water availability. Agroforestry Systems, 80, 259-273.
Jokela, E. J., Dougherty, P. M., & Martin, T. A. (2004). Production dy-
namics of intensively managed loblolly pine stands in the southern
United States: A synthesis of seven long-term experiments. Forest
Ecology and Management, 192, 117-130.
Jokela, E. J., & Martin, T. A. (2000). Effects of ontogeny and soil nu-
trient supply on production, allocation, and leaf area efficiency in
loblolly and slash pine stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research,
30, 1511-1524. doi:10.1139/x00-082
Jose, S., & Gillespie, A. R. (1996). Aboveground production efficiency
and canopy nutrient contents of mixed-hardwood forest communities
along a moisture gradient in the central United States. Canadian
Journal of Forest Research, 26, 2214-2223.
Jose, S., & Gillespie, A. R. (1997). Leaf area-productivity relationships
among mixed-species hardwood forest communities of the central
hardwood region. Forest Sc ie nc e , 43, 56-64. doi:10.1139/x26-250
Killingbeck, K. (1984). Nitrogen and phosphorus resorption dynamics
of five tree species in a Kansas gallery forest. American Midland
Naturalist Journal, 111, 155-164. doi:10.2307/2425554
Killingbeck, K. (1986). Litterfall dynamics and element use efficiency
in a Kansas gallery forest. American Midland Naturalist Journal, 116,
180-189. doi:10.2307/2425950
Killingbeck, K. (1993). Inefficient nitrogen resorption in genets of the
actinorhizal nitrogen fixing shrub Comptoniaperegrina: Physiological
ineptitude or evolutionary tradeoff? Oecolgia, 94, 542-549.
Killingbeck, K. (1996). Nutrients in senesced leaves: Keys to the search
for potential resorption and resorption proficiency. Ecology, 77,
1716-1727. doi:10.2307/2265777
King, J. S., Albaugh, T. J., Allen, H. L., & Kress, H. L. (1999). Stand-
level allometry in Pinus taeda as affected by irrigation and fertiliza-
tion. Tree Physiology, 19, 769-778. doi:10.1093/treephys/19.12.769
Knecht, M. F., & Goransson, A. (2004). Terrestrial plants require nu-
trients in similar proportions. Tree Physiology, 24, 447-460.
Koerselman, A., & Meuleman, A. F. (1996). The vegetation ratio: A
new tool to detect the nature of nutrient limitation. Journal of Ap-
plied Ecology, 33, 1441-1450. doi:10.2307/2404783
Kozovits, A. R., Bustamante, M. M., Garofalo, C. R., Buccis, S.,
Franco, A. C., Goldstein, G., & Meinzer, F. C. (2007). Nutrient re-
sorption and patterns of litter production and decomposition in a
neotropical savanna. Functional Ecology, 21, 1034-1043.
Ladanai, S., Agren, G. I., Hyconen, R., & Lundkvist, H. (2006). Nitro-
gen budgets for scots pine and Norway spruce ecosystems 12 and 7
years after the end of long-term fertilization. Forest Ecology and
Management, 2338, 130-140.
Lambers, H., Chapin III, F. S., & Pons, T. L. (1998). Plant physiologi-
cal ecology. New York, NY: Springer-Verlag New York Inc.
Lathja, K. (1987). Nutrient resorption efficiency and the response to
phosphorus fertilization in the desert shrub Larreatridentata (DC.)
Cov. Biogeochemistry, 4, 265-276. doi:10.1007/BF02187370
Lee, K. H., & Jose, S. (2003). Soil respiration, fine root production, and
microbial biomass in P. deltoides and loblolly pine plantations along
a nitrogen fertilization gradient. Forest Ecology and Management,
185, 263-273. doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(03)00164-6
Lee, K. H., & Jose, S. (2005). Nitrate leaching in P. deltoides and lob-
lolly pine biomass plantations along a nitrogen fertilization gradient.
Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment, 105, 615-623.
Lee, K. H., & Jose, S. (2006). Nitrogen mineralization in short-rotation
tree plantations along a soil nitrogen gradient. Canadian Journal of
Forest Research, 36, 1236-1242. doi:10.1139/x06-019
Lockaby, B. G., Clawson, R. G., & Baker, T. (1997). Response of three
hardwood species to irrigation and fertilization on an upland site.
