n class="v0"> distances of the populations based on
Y-haplogroups (for comparative data, refer Reddy et al., 2007). SEA = Southeast Asian; AA = Austro-Asiatic; IE = Indo-European; TB =
Tibeto-Burman; Khy = Khynriam; Lyn = Lyngngam; Wkhasi = War Khasi; Viet = Vietnamese (adapted from Reddy et al., 2007).
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
188
B. T. LANGSTIEH ET AL.
Figure 6.
Plot on the first two-dimensions derived from the multidimensional scaling of the pairwise FST distances of the populations based on mtDNA hap-
logr an;
Wk
enc
common maternal clans found among the Nongtrai and Lyngn-
gam (Langstieh & Reddy, 2004). This is reflected partly in the
high mantel correlation between geographic and genetic dis-
tance matrices based on mtDNA sequences as well as in the
relative proximity of the Lyngngam to the Nongtrai in the MDS
plot based on mtDNA distances (Figure 3).
To sum up, the foregoing analyses of the ethnohistoric, lin-
guistic and demographic information in conjunction with the
molecular genetic evidence trace Khasi (more particularly the
Nongtrai subtribe of Khasi) as the most probable parental source
of the Lyngngam, which is consistent with the first of the four
notions concerning the origin of this tribe as outlined in the in-
troduction. Nevertheless, it is necessary to discount the possibil-
ity of Lyngngam origin from the sources outside Megha-
laya/India, particularly from the populations of Southeast Asia,
where from many Tibeto-Burman populations were known to
have migrated to Northeast India, before any rational conclu-
sion on their origin can be drawn. A strong support for Khasi
origin of the Lyngngam can be drawn from Reddy et al. (2007)
who performed multidimensional scaling analysis of the FST
distances based on mtDNA and Y-chromosome haplogroup
ustro-Asiatic
populations from the South and Southeast Asia, including the 7
Khasi subtribes, Lyngngam and Garo of the present study. The
two-dimensional plots representing the populations in the mul-
tivariate space are reproduced here for Y-chromosome (Figure
5) and mtDNA (Figure 6). The position of Lyngngam in both
the plots is relatively more proximate to the Austro-Asiatic
Khasi tribes of Meghalaya when compared to the Garo as well
as to other South Asian and Southeast Asian populations,
Austro-Asiatic or non Austro-Asiatic, ruling out the possibility
of their origin from outside Meghalaya and/or outside the
Austro-Asiatic Khasi. There is nothing in the results that goes
against concluding Khasi (particularly the Nongtrai) origin of
the Lyngngam tribe despite limited statistical power of the
study with small number of genetic loci employed.
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B. T. LANGSTIEH ET AL.
A
T
and G
ppendix
able S1.
Sharing pattern of the Lyngam Y-haplotypes with the neighbouring Khasiaro.
DYS DYS DYS DYS DYSDYS
Hap. No. 19 389I 389II 390 391393LynglGaroNongMaraKhynPnar Bhoi WarK WarJTota
Unique to L
1
1
1
9 10 12 1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Hap23 16 9 26 11 10 13 1 1
