Journal of Software Engineering and Applications, 2012, 5, 752-763 Published Online October 2012 (
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using
Combination Methods
A. Alarabeyyat1, S. Al-Hashemi1, T. Khdour1, M. Hjouj Btoush1, S. Bani-Ahmad1, R. Al-Hashemi2
1Prince Abdulah Bin Gazi Faculty of Information Technology, Al-Balqa Applied University, Salt, Jordan; 2The Computer Informa-
tion Systems Department, College of Information Technology, Al-Hussein Bin Talal University, Ma’an, Jordan.
Received May 8th, 2012; revised June 10th, 2012; accepted June 22nd, 2012
The development of multimedia and digital imaging has led to high quantity of data required to represent modern im-
agery. This requires large disk space for storage, and long time for transmission over computer networks, and these two
are relatively expensive. These factors prove the need for images compression. Image compression addresses the prob-
lem of reducing the amount of space required to represent a digital image yielding a compact representation of an image,
and thereby reducing the image storage/transmission time requirements. The key idea here is to remove redundancy of
data presented within an image to reduce its size without affecting the essential information of it. We are concerned
with lossless image compression in this paper. Our proposed approach is a mix of a number of already existing tech-
niques. Our approach works as follows: first, we apply the well-known Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW) algorithm on the
image in hand. What comes out of the first step is forward to the second step where the Bose, Chaudhuri and Hoc-
quenghem (BCH) error correction and detected algorithm is used. To improve the compression ratio, the proposed ap-
proach applies the BCH algorithms repeatedly until “inflation” is detected. The experimental results show that the pro-
posed algorithm could achieve an excellent compression ratio without losing data when compared to the standard com-
pression algorithms.
Keywords: Image Compression; LZW; BCH
1. Introduction
Image applications are widely used, driven by recent ad-
vances in the technology and breakthroughs in the price
and performance of the hardware and the firmware. This
leads to an enormous increase in the storage space and
the transmitting time required for images. This empha-
sizes the need to provide efficient and effective image
compression techniques.
In this paper we provide a method which is capable of
compressing images without degrading its quality. This
is achieved through minimizing the number of bits re-
quired to represent each pixel. This, in return, reduces the
amount of memory required to store images and facili-
tates transmitting image in less time.
Image compression techniques fall into two categories:
lossless or lossy image compression. Choosing which of
these two categories depends on the application and on
the compression degree required [1,2].
Lossless image compression is used to compress im-
ages in critical applications as it allows the exact original
image to be reconstructed from the compressed one with-
out any loss of the image data. Lossy image compression,
on the other hand, suffers from the loss of some data.
Thus, repeatedly compressing and decompressing an
image results in poor quality of image. An advantage of
this technique is that it allows for higher compression
ratio than the lossless [3,4].
Compression is achieved by removing one or more of
the three basic data redundancies:
1) Coding redundancy, which is presented when less
than optimal code words are used;
2) Interpixel redundancy, which results from correla-
tions between the pixels of an image;
3) Psychovisual redundancy, which is due to data that
are ignored by the human visual system [5].
So, image compression becomes a solution to many
imaging applications that require a vast amount of data to
represent the images, such as document imaging mana-
gement systems, facsimile transmission, image archiving,
remote sensing, medical imaging, entertainment, HDTV,
broadcasting, education and video teleconferencing [6].
One major difficulty that faces lossless image comp-
ression is how to protect the quality of the image in a
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JSEA
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods 753
way that the decompressed image appears identical to the
original one. In this paper we are concerned with lossless
image compression based on LZW and BCH algorithms,
which compresses different types of image formats. The
proposed method repeats the compression three times in
order to increase the compression ratio.
The proposed method is an implementation of the loss-
less image compression. The steps of our approach are as
follows: first, we perform a preprocessing step to convert
the image in hand into binary. Next, we apply the LZW
algorithm on the image to compress. In this step, the
codes from 0 to 255 represent 1-character sequences
consisting of the corresponding 8-bit character, and the
codes from 256 through 4095 are created in a dictionary
for sequences encountered in the data as it is encoded.
