Creative Education
2012. Vol.3, Special Issue, 818-823
Published Online October 2012 in SciRes (
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Applying a Constructionist Frame to Learning about Sustainability
Maria Daskolia1, Chronis Kynigos2
1Environmental Education Lab, Depar tment of Pedagogy, Universi ty of A th en s, Athens, Greece
2Educational Technology Lab, Department of Pedagogy, Univer sity of Athens, Athens, Greece
Received August 30th, 2012; revised September 2 7th, 2012; accepted Octob e r 13th, 2012
Sustainability as a concept is by nature complex and elusive and therefore difficult to address. Creative
thinking is thought among the core abilities needed to be fostered for developing a more integrated under-
standing of sustainability issues and for achieving a more sustainable world. We argue that Construction-
ism offers an appropriate frame of identifying and fostering creativity by viewing learning as an experien-
tial process of collaboratively generating new ideas and meaningful digital artifacts through the active
engagement with microworld. The study reported in this paper is based on the design and implementa-
tion of a pedagogical intervention aiming to engage students in creatively tinkering with a game mi-
croworld along with the concept of sustainability. Our analysis focuses on one group of students and exa-
mines how ideas and shared understandings of sustainability emerge and evolve along with the creation of
a “sustainable city” digital game and through the students’ constructive interaction with a related mi-
Keywords: Sustainability; Sustainable City; Creativity; Constructionism; Game Design; Half-Baked
Dealing Creatively with the “Difficult” Concept
of Sustainability
Sustainability as a concept is by nature complex, ambiguous,
context-specific and value-laden, and therefore difficult to ad-
dress. Complexity stems from its multi-faceted character and
the need to apply simultaneously various perspectives to grasp
it holistically (Liarakou, Daskolia, & Flogaitis, 2007). Along-
side this there are so many suggestions of what sustainable
societies should look like and what changes are needed to
achieve sustainability that a great degree of uncertainty and
indeterminacy is attached to defining what “most sustainable”
means (Wals, 2010a). What is also considered as sustainable
now might turn out not to be in the future or it may acquire a
different meaning in another context. These features render
sustainability quite elusive and ambiguous as a concept and
therefore “difficult” to teach if seen through a more traditional
pedagogical lens. Yet, sustainability issues are currently among
the key topics of most school curricula worldwide. Teaching
and learning about them is thought as a sine qua non condition
for children and young people to develop a deeper understand-
ing, a willing disposition and an action competence to identify
and deal with unsustainable ways of thinking and practices and
to bring change in their everyday life and the world (Scott &
Gough, 2004; Jensen & Schnack, 1997).
So, how can we get students to generate meanings, develop
action competence and embody appropriate mindsets around
sustainability issues? In this paper, we describe our design of an
intervention focused on enhancing creativity within construc-
tionist activity, where students collectively tinker with a digital
game base d on the idea of sust ainable city, and then we discuss
our findings from studying its implementation. Creative think-
ing as the co-construction of new understandings and the shar-
ing of alternative perspectives for the design and pursuit of a
more sustainable world is acknowledged among those core
abilities needed for better grasping the elusive and relativistic
character of the concept and for achieving the goals of sustain-
ability (Wals, 2010b). We argue that constructionism offers an
appropriate frame of teaching and learning along this line of
though, by allowing the creation of shared meanings and arte-
facts and by facilitating discussion and negotiation over alter-
native conceptual suggestions of sustainability while tinkering
with related microworld.
The ambiguity characterizing sustainability issues can be
turned into a fruitful arena for creative constructionist activity.
There is an “appealing vagueness” inherent in the concept
(Redclift, 1994) which makes it a “boundary object” (Star &
Griesemer, 1989), that is a “plastic” enough entity to be inter-
preted and employed by more that one groups or communities
in ways that make se nse to them, and at the same time a “rob us t”
enough construction that manifests a common identity across
all groups and communities. This approach of viewing sustain-
ability is very close to what Meggill (1995) calls “heuristic
relativism”, that is the recognition that there are limits in the
way our perspective allows us to develop a fully-fledged view
of a situation and that we need to stand off and explore others’
or alternative perspectives as complementary frames for better
grasping reality. From a pedagogical point of view, dealing
with “boundary” concepts through a heuristic relativism frame
of thinking provides many opportunities for teachers and lear-
ners to get engaged in dialogical forms of meaning-construction
and perspective-sharing and to expand the “boundaries” of their
knowing of and being in the world. This is what some would
also identify as the essence of creative thinking and learning
(Fernández-Cárdenas, 2008). In either way, education has to
cultivate learning approaches leading to a creative appropria-
tion of knowledge for students to be able to develop a more
integrated understanding of sustainability. It has also to foster
creativity by facilitating alternative thinking and the emergence
of new ideas for empowering young people to envision and
design a more sustainable world (Wals, 2010a).