Hap24 16 10 26 11 10 14 1 1
Hap25 15 10 27 9 10 14 1
1
Hap26 17 10 27 10 10 13 1 1
yngam
Hap1 14 11 27 9 10 11
1
Hap2 16 9 26 11 10 12 2
Hap3 15 11 27 9 10 13 1
2
1
Hap4 14 9 25 10 10 13 1
Hap5 14 10 25
1
10 10 13
Hap6 15 10 27 11 10 12 1
1
1
1
Hap7 14 9 27 9 10 13 1
Hap8 15 8 29 11 10 13 1
Hap9 15 8 27
1
Hap10 12 9 26 9 10 12
1
Hap11 15 9 26 11 10 13 1
Hap12 15 9 28 11 10 13
1
1
1
1
Hap13 15 14 28 10 10 12 1
Hap14 12 9 28 10 10 14
Hap15 13 9 26 9 10 16
Hap16 16 9 27 10 11 13
Hap17 15 9 27 10 11 13
1
1
1 Hap18 15 8 27 10 10 13
Hap19 17 10 27 10 10 12
Hap20 15 10 26 11 11 12
1
1
1 Hap21 16 10 28 10 10 13 1
Hap22 15 10 27 9 11 16 1
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
192
B. T. LANGSTIEH ET AL.
Continued
15 10 24 12 10 13 1 1 Hap27
Hap28 15 11 28 8 11 11 1
1
1
Ha30 1 1
Shared with either Khasi or Garo
Hap31 15 9 27 10 10 12 1 3 4
Hap32 14 9 25 9 10 11 1 2
3
Hap33 15 9 26 9 11 12 1 1
2
Ha 15 9 26 10 10 11 1 1
Ha 1
areith boKhasi and Ga
Hap54 15 9 26 9 10 11 2 3 1 1
7
Hap29 15 11 28 8 10 12 1
p14 9 26 10 11 11
p34 2
p35 15 10 29 11 10 12 1 2
Hap36 13 10 27 10 10 12 1 1 2
Hap37 17 9 26 10 10 11 1 1 1 3
Hap38 15 10 27 9 10 13 1 1
2
Hap39 15 9 27 9 11 12 1 1
2
Hap40 15 9 27 9 10 11 1 1
2
Hap41 14 9 26 9 10 13 1 1
2
Hap42 15 11 27 11 11 13 1 1 2
Hap43 15 10 26 11 11 13 2 1 1 4
Hap44 15 11 29 11 10 12 1 1 2
Hap45 16 11 28 11 11 12 1 2 3
Hap46 15 10 27 9 11 12 1 1 1
3
Hap47 15 11 26 11 11 13 1 1 2
Hap48 15 9 26 11 10 11 1 1 2 4
Hap49 16 10 27 11 10 12 1 1 1 3
Hap50 16 10 26 11 10 12 1 1 2
Hap51 15 10 26 9 11 13 1 3
4
Shd wth ro
Hap52 15 10 27 10 10 13 1 2 1 1 5
Hap53 15 9 27 10 10 13 3 1 1 5
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 193
B. T. LANGSTIEH ET AL.
Table S2.
Dn and uency of nallyred R I otyf Lyngam and Khasi population
pe ngngamGong aram KhriamPnahWarKhasi Waraintia
istributiofreqmater shaHVhaplpes ong with Garos.
HaplotyLy aro NtraiM ynr Boi J
n = 82 n = 87 n = 30 n = 72 n = 95 n = 69n = 34n = 31 n = 22
Unique to Lyngng Total
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
6 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
7 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
5 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
13 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
2 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
19 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
22 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
2 0 0 0 0 0 2
24 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
1 0 0 0 0 0 1
27 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 1
Sharith only
28 1 0 0 0 5 0 0 0 1 7
5 0 1 2 5 4 28
2 0 0 1 0 0 3
31 1 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2
1 0 1 1 0 0 3
1 0 0 12 3 1 23
34 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 2 0 3
red wth Khasd Gar
3 10 1 0 1 1 0 0 0 16
36 9 42 3 0 0 0 0 1 0 55
14 1 4 3 4 1 30
38 3 1 3 2 0 0 0 14
39 4 2 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 7
4 1 0 1 0 0 7
am
1
2 00 0
3
4
5 00 0
0 0
8 00 0
9
10
0
11 00 0
12 0
14 00 0
15
16
0
17 00 0
18 0
20 00 0
21 0
23 00 0
25 00 0
26 00 0
ed wKhasi
29 81 2
30 00 0
32 00 0
33 60 0
Shaith boi ano
35
37 21 0
5 0
40 01 0
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
194
B. T. LANGSTIEH ET AL.
Table S3.
Dn and uency of ternallyredR Ilotyof Lngamith G and Khasi populatio
Htype Lyng NonMm KhyPr oi Wa WarJ
istributiofreqma sha HVI happes yng warons.
Sl. No. aploGarog aran naBhrK
n = 73 n = 94 n = 29 n = 77 n = 100n = 58 n = 33 n = 27 n = 20
Unique to Lyngngam Total
1 0 0 0
2 101 0 0 0
3 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
4 13 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
5 17 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
6 18 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
7 19 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
8 20 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
9 21 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
122 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
123 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
128 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
13 29 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
14 30 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
131 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
132 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
134 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
135 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Shareith both Khasi and Garo
11 6 19 3 0 0 0 0 0
22 8 1 1 0 9 2 1 0
23 1 2 0 0 0 2 1 0
22 9 5 1 1 1 1 1 1 0 11
214 6 1 6 0 2 2 0 0
215 2 1 1 0 0 0 0 0
216 1 2 1 1 1 1 0 1
224 1 1 0 0 2 2 0 0
27 2 4 11 17 3 1 47
227 6 1 0 0 1 2 1 1
Shared with onlyasi
24 1 0 0 0 0 2 0 0
30 5 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
31 6 1 0 2 2 1 0 3 0
32 11 5 0 1 0 0 0 0 0
33 0 1 0 0 0 0
Sared with onlyro
38 1 1 0 0 0 0 0 0
333 1 14 0 0 0 0 0 0
1 7 0 0 00 0 1
0 0 0 0 0 1
12 0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 1
0 0 1
1 0 1
2 0 1
0 1
0 1
5 0 1
6 0 1
7 0 1
8 0 1
d w
9 0 28
0 1 23
1 0 6
0
3 0 17
4 0 4
5 0 8
6 0 6
25 7 2 0
8 0 12
Kh
9 1 4
3 4
0 9
0 6
26 2 0 0 3
h Ga
4 0 2
5 0 15
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 195
B. T. LANGSTIEH ET AL.
Table
mtDNVRI haplotyporresponding mutated positions for the Lyngngam population.
lotypes Mutatedsitions (nucide posits 160246400)
S4.