The code for the sequence (without that character) is
emited, and a new code (for the sequence with that char-
acter) is added to the dictionary [7]. Finally, we use the
BCH algorithm to increase image compression ratio. An
error correction method is used in this step where we
store the normal data and first parity data in a memory
cell array, the normal data and first parity data form BCH
encoded data. We also generate the second parity data
from the stored normal data. To check for errors, we
compare the first parity data with the second parity data
as in [8,9].
Notice that we repeat compressing by the BCH algo-
rithm until the required level of compression is achieved.
The method of decompression is done in reversible order
that produces image identical to original one.
2. Literature Review
A large number of data compression algorithms have been
developed and used throughout the years. Some of which
are of general use, i.e., can be used to compress files of
different types (e.g., text files, image files, video files,
etc.). Others are developed to compress efficiently a par-
ticular type of files. It has been realized that, according to
the representation form of the data at which the compres-
sion process is performed, below is reviewing some of
the literature review in this field.
In [10], the authors present lossless image compress-
ion with four modular components: pixel sequence, pre-
diction, error modeling, and coding. They used two meth-
ods that clearly separate the four modular components.
These method are called Multi-Level Progressive Meth-
od (MLP), and Partial Precision Matching Method (PPMM)
for lossless compression, both involving linear predic-
tions, modeling prediction errors by estimating the vari-
ance of a Laplace distribution (symmetric exponential),
and coding using arithmetic coding applied to pre-com-
puted distributions [10].
In [11], a composite modeling method (hybrid com-
pression algorithm for binary image) is used to reduce
the number of data coded by arithmetic coding, which
code the uniform areas with less computation and apply
arithmetic coding to the areas. The image block is classi-
fied into three categories: all-white, all-black, and mixed,
then image processed 16 rows at a time, which is then
operated by two global and local stages [11].
In [12], the authors propose an algorithm that works
by applying a reversible transformation on the fourteen
commonly used files of the Calgary Compression Corpus.
It does not process its input sequentially, but instead pro-
cesses a block of texts as a single unit, to form a new
block that contains the same characters, but is easier to
compress by simple compression algorithms, group char-
acters together based on their contexts. This technique
makes use of the context on only one side of each char-
acter so that the probability of finding a character closer
to another instance of the same character is increased
substantially. The transformation does not itself com-
press the data, but reorder it to make it easy to compress
with simple algorithms such as move-to-front coding in
combination with Huffman or arithmetic coding [12].
In [13], the authors present Lossless grayscale image
compression method—TMW—is based on the use of linear
predictors and implicit segmentation. The compression
process is split into an analysis step and a coding step. In
the analysis step, a set of linear predictors and other pa-
rameters suitable for the image are calculated in the
analysis step in a way that minimizes the length of the
encoded image which is included in the compressed file
and subsequently used for the coding step. To do the ac-
tual encoding, obviously, the chosen parameter set has to
be considered as a part of the encoded image and has to
be stored or transmitted alongside with the result of the
Coding Stage [13].
In [14], the authors propose a lossless compression
scheme for binary images which consists of a novel en-
coding algorithm and uses a new edge tracking algorithm.
The proposed scheme consists of two major steps: the
first step encodes binary image data using the proposed
encoding method that encodes image data to only char-
acteristic vector information of objects in image by using
a new edge tracing method. Unlike the existing approaches,
our method encodes information of edge lines obtained
using the modified edge tracing method instead of di-
rectly encoding whole image data. The second is com-
pressing the encoded image Huffman and Lempel-Ziv-
Welch (LZW) [14].
In [15], the author presents an algorithm for lossless
binary image compression which consists of two modules,
called Two Modules Based Algorithm (TMBA), the first
module: direct redundancy exploitation and the second:
improved arithmetic coding [15].
In [16], a two-dimensional dictionary-based on lossless
image compression scheme for grayscale images is
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JSEA
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JSEA
This paper uses the adaptive bit-level text compression
schema based on humming code data compression used
in [19]. Our schema consists of six steps repeated to in-
crease image compression rate. The compression ratio is
found by multiplying the compression ratio for each loop,
and are referred to this schema by HCDC (K) where (K)
represents the number of repetition [19].
introduced. The proposed scheme reduces a correlation
in image data by finding two-dimensional blocks of pix-
els that are approximately matched throughout the data
and replacing them with short codewords.