South. Journal of Applied Physics, 21, 123-129.
Lockaby, B. G., & Conner, W. H. (1999). N:P balance in wetland for-
ests: Productivity across a biogeochemical continuum. Botanical Re-
view, 65, 171-185. doi:10.1007/BF02857626
Lockhart, B. R., Ezell, A. W., Hodges, J. D., & Clatterbuck, W. K.
(2006). Using natural stand development patterns in artificial mix-
tures: A case study with cherrybark oak and sweetgum in east-central
Mississippi, USA. Forest Ecology and Management, 222, 202-210.
Lugo, A. E., Abelleira, O. J., Collado, A., Viera, C. A., Veles, D. O.,
Soto, S., Amaro, G., Charon, G., Colon Jr., H., Santans, J., Morales, J.
L., Rivera, K., Ortiz, L., Rivera, L., Maldonado, M., Rivera, N., &
Vazquez, J. J. (2011). Allometry, biomass, and chemical content of
novel African tulip tree (Spathodea campanulata) forests in Puerto
Rico. New Forests, 42, 267-283. doi:10.1007/s11056-011-9258-8
May, J. D., Burdette, S. B., Gilliam, F. S., & Adams, M. B. (2005).
Interspecific divergence in foliar nutrient dynamics and stem growth
in a temperate forest in response to chronic nitrogen inputs. Cana-
dian Journal of Forest Research, 35, 1023-1030.
Millner, J. P., & Kemp P. D. (2012). Foliar nutrient in Eucalyptus
species in New Zealand. New Forests, 43, 255-266.
Moscatelli, M. C., Lagomarsino, A., De Angelis, P., & Grego, S. (2008).
Short- and medium-term contrasting effects of nitrogen fertilization
on C and N cycling in a poplar planation soil. Forest Ecology and
Management, 255, 447-454. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.012
Nambiar, E. K., & Fife, D. N. (1991). Nutrient translocation in tem-
perate conifers. Tree Physiolog y, 9, 185-207.
National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (2003). URL (last
checked 19 June 2003).
Pastor, J., & Bridgham, S. D. (1999). Nutrient efficiency along nutrient
availability gradients. Acta Oecologica, 118, 50-58.
Prietzel, J., Wagoner, G. L., & Harrison, R. B. (2004). Long-term ef-
fects of repeated urea fertilization in Douglas-fir stands on forest
floor nitrogen pools and nitrogen mineralization. Forest Ecology and
Management, 193, 413-426. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2004.02.006
Pugnaire, F. I., & Chapin III, F. S. (1993). Controls over nutrient re-
sorption from leaves of evergreen Mediterranean species. Ecology,
74, 124-129. doi:10.2307/1939507
Rowe, D. B., Blazich, F. A., & Raper, C. D. (2002). Nitrogen nutrition
of hedged stock plants of loblolly Pine. I. tissue nitrogen concentra-
tions and carbohydrate status. New Forests, 24, 53-65.
Saarsalmi, A., Kukkola, M., Moilanen, M., & Arola, M. (2006). Long-
term effects of ash and N fertilization on stand growth, tree nutrient
status and soil chemistry in a Scots pine stand. Forest Ecology and
Management, 235, 116-128. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.08.004
Safou-Matondo, R., Deleporte, P., Laclau, J. P., & Bouillet, J. P. (2005).
Hybrid and clonal variability of nutrient content and nutrient use ef-
ficiency in Eucalyptus stand in Congo. Forest Ecology and Man-
agement, 210, 193-204.
Samuelson, L. J., Johnsen, K., & Stokes, T. (2004a). Production, allo-
cation, and stemwood growth efficiency of Pinus taeda L. in re-
sponse to 6 years of intensive management. Forest Ecology and
Management, 192, 59-70. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2004.01.005
Samuelson, L. J., Johnsen, K., Stokes, T., & Weinlang, L. (2004b.) In-
tensive management modifies soil CO2 efflux in a 6-year-old Pinus
taeda L. stands. Forest Ecology and Management, 200, 335-345.
Samuelson, L., Stokes, T., Cooksey, T., & McLemore III, P. (2001).