A Hes and their c
Hap poleotion - 1
Hap1 16081T, 16168, 16311
Hap2 16168, 16311
Hap3 1, 31
Hap4
Hap5 16111,129
Hap6 1, 16172,209, 162 16244, 12del, 16
Hap7 16
Hap8 93, 16136,223, 16
Hap9 23, 16225,234, 16
Hap10 16037, 23, 16225,234, 16 16390
Hap11 23, 16225,234, 16
Hap12 057A, 16A, 1631
Hap13 160 16087C,95, 16126223, 16, 16324,362
Hap14 1609158, 16 16234,362
Hap15 16223, 16 16362
Hap16 16187, 16 16362
Hap17 37, 16187,223, 16
Hap18 16024C, 1, 16028A, 16029G037, 160 16223, 4, 1636
Hap19 16223,362
Hap20 74, 16223,362, 16
Hap21 16085G23, 16296305, 163del, 16316326, 163 16338C343T, 16, 163560, 1, 1636
Hap22 16046055, 161, 16168,311
Hap23 49, 16288,295, 16
Hap24 225, 162 16330G
Hap25 16158, 16 16234
Hap26 16093,158, 1623355A,362G
Hap27 16176183, 162 16296A324
Hap28 165, 16234,358A, 16
Hap29 16, 160406078C, 2A, 1622 16261, 14, 163116357del,362
Hap30 16l, 1602l, 16029G6223, 16 16234, 90
Hap31 1616 16223, 165, 16234, 16390
Hap32 16024 16025del, 128del, 160del, 16032l, 16061A071G, 1, 160, 16085088A,93, 1617
161836324
Hap33 160el, 16029032G,16
Hap34 1602el, 16132C223T, 16362C
Hap35 4del, 16 16129, 117, 16226261, 16
Hap37 16223,362
Hap38 1609145, 16 16261,311
Hap39 16051,168
Hap40 16158, 16 16234
160516168, 161
16168
16
1605 1639,635354
316
160 16311
162 16390
162 16354,
162 16390
160616
43, 1607, 1259 16
3, 16223, 16
311,
223,
160 16362
6025A, 1643,16272
16
161 16365
, 1620, 1129, 131,, 16349C8, 1636362G8,
2, 118T 16
162 16304
16 34,
223,
164, 16 16
2, 195,, 16
22 16390
024GA, 116093,627, 1 16
024de5de, 1225,163
2, 22
del,6029de, 166082A83AG, 16 1602,
C, 1
24dG, 16 163
4d, 16
1602037,623, 1362
16
3, 16223, 16
16
209,
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
196
B. T. LANGSTIEH ET AL.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 197
Table S5.
mtDN HVRII haplotding mutated positions for the Lyngnga population.
Haplotype Mutasitions
(np8 - 429)
Aypes and their corresponm
s ted po
s 3
Hap1 73, 150, 263, 293, 309insCT
Hap2 73, 150, 152, 153, 263, 309insT
Hap3 73,09insT
nsT
73,nsT, 316
73, 152, 2insC, 315insC
73,09insT
73, 1 309insT
T
3 8
4
5
6 T
7 42, 73, 26 320, 343, 345
8 32, 40, 57, 60, 376C, 384T, 390
9
0 64, 73,sT, 356insC
220A, 226G, 233A, 236A, 239A,, 280, 297C, 309insCCT, 329, 392G
T
5
6
7
8
9
0
1
2 insT
3
Hap35 125G, 148, 150, 309insCT
152, 234, 249del, 263, 3
Hap4 73, 152, 153, 309i
Hap5 152, 249del, 263, 309i
Hap6 63, 309
Hap7 151, 152, 263, 3
Hap8 73, 152, 195, 263, 309insT
Hap9 46, 263,
Hap10 73, 89, 92, 93, 263, 309ins
Hap11 73, 92, 93, 263, 309insT
Hap12 73, 89, 92, 263, 309insT
Hap173, 94, 263, 309insT, 36
Hap173, 199, 263, 309insT
Hap173, 199, 309insT
Hap173, 263, 309insCC
Hap13, 293, 309insCT, 317,
Hap1 63, 73, 263, 309insT, 363, 367,
Hap164, 73, 150, 263, 293, 309insCT, 317, 320G
Hap2 150, 199, 309in
Hap21 258A, 260A, 263, 270C, 272C
Hap22 73, 150, 199, 309insT
Hap23 73, 263, 309insT, 382A
Hap24 73, 152, 263, 309ins
Hap273, 263, 309insCT
Hap273, 195, 263, 309insCT
Hap273, 199, 249del, 263, 309insT
Hap273, 263, 278C, 280, 309insT
Hap273, 263, 309insCT
Hap373, 199, 249del, 263, 309insT, 382A
Hap373, 199, 249del, 263, 309insT
Hap373, 199, 263, 309
Hap373, 207, 263, 293, 309insCT
Hap34 71del, 73, 249del, 293