In [16], the two-dimensional Lempel-Ziv image com-
pression scheme (denoted GS-2D-LZ) is proposed. This
scheme is designed to take advantage of the two-dimen-
sional correlations in the image data. It relies on three
different compression strategies, namely: two-dimensional
block matching, prediction, and statistical encoding.
In [20], the authors presented a lossless image com-
pression based on BCH combined with Huffman algo-
rithm [20].
In [17], the authors presented a lossless image com-
pression method that is based on Multiple-Table’s Arith-
metic Coding (MTAC) method to encode a gray-level
image, first classifies the data and then encodes each
cluster of data using a distinct code table. The MTAC
method employs a median edge detector (MED) to re-
duce the entropy rate of f. The gray levels of two adjacent
pixels in an image are usually similar. A base-switching
transformation approach is then used to reduce the spatial
redundancy of the image. The gray levels of some pixels
in an image are more common than those of others. Fi-
nally, the arithmetic encoding method is applied to re-
duce the coding redundancy of the image [17].
3. The Proposed Method
The objective of the proposed method in this paper is to
design an efficient and effective lossless image compres-
sion scheme. This section deals with the design of a loss-
less image compression method. The proposed method is
based on LZW algorithm and the BCH algorithm an error
correcting technique, in order to improve the compres-
sion ratio of the image comparing to other compression
techniques in the literature review. Later, we will explain
the methodology that will be used in details and the ar-
chitecture of the proposed method.
The proposed method is a lossless image compression
scheme which is applied to all types of image based on
LZW algorithm that reduce the repeated value in image
and BCH codes that detect/correct the errors. The BCH
algorithm works by adding extra bits called parity bits,
whose role is to verify the correctness of the original
message sent to the receiver so, the system in this paper
benefit from this feature. This method of BCH convert
blocks of size k to n by adding parity bits, depending on
the size of the message k, which is encoded into a code
word of the length n. The proposed method is shown
below in Figure 1.
In [18], the authors used a lossless method of image
compression and decompression is proposed. It uses a
simple coding technique called Huffman coding. A soft-
ware algorithm has been developed and implemented to
compress and decompress the given image using Huff-
man coding techniques in a MATLAB platform. They
concern with compressing images by reducing the num-
ber of bits per pixel required to represent it, and to de-
crease the transmission time for images transmission. The
image is reconstructed back by decoding it using Huff-
man codes [18].
Figure 1. Proposed image compression approach.
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods 755
3.1. Lempel-Ziv-Welch (LZW)
The compression system improves the compression of
the image through the implementation of LZW algorithm.
First, the entered image is converted to the gray scale and
then converted from decimal to binary to be a suitable
form to be compressed. The algorithm builds a data dic-
tionary (also called a translation table or string table) of
data occurring in an uncompressed data stream. Patterns
of data are identified in the data stream and are matched
to entries in the dictionary. If the patterns are not present
in the dictionary, a code phrase is created based on the
data content of that pattern, and it is stored in the dic-
tionary. The phrase is then written to the compressed
output stream. When a reoccurrence of a pattern is iden-
tified in the data, the phrase of the pattern already stored
in the dictionary is written to the output.
3.2. Bose, Chaudhuri and Hocquenghem (BCH)
The binary input image is firstly divided into blocks of
size 7 bits each; only 7 bits needed to represent in each
byte, 128 value in total, while eighth bits represent sign
of the number (most significant bit) that don’t affect the
total value of blocks, and converts it to a galoris field to
be accepted as an input to the BCH. Each block is de-
coded using BCH decoder, then is checked if it is a valid
codeword or not. The BCH decoder converts the valid
block to 4 bits. The proposed method adds 1 as an indi-
cator for the valid codeword to an extra file called (map),
otherwise if it is not a codeword, it remains 7 and adds 0
to the same file. The benefit of the extra file (map) is that
it is used as the key for image decompression in order to
distinguish between compressed blocks and the not com-
pressed ones (codeword or not).
