima Urginea maritima
Scilla lingulata
[30] Also found higher geophytes proportions in Medi-
terranean area than in steppe domain.
The origin of the extension of therophytes is due:
˗ Either to the adaptation to the winter cold stress
[20,28] or to summer drought [29,34].
˗ Or even to the medium disturbances by grazing, crops,
etc. [41].
Indeed, plant formations in dominant phanerophytic
vegetal cover have the lowest recovery of therophytes
while those, for which the phanerophytes rate is negligi-
ble, therophytes recovery is much higher. Similarly, [42]
explain the changes of floristic composition and species
biological cycle (after cutting the undergrowth of ever-
green oak), by the increasing of the lower layers bright-
ness level.
5.3. Disruption Index
The disturbance index (calculated according to [43])
quantifies the therophytisation of a medium.
IP = Chamaephytes number + Therophytes number/Species total
For all stations this index remains high compared to
[44] results in Tunisia, where he obtained 70% as high
value. The chamaephytes and therophytes are the bio-
logical types that dominate in the region. This shows the
anthropozoologic high pressure experienced by vegeta-
tion in the study area.
The disturbance index being about 57% for the entire
study area, this shows clearly the sharp decline (Table 6).
The sharp deterioration affects species regeneration.
The non-regenerating perennial causes changes that give
non-resilient paths, and also causes a change in potential
output and the botanical composition [45]. The vegetal
cover is dominated by three vegetation types: woody per-
ennials, herbaceous perennial and annual grasses.
The morphological point of view, the vegetation of the
study area is marked by heterogeneity between woody
and herbaceous species and between perennials and an-
nuals. The annual herbaceous species are dominant with
a percentage of 50.80%. The herbaceous perennials come
in second with 25.72%. In third place we find the woody
perennial with a percentage of 23.47% (Table 7) and
(Figure 5).
The intense human impact, which the forests of the re-
gion continue to suffer, results in the invasion of thero-
phytes, which are typically annual herbs. Thus, the harsh
conditions favor the development of short-cycle herba-
ceous species at the expense of woody perennials gener-
ally more demanding in water and nutritional needs.
At the study area we have the herbaceous layer, which
dominates with a percentage of 75.45%, then the shrub
layer with 14.67% and finally the tree layer with a small
percentage that is of the order of 9.88% (Table 8).
The herbaceous layer is generally formed by thero-
phytes which are annual grasses in general (Figure 6).
The study of the Mediterranean basin flora is of great
Tabl e 6. Index of stations disruption studies/study area. (A.F:
Aïn-Fezza, GZT: Ghazaouet, O.M: Ouled. Mimoun, B.S: Beni-
Saf, NDR: Nedroma and ZRT: Zarifet).
IP 67%66%60% 73% 64% 60%57%
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Table 7. Percentage of morphological types in the study area.
Morphological types Number of species %
Annual grasses 158 50.80
Herbaceous per ennial 80 25.72
Woody perennials 73 23.47
Uncertainties remain for some species that are cur-
rently having an extension of their ranges.
The distribution of different species surveyed, by phy-
togeographical element, is very heterogeneous.
Table 9 and Figure 7 hereafter show that:
˗ The Mediterranean native element is by far the largest
with (43.58%). It is represented by the therophytes
(14.61%) and by the woody phanerophytes (7.30%)
and chamaephytes (8.63%).
Woody perennials
Herbaceous perennial
Annual grasses
˗ The endemism rate is relatively low with (5.06%).
The endemic North African species outnumber the
Algerian-Tunisian and/or Algerian-Moroccan species.
The Tlemcen region is determined by a remarkable
plant biodiversity influenced by many environmental str-
esses (drought, human action, overgrazing, etc.) which
makes it integral part of the Mediterranean.
From the results obtained, we can conclude that all the
studied formations are characterized by a dominance of
therophytes. The intense human impact, experienced by
the vegetation in the area, ends by an invasion of mainly
therophytes. The latter characterize the group of Stellari-
etea Mediae, resulting in a homogenization and triviali-
zation of most floristic formations of this region. Indeed,
plant formations in dominant phanerophytic vegetal co-
ver have the therophytes lowest recovery while those for
Figure 5. Percentage of morphological types.