Production efficiency of loblolly pine and sweetgum in response to
four years of intensive management. Tree Physiology, 21, 369-376.
SAS Institute (2001). SAS user guide: Statistics. Cary, NC: SAS Insti-
tute Inc.
Schilling, E. B., & Lockaby, B. G.(2006). Relationships between pro-
ductivity and nutrient circulation with two contrasting southeastern
US floodplain forests. Wetlands, 26 , 181-192.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 199
Schlaegel, B. E., & Kennedy, H. E. (1986). Deriving biomass estima-
tions for seven plantation hardwood species. In D. L. Rockwood
(Ed.), Proceedings of the 1985 southern forest biomass workshop (pp.
31-39). Gainesville, 11-14 June 1985.
Schubert, M. R., Rennie, J. C., & Schlarbaum, S. E. (2004). Four pine
species grown at four spacings on the eastern highland rim, Tennes-
see, after 30 years. Asheville, NC: USDA Forest Service, Southern
Research Station.
Shelton. M. G., Switzer, G. L., Nelson, L. E., Baker, J. B., & Mueller,
C. W. (1982). The development of P. deltoides plantations on allu-
vial soils. Technical Bulletin, 1 13 , 47.
Singh, B. (1998). Biomass production and nutrient dynamics in three
clones of Populus deltoides planted on Indogangetic plains. Plant
and Soil, 203, 15-26. doi:10.1023/A:1004388903402
Smith, K., Gholz, H. L., & de Assis Oliveira, F. (1998). Litterfall and
nitrogen-use efficiency of plantations and primary forest in the east-
ern Brazilian Amazon. Forest Ecology and Management, 109, 209-
220. doi:10.1016/S0378-1127(98)00247-3
Song, C. J., Ma, K. M., Qu, L. Y., Liu, Y., Xu, X. L., Fu, B. J., &
Zhong, J. F. (2010). Interactive effects of water, nitrogen and phos-
phorus on the growth, biomass partitioning and water-use efficiency
of Bauhinia faberi seedlings. Journal of Arid Environments, 74,
Specht, A., & Turner, J. (2006). Foliar nutrient concentrations in
mixed-species plantations of subtropical cabinet timber species and
their potential as a management tool. Forest Ecology and Manage-
ment, 233, 324-337. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2006.05.029
Stape, J. L., Binkley, D. R., & Ryan, M. G. (2008). Production and
carbon allocation in a clonal Eucalyptus plantation with water and
nutrient manipulations. Forest Ecology and Management, 255, 920-
930. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2007.09.085
Sword Sayer, M. A., Goelz, J. C. G., Chambers, J. L., Tang, Z., Dean, T.
J., Haywood, J. D., & Leduc, D. J. (2004). Long-term trends in lob-
lolly pine productivity and stand characteristics in response to thin-
ning and fertilization in the West Gulf region. Forest Ecology and
Management, 192, 71-96. doi:10.1016/j.foreco.2004.01.006
Tateno, R., & Kawaguchi, H. (2002). Differences in nitrogen use effi-
ciency between leaves from canopy and subcanopy trees. Ecological
Research, 17, 695-704. doi:10.1046/j.1440-1703.2002.00526.x
Tuskan, G. A. (1998). Short-rotation woody crop supply systems in the
Unites States: What do we know and what do we need to know?
Biomass and Bioenergy, 14, 307-315.
USDA, NRCS (2009). The PLANTS database. URL (2 December 2012).
Van Den Driessche, R. (2000). Phsophorus, copper, and zinc supply
levels influence growth and nutrition of a young Populustrichocarpa
(Tott & Gray) × P. deltoides (Bartr. Ex Marsh) hybrid. New Forests,
19, 143-157. doi:10.1023/A:1006607410673
Vitousek, P. M. (1982). Nutrient cycling and nutrient use efficiency.
American Naturalist, 119, 553-572. doi:10.1086/283931
Vitousek, P. M. (1998). Foliar and nutrients, nutrient resorption, and
decomposition In Hawaiian Metrosideros Polymorpha. Ecosystems, 1,
401-407. doi:10.1007/s100219900033
Vogel, J. G., & Gower, S. T. (1998). Carbon and nitrogen dynamics of
boreal jack pine stands with and without green alder understory.