Recent developments in the study of creativity per se empha-
size the inherent complexity of the phenomenon, the collective
character of creative processes and the “situatedness” of the
activities (Daskolia, Dimos, & Kampylis, 2012). Among cur-
rent trends in the conceptualization of creativity is that it is not
necessarily related to some exceptional ability but rather to a
potential everyone is capable of displaying, which may be ex-
pressed at various manifestations of a person’s everyday life, it
is fuelled by collective processes and is possible to be fostered
through education. Constructionism both as an epistemology
and a learning theory gives distinct emphasis to learners’ crea-
tive expression and learning through the active exploration,
modification and creation of digital artifacts (Papert, 1993;
Kafai & Resnick, 1996). From a constructionist perspective
creativity is mainly identified with the generation of new/novel
tangible output(s) (the digital artifacts). Digital media—micro-
worlds in particular—are perceived as appropriately designed
environments and tools that learners can use to construct
“meaningful objects” (Papert, ibid; Kynigos, 2007). These ob-
jects are the tangible outputs of their discursive, meaning-
making processes while they interact with the microworld and
the learning context; they are at the same time representations
of their ideas and understandings of the “world”. Construction-
ism attributes equal importance to the creative tool (the mi-
croworld), the creative product (the artifact) and the creative
process of learning. Actually there is a symbiotic and synergetic
relationship among the three: the microworld is designed to
evolve along with the knowledge its users develop while they
tinker with it and the artifacts they create.
Particular emphasis is nevertheless placed on the learning
context within which both constructionist activities as processes
and products occur (Resnick, 1996). Open-ended technological
and learning environments that treat microworld as “boundary
objects” and allow learners to use them in personally meaning-
ful ways, to collaboratively work with and discuss over them
and their key concepts, or to question them and want to modify
and improve them, are important coordinates of a context fos-
tering various forms of creativity. We therefore argue that the
seeds already exist in the theory of constructionism to address
and study creativity through a more integrated conception,
which is as a function of a person’s ability, presuming an inten-
tional process, occurring within a specific learning environment
and entailing the generation of new products (Kampylis & Val-
tanen, 2010).
In the study reported in this paper we designed and imple-
mented a pedagogical intervention with the aim to engage stu-
dents in creatively tinkering with a game microworld along
with the concept of sustainability. Our approach moves within a
constructionist perspective viewing learning as an experiential
process of collaboratively generating new or alternative ideas
through the active engagement with the construction and
de-construction of meaningful digital artifacts with the use of
microworld. In previous studies we have addressed some other
parameters of a constructionist approach to teaching and learn-
ing about sustainability with game microworld (Kynigos &
Daskolia, 2011). In this study we focus on the creative potential
of learning about sustainability through constructionist activi-
The Study
The Study Context and Participants
The study presented in this paper is part of a design-based
research which was conducted within Metafora, an EU-funded
R&D project ( It took place
in a secondary education school located in a central area of
Athens and was carried out during the last three months of the
school year: it started in early March and lasted until mid June
2012. Overall, 11 two-hour sessions were held on a weekly
basis. Eighteen students (9 girls and 9 boys) participated in the
study. They were all members of an afternoon Environmental
Education Club, a mixed-class group consisting of 7th, 8th and
9th graders. Depending on the activities participants were allo-
cated in groups of 6 or in sub-groups of 2 to 3 students. All
sessions took place in the school’s computer lab and each group
was assigned to a computer to work on.
The Scenario and the Tools Employed
The students’ activity was with an E-slate Microworld Kit
which we called “Sus-x”, i.e. “Sustainable-system”
(http://etl. This
is a kit allowing the teacher or student user(s) to construct a
sim-city like game so that players do best when they are sensi-
tive and thoughtful about how to ensure or promote sustainabil-
ity in a particular context (system). A special case of this Mi-
croworld Kit addresses “sustainability in the city”, which is
why we named it “Sus-City”.
The Sus-City microworld allows users to create their city
background map, by loading, drawing or editing their city im-
age, and place objects on it, the city-sites they want their city to
have. They have also to decide on the properties against which
they will rate (give specific values to) all city-sites. A set of
default (initial) values, a set of threshold values (indicating
when the system’s sustainability is violated by the player’s
choices) and the game play rules (maximum time and number
of choices) have to be determined by the users. They can also
inform players about their game performance through relative
Based on the Sus-City microworld kit we designed a “half-
baked microworld” (Kynigos, 2007) to get students started
thinking about urban sustainability and sustainable lifestyles.