After the image is compressed, the file (map) is com-
pressed by RLE to decrease its size, and then it is attached
to the header of the image. This step is iterated three
times, the BCH decoding repeat three times to improve
the compression ratio; we stopped repeating this algo-
rithm at three times after done experiment; conclude that
if we try to decode more it will affect the other perform-
ance factor that leads to increase time needed for com-
pression, and the map file becomes large in each time we
decode by BCH so it leads to the problem of increase the
size of image, which opposes the objective of this paper
to reduce the image size. Below is an example of the
compressed image:
Next is an example of the proposed system compres-
sion stage. In this example a segment of the image is
demonstrated using the proposed algorithm. First of all it
converts the decimal values into binary, compresses it by
LZW and then divides it into blocks of 7 bits
A = Original
30237524416070 249 149 133149
The block is compressed by LZW algorithm and the
output is:
31238534516171 250 150 134150
Now it is converting to Binary and divided to 7 bit
0110100 1 0 1 1 00 0
0101101 0 0 1 0 101
1111111 0 0 0 1 010
0001011 0 1 1 0 100
1010110 0 0 1 1 101
1111111 0 0 0
After dividing the image into blocks of 7 bits, the sys-
tem implements the BCH code that checks each block if
it is a codeword or not by matching the block with 16
standards codeword in the BCH. The first iteration shows
that we found four codewords. This block is compressed
by using BCH algorithm which is converted to blocks of
4 bit each.
1 0 1 1 0 0 0 > 1000
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 > 1111
0 0 0 1 0 1 1 > 1011
1 1 1 1 1 1 1 > 1111
When implementing the BCH algorithm, the file (Map
1) initializes. If the block is a codeword, it is added to the
file 1 and adds 0 if the block is a non-codeword. In this
example Map 1 is:
Map 1 = 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 1 0 1
This operation is repeated three times. The file (Map 3,
Map 2, and Map 1) is compressed by RLE before attach-
ing to the header of the image to gain more compression
3.3. Compression Algorithm Steps
The proposed method compression the original image by
implements a number of steps Figure 2 represents the
flowchart of the proposed method. The algorithm steps
Input: image (f)
Output: compressed file
Initialize parameters
SET round to zero
READ image (f)
Convert (f) to gray scale
SET A = ( ) // set empty value to matrix A
A = image (f)
Bn = convert matrix A into binary
Initial matrix Map 1, Map 2, Map 3 to store parity bits
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JSEA
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods
Figure 2. Algorithm 1. Encoding algorithm.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JSEA
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods 757
Out1 = Compress matrix by LZW algorithm function
norm 2l zw (Bn);
Convert matrix compress by LZW into binary
Set N = 7, k = 4
WHILE (there is a codeword) and (round 3)
xxx = the size of the (Out 1)
remd = matrix size mod N;
div = matrix size /N;
FOR i = 1 to xxx-remd step N
FOR R = i to
divide the image into blocks of size 7 save into pa-
rameter msg = out 1 [R]
c2 = convert (msg) to Galoris field;
origin = c2
d2 = decoding by BCH decoder (bchdec (c2, n, k,))
c2 = Encode by BCH encoder for test bchenc (d2, n, k)
IF (c2 == origin) THEN // original message parameter
INCREMENT the parameter test (the number of cod-
eword found) by 1;
add the compressed block d2 to the matrix CmprsImg
add 1 to the map[round] matrix
add the original block (origin) to the matrix CmprsImg
add 0 to the map[round] matrix
Pad and Add remd bits to the matrix CmprsImg and
encode it
Final map file = map [round] to reuse map file in the
FOR stp = 1 to 3
Compress map by RLE encoder and put in parameter
map_RLE [stp] = RLE (map [stp])
INCREMENT round by 1
3.4. Decompression
It is reversible steps to the compression stage to recon-
struct the images. At first the system decompress the
attach file (map) by RLE decoder because we depend on
its values to know which block in the compress image is
a code word to be decompressed. That means if the value
of the map file is 1, then it reads 4 bit block from the
compressed image which means it’s a codeword then
decompressed by BCH encoder. If the value is 0, it reads
the 7 bit block from the compressed image which means
that it is not a codeword. This operation is repeated three
times, after that the output from BCH is decompressed
using LZW algorithm. The below example explains these
Read the map file after decompressing it by RLE algo-
0 0 0 1 0 0 1 0 0 0
Depending on the value of the map file, in the posi-
tions 4 and 7, the value is 1 which means that the system
will read 4 bit from the compressed image. This means
that a codeword and by compressing it by BCH, it recon-
structs 7 bit from 16 codewords valid in BCH that match
it, and the remained value of the file is 0. This mean it a
non codeword reads 7 bit from the compressed image.