Figure 6. Flora percentage by strata.
interest due to its richness, its high rate of endemism, its
diversity related to the heterogeneity of historical, pa-
leogeographic, ecological and geobotanical factors which
determine it; as well as the ancient human pressure im-
pact [39,46-48]. Figure 7. Biogeographical types percentages.
Table 8. Percentage of strata.
Aïn-Fezza Ghazaouet O. Mimoun Beni-Saf Nedroma Zarifet Study area
St rata
N.S % N.S % N.S % N.S% N.S % N.S % N.S %
Woody 6 8.70 15 9.49 9 12.507 6.31 4 6.78 25 10.50 33 9.88
Shrubby 11 15.94 29 18.35 12 16.67 17 15.32 15 25.4229 12.18 49 14.67
Herbaceous 52 75.36 114 72.15 51 70.8387 78.38 40 67.80184 77.31 252 75.45
S. El-Amine Henaoui, M. Bouazza / Open Journal of Ecolo gy 2 (2012) 244-255 253
Table 9. Biogeographic types with species number and percentage.
Biogeographic types Signification Number %
Med Mediterranean 112 43.58
W-Med W-Mediterranean 34 13.23
Euras Eurasian 15 5.84
Euro-Med European-Mediterranean 15 5.84
Paleotemp Paleotempered 11 4.28
Circummed Circum-mediterranean 10 3.89
Ibero-Maur Ibero-Mauritanean 9 3.50
End. N-A Endemic. North-African 9 3.50
Med-Atl Mediterranean-Atlantic 8 3.11
Cosm Cosmopolitan 5 1.95
Subcosm Subcosmopolitan 5 1.95
Macar-Med Macaronesian-Mediterranean 4 1.56
End Endemic 4 1.56
Eur European 4 1.56
Paleosubtrop Paleosubtropical 2 0.78
Circumbor Circumboreal 2 0.78
Ibero-Mar Ibero-Morrocan 2 0.78
Euras-Med Eurasian-Mediterranean 2 0.78
N-A North-African 2 0.78
Sah Saharian 1 0.39
Sah-Sind Sahara-Sindian 1 0.39
which the rate of phanerophytes is negligible, the thero-
phytes recovery is much higher.
The disturbance index being about 57% for the entire
study area, this shows clearly the sharp deterioration.
From the morphological point of view, the study area
vegetal formations are marked by heterogeneity between
woody and herbaceous species and between perennials
and annuals. The annual herbaceous species are domin-
ant with a percentage of 50.80%. The herbaceous peren-
nials come in second with 25.72%. In third place we find
the woody perennials with 23.47%.
From the phytogeographical point of view, the Medi-
terranean element is the most dominant with 43.58%.
Finally, conservation of natural heritage remains a ma-
jor initiative to preserve the region plant biodiversity
against a regression which may become irreversible in
the near future.
In this regard, Algeria, as all Mediterranean countries, has
long been involved in the preservation and conservation of
biodiversity policy through the creation of several national
parks. Currently, Algeria has eight national parks that in-
clude all original landscapes and where are the main hot
spots of plant biodiversity in the country [49].
Meanwhile, several research works, mainly focused on
the inventory and mapping of this phytobiodiversity,
have been done in these hot spot. Among these works,
we mention those of [50] in Chrea National Park, [51]
and [52] in El-Kala national park, [53] and [54] in Tlem-
cen National Park. All these works have stressed the im-
portance of such an inventory in the sound management
of natural ecosystems. Indeed, several authors suggested
that the conservation and enhancement of a natural eco-
system requires a good knowledge of its biodiversity
[49,55]. Many of these works in these ecosystems have
emphasized the rich flora of these environments and
have shown a variety of endemic and/or rare species to
be placed in conservation priorities. They also discussed
the degradation advanced state of these natural ecosys-
tems which is mainly attributed to the combined action
of man and his animals (grazing).
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