Ecosystems, 1, 386-400. doi:10.1007/s100219900032
Vogt, K. A., Grier, C. C., & Vogt, D. J. (1986). Production, turnover,
and nutrient dynamics of above- and belowground detritus of the
world forest. Advances in Ecological Research, 15, 303-377.
Wang, J. P., Jarvis, P. G., & Taylor, C. M. (1991). Par absorption and
its relation to above-ground dry matter production of Sitka Spruce.
Journal of Applied Ec ol o gy , 28, 547-560.
Wang, J. R., Letchford, T., Comeau, P., & Kimmins, J. P. (2000).
Above- and below-ground biomass and nutrient distribution of a pa-
per birch and subalpine fir mixed species stand in the Sub-Boreal
Spruce zone of British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management,
130, 17-26. doi:10.2307/2404567
Wang, J. R., Zhong, A. L., Comeau, T. M., & Kimmins, J. P. (1995).
Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation in an age sequence
of aspen (Populustremuloides) stands in the boreal white and black
spruce zone, British Columbia. Forest Ecology and Management, 78,
127-138. doi:10.1016/0378-1127(95)03590-0
Wang, J. R., Zhong, A. L., Simard, S. W., & Kimmins, J. P. (1996).
Aboveground biomass and nutrient accumulation in an age sequence
of paper birch (Betula papyrifera) in the interior cedar hemlock zone,
British Columbia. Forest Ecol ogy a nd M an ag eme nt , 83, 27-38.
Wienand, K. T., & Stock, W. D. (1995). Long-term phosphorus fertili-
zation effects on the litter dynamics of an age sequence of Pinus elli-
ottii plantations in Southern Cape of South Africa. Forest Ecology
and Management, 75, 135-146.
Will, R. E., Munger, G. T., Zhang, Y., & Borders, B. E. (2002). Effects
of annual fertilization and complete competition control on current
annual increment, foliar development, and growth efficiency of
Pinus taeda stands. Canadian Journal of Forest Research, 32, 1728-
1740. doi:10.1139/x02-095
Wilson, A. R., Nzokou, P., Gűney, D., & Kulaç, Ş. (2012). Growth
response and nitrogen use physiology of Fraser fir (Abies fraseri),
red pine (Pinus resinosa) and hybrid poplar under amino acid nutri-
tion. New Forests, 1-15. doi:10.1007/s11056-012-9317-9
Wright, I. J., & Westoby, M. (2001). Understanding seedling growth
relationships through specific leaf areas and life nitrogen concentra-
tion: Generalizations across growth forms and growth irradiance.
Oecologia, 127, 21-29. doi:10.1007/s004420000554
Wright, I. J., & Westoby, M. (2003). Nutrient concentration, resorption
and lifespan: Leaf traits of Australian sclerophyll species. Functional
Ecology, 17, 10-19. doi:10.1046/j.1365-2435.2003.00694.x
Xu, X., & Timmer, V. R. (1999). Growth and nutrition of Chinese fir
seedlings exposed to nutrient loading and fertilization. Plant and Soil,
216, 83-91. doi:10.1023/A:1004733714217
Yan, E.-R., Wang, X., & Huang, J. (2006). Shifts in plant nutrient use
strategies under secondary forest succession. Plant and Soil, 289,
187-197. doi:10.1007/s11104-006-9128-x
Yuan, Z. Y., & Chen, H. Y. H. (2010). Changes in nitrogen resorption
of trembling aspen (Populus tremuloides) with stand development.
Plant and Soil, 327, 121.
Yuan, Z. Y., & Li, L. H. (2007). Soils water status influences plant
nitrogen use: A case study. Plant and Soil, 301, 303-313.
Zalesny, J. A., Zalesny Jr., R.S., Coyle, D. R., & Hall, R. B. (2007).
Growth and biomass of populus irrigated with landfill leachate. For-
est Ecology and Management, 248, 143-152.
Zalesny, J. A., Zalesny Jr., R. S., Wiese, A. H., Sexton, B. T., & Hall, R.
B. (2008). Uptake of macro- and micro-nutrients into leaf, woody,
and root tissue of Populus after irrigation with landfill leachate.
Journal of Sustainable Forestry, 27, 303-327.