The compressed image is:
1 1 0 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 1 1 1 0
0 1 0 0 0 0 1
0 0 0 0 1 0 0
0 1 0 1 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 1 0
1 0 1 0 0 0 0
1 1 1 0 0 1 1
0 0
Decompression procedure shown in the Figure 3 is
implemented to find the original image from the com-
pressed image and it is performed as follows:
Input: compressed image, attach file mapi
Output: original image
Initial parameter
SET P = ( ) // set empty value to matrix P
SET j = 1
SET n = 7
SET k = 4
SET round = 3 // number of iteration
Rle_matrix = RLE decoder (mapi)
WHILE round > 0
FOR i = 0 to length of (Rle_matrix)
IF Rle_matrix [i] = 1 THEN encode by BCH
FOR s = j to
encode compress image by BCH encoder and put in
parameter (c2)
c2 = bchenc (CmprsImg (s)), n, k)
add c2 to matrix p
//block is not compress then read it as it
FOR s1 = j to
add uncompress block from CmprsImg [s1] to matrix p
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Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods
Decrement parameter round by 1
LZW_dec = decompress matrix p by LZW
Image Post processing
Original_image = bin2dec (LZW_dec) //convert from
binary to decimal to reconstruct original image
The above steps explain the implementation of the com-
pression and decompression of the proposed methods
using combination of LZW algorithm and BCH algorithm
after many testing before reaching this final decision.
Figure 3. Algorithm 2. Proposed decoding algorithm.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JSEA
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods 759
Decrement parameter round by 1
LZW_dec = decompress matrix p by LZW
Image Post processing
Original_image = bin2dec (LZW_dec) //convert from
binary to decimal to reconstruct original image
The above steps explain the implementation of the com-
pression and decompression of the proposed methods
using combination of LZW algorithm and BCH algorithm
after many testing before reaching this final decision.
The next section shows the result from using this me-
thod by using MatLab platform; calculating the compres-
sion ratio by using this equation:
Coriginal sizecompress size
Use the same dataset and the same size to compare
between proposed method and LZW, RLE, Huffman, and
then compare it depending on the bit that needs to repre-
sent each pixel according to the equation below:
BPP1 C8
Or by use the following equation:
(q) Is the number of bit represent each pixel in uncom-
pressed image, (S0) the size of the original data and (Sc)
the size of the compressed data.
Also compare it with the standards of the compression
technique, and finally explain the test (the codeword found
in image) comparing it with the original size of the image
in bit.
3.5. Result and Discussion
In order to evaluate the compression performance of our
proposed method, we compared the proposed method in
this paper with other standard lossless image compres-
sion schemes in the literature review. At first, the com-
parison is based on the compression ratio, and the second
is based on a bit per pixel.
Lossless images compression lets the images to oc-
cupy less space. In lossless compression, no data are lost
during the process, which means that it protects the quality
of the image. Decompression process restores the ori-
ginal image without losing essential data. The tested im-
ages used during compression are stored in GIF, PNG,
JPG, and Tiff formats that are all compressed automati-
cally by the proposed method. Hardware used: PC, proc-
essor Intel® core i3 CPU, hard size: 200 GB, RAM 2.00
GB, Software using Windows 7 ultimate Operating Sys-
tem, and MatLab Version 7.5. 0.342 R (2007b).
Analyzes and discusses the results obtained in per-
forming the LZW and BCH algorithms discussed above
on the set of images. The proposed system uses the set of
images that are commonly used in image processing (air-
plane, baboon, F-18, Lina, and peppers, etc.) as a test set.
The proposed method has been tested on different image
sizes. The simulation result is compared with RLE,
Huffman and LZW.
The results show that the proposed method has higher
compression ratio than the standard compression algo-
rithm mentioned above. The results based on the com-
pression ratio shown in Tables 1 and 2 show the com-
pression based on bit per pixel.
The above results show that the compression by the
proposed system is the best compared to the results of
Table 1. Compression with typical compression methods based on compression ratio w hich divide original image size by size
of compressed image.
Airplane 1.2162 1.6052 1.1857 1.8193
Barbara 1.0871 1.2894 1.4187 1.461
Lenna 1.0892 1.3811 1.0795 1.5719
U3 1.0098 1.0098 1.1009 1.1406
Peppers2 1.0969 1.3311 1.4187 1.5095
Gold-hill 1.1149 1.3812 1.0749 1.572
Zelda28_tif 1.0701 1.3925 1.1017 1.57
Boat 1.1023 1.3893 1.1192 1.5637
house28.tiff 1.1867 1.4515 1.1039 1.6493
F-128.jpg 2.1014 2.5747 1.4219 2.9018
Camera.jpg 1.1441 1.483 1.1285 1.6779
Woman blonde 1.0701 1.4074 1.1145 1.5953
Walk bridge 1.0398 1.2212 1.0475 1.3845
Pirate 1.064 1.3462 1.0911 1.5249
Lake 1.0875 1.3151 1.0633 1.4949
Living room 1.0629 1.3425 1.0845 1.5186
Woman darkhair 1.1333 1.5197 1.0964 1.7234
Mini-fenn0043 1.1337 1.571 1.2339 1.7763
AVG 1.156111 1.445106 1.160267 1.636383
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JSEA
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods
Table 2. Compression results of images in bit/pixel.
Airplane 6.577865 4.983803 6.747069 4.397766
Barbara 7.359028 6.204436 5.638965 5.47622
Lenna 7.34484 5.792484 7.410838 5.090454
U3 7.92236 7.92236 7.266782 7.038986
Peppers2 7.293281 6.010066 5.638965 5.300354
Goldhill 7.175531 5.792065 7.442553 5.089417
Zelda28_tif 7.475936 5.745062 7.261505 5.096191
Boat 7.257552 5.758295 7.147963 5.116516
House28.tiff 6.741383 5.511539 7.247033 4.851074
F-128.jpg 3.806985 3.107158 5.626274 2.9018
Camera.jpg 6.992396 5.394471 7.089056 4.768494
Woman_Blonde 7.475937 5.68424 7.178107 5.015198
Walkbridge 7.693787 6.550934 7.637232 5.778625
Pirate 7.518797 5.942653 7.33205 5.24707
Lake 7.356322 6.083188 7.523747 5.352234
Livingroom 7.526578 5.959032 7.376671 5.268677
Woman_darkhair 7.059031 5.264197 7.296607 4.642334
Mini-fenn0043 7.056541 5.092298 6.483508 4.504769
AVG 7.090786 5.711016 6.963607 5.05201
compressing the image by using RLE algorithm, LZW
algorithm or Huffman algorithm.
Here in Figure 4, we illustrate the comparison based
on compression ratio between the proposed algorithm
(BCH and LZW) and the standard image compression
algorithms (RLE, Huffman and LZW) which can be dis-
tinguished by color. And Figure 5 explains the size of
original image compared with image after compressed by
the standard image compression algorithm and the pro-
posed method. Table 2 shows the results of the compres-
sion based on bit per pixel rate for the proposed method,
and the standards compression algorithm.
Figure 6 explains the result of the above Tab le 2.
3.6. Discussion
In this section we show the efficiency of the proposed
system which uses MatLab to implement the algorithm.
In order to demonstrate the compression performance of
the proposed method, we compared it with some repre-
sentative lossless image compression techniques on the
set of ISO test images that were made available to the
proposer that were shown in the first column in all tables.
Table 1 lists compression ratio results of the tested
images which calculated depend on size of original im-
age to the size of image after compression; the second
column of this table lists the compression ratio result from
compress image by the RLE algorithm. Column three
and four list the compression ratio result from compress
by LZW and Huffman algorithms respectively while the
last column lists the compression ratio achieved by the
proposed method. In addition the average compression
ratio of each method after applied on all tested images
(RLE 1.2017, LZW 1.4808, Huffman 1.195782 and BCH
and, LZW the average is 1.676091). The average of com-
pression ratio on tested images based on the proposed
method is the best ratio achieved, this mean image size is
reduced more when compressed by using combination
method LZW and BCH compared to the standards of
lossless compression algorithm, and Figure 2 can clear
the view of the proposed method that has higher compres-
sion ratio than the RLE, LZW and Huffman. Figure 3
displays the original image size and the size of image
after compressed by each RLE, LZW, Huffman and
compress by the proposed method which show it had the
less image size which achieves the goal of this paper to
utilize storage need to store the image and therefore, re-
duce time for transmission.
The second comparison depends on bit per pixel shown
in Table 2. The goal of the image compression is to re-
duce the size as much as possible, while maintaining the
image quality. Smaller files use less space to store, so it
is better to have fewer bits need to represent in each pixel.
The table tests the same image sets and explains the pro-
posed method that needs fewer numbers of bit per pixel
than the other standard image compression and the ave-
rage bit per pixel of all tested images are 6.904287,
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JSEA
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods 761
Figure 4. Comparing the proposed method with (RLE, LZW and Huffman) based on compression ratio.
Figure 5. Comparing the proposed method with (RLE, LZW and Huffman) based on image size.
5.656522, 6.774273 and 5.01157 to RLE, LZW, Huff-
man and proposed method respectively.
4. Conclusions
This paper was motivated by the desire of improving the
effectiveness of lossless image compression by improv-
ing the BCH and LZW. We provided an overview of vari-
ous existing coding standards lossless image compression
techniques. We have proposed a high efficient algorithm
which is implemented using the BCH coding approach.
The proposed method takes the advantages of the
BCH algorithm with the advantages of the LZW algo-
rithm which is known for its simplicity and speed. The
ultimate goal is to give a relatively good compression
ratio and keep the time and space complexity minimum.
The experiments were carried on collection of dataset
of 20 test images. The resultvaluated by using s were e
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JSEA
Lossless Image Compression Technique Using Combination Methods
Figure 6. Comparing the proposed method with (RLE, LZW and Huffman) based on bit per pixel.
compression ratio and bits per pixel. The experimental
results show that the proposed algorithm improves the
compression of images comparing compared with the RLE,
Huffman and LZW algorithms, the proposed method ave-
rage compression ratio is 1.636383, which is better than
the standard lossless image compression.
5. Future Work
In this paper, we develop a method for improve image
compression based on BCH and LZW. We suggest for
future work to use BCH with another compression me-
thod and that enable to repeat the compression more than
three times, and to investigate how to provide a high
compression ratio for given images and to find an algo-
rithm that decrease file (map). The experiment dataset in
this paper was somehow limited so applying the deve-
loped methods on a larger dataset could be a subject for
future research and finally extending the work to the video
compression is also very interesting, Video data is basi-
cally a three-dimensional array of color pixels, that con-
tains spatial and temporal redundancy. Similarities can
thus be encoded by registering differences within a frame
(spatial), and/or between frames (temporal) where data
frame is a set of all pixels that correspond to a single time
moment. Basically, a frame is the same as a still picture.
Spatial encoding in video compression is performed by
taking advantage of the fact that the human eye is unable
to distinguish small differences in color as easily as it can
perceive changes in brightness, so that very similar areas
of color can be “averaged out” in a similar way to JPEG
images. With temporal compression only the changes from
one frame to the next are encoded as often a large num-
ber of the pixels will be the same on a series of frames.
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