We deliberately called this game microworld “PerfectVille”
(Figure 1) as it was purposefully designed to project an un-
sustainable model of urban living, which is close to what Lange
and Meyer (2009) describe as the “western new middle-class”
lifestyle. This is a highly consumerist and hectic way of life
which embodies the idea of “the welfare society” as publicized
through neo-liberal socio-economic perspectives. Its core ele-
ments, high purchasing power to satisfy individual-based needs,
the pursuit of social status, high visibility and personal security
and high commercialization of quality of life are thought to be
at the roots of most unsustainable practices of modern societies.
The students were given the challenge to play the game, dis-
cuss what’s wrong with it with respect to the sustainability of
the city and then change Perfect Ville into their own “sustain-
able city” game (“My Sus-City”). This task could be carried out
by a single student or group o f students with the kit alone. How-
ever, in the Metafora project we have been developing a system
to support learning-to-learn-together activities. The system afford-
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 819
Figure 1.
The PerfectVille game microworld.
ed the students of the study with two more tools which were
co-existent and available during their work. One was Lasad, a
discussion and argumentation space, and the other a Planning
tool space for collaboratively planning and reflecting on their
Data Collection and Analysis
The analysis reported in this paper was based on the data
collected from the 8th and 9th session of the study. Audio re-
cording and screen capturing software was used to collect in-
formation on the students’ discursive interactions within their
groups while constructing their game, and on the evolvement of
their digital artifacts. These data were coupled with data from
the researchers’ observation reports. All recorded data were
We used microgenetic analysis (Siegler, 2006) within a re-
search design paradigm (Cobb et al., 2003) to analyze how new
ideas, alternative perspectives and tangible artifacts (the games)
were created within the context of the discursive constructionist
activity that the students were involved and as a response to
their interaction with the Sus-City microworld, the challenge
set to them and the researchers’ interventions in facilitating
their learning. The analytical framework we employed to iden-
tify and discuss creativity is an adaptation of the categorical
scheme suggested by Kampylis and Valtanen (2010). It views
creativity 1) as being a function of the individual’s and group’s
ability; 2) as being situated at the nexus of several intercon-
nected processes; 3) as emerging from a facilitative learning
context; and 4) as entailing the generation of new/novel abstract
ideas and concrete outputs (digital artifacts). At the same time
however, we kept an open mind in our attempt to capture the
complexity of the learning situations we were observing and the
interweaving and interactions between the different layers of
the activity, i.e. student one-to-one interactions, group work,
teacher interventions, uses of and changes made to the digital
Findings and Discussion
This section presents and discusses our findings from the
analysis of one case (group of students) consisting of two
13-year girls, Christina and Georgia. We provide an overview
of the students’ engagement with creatively constructing their
knowledge about sustainability and collaboratively constructing
their game. In presenting the findings we follow the four-cate-
gory scheme of our analytical framework.
Creativity as a F unction of the Indivi d u al’s and
Group’s Ability
Although both girls showed an authentic interest in the task
set to them and claimed an equal share in the process, their
degree of involvement both in generating new ideas and con-
structing the game was not alike. We view this—at least to
some extent—as a function of their personality and as related to
their individual creative ability.
Christina has a strong personality, she is eager enough to
take initiatives and contribute with fresh ideas. She is very
committed to and fastidious about whatever she undertakes.
She always claims a leading role in a team. During the task,
Christina had a more active and imaginative participation in all
stages of the design process, from the selection of the city
background to setting the time frame for the game. She was
also quite eloquent in expressing her ideas about sustainability
and supporting them with arguments.
Georgia, on the other hand, has a milder personality. She is
rather timid and usually leaves to the others both the initiative
and the final decision to take. During the task she was less
talkative in expressing her views and in indicating changes to
the microworld. However, she tried to stay involved in almost
all decisions related to design issues and to collaborate with her
group mate on almost all aspects of their common work. There
were moments that Georgia even surpassed herself by claiming
with tenor to take control of the mouse so that she had a more
direct interaction with the microworld.
Despite the individual differences in personality and creative
expression we would say that some kind of complementarity
was developed between the two girls with regard to their par-
ticipation in the constructionist activity. We view this as an
effect of the collaborative processes the two girls were involved
in, upon which their group or “middle c” (Moran, 2010) crea-
tive potential was dynamically built and expressed throughout
the task. This is a special case of creative ability which is fos-
tered and revealed in shared group processes towards fulfilling
a meaningful goal and characterizes the collective function of
individual members.
Creativity as the Nexus of Several Types of Processes
Meaning-generation on both the idea of “the sustainable city”
and game design was evolved through the students’ active dis-
play, exchange and negotiation of their ideas while they were
collaboratively working on the game microworld. Actually,
Sus-City offered a structured agenda for them to collaboratively
propose and elaborate on their perspectives with regard to such
a complex issue. In their discursive interaction and while “tink-
ering with” their representations of the sustainable city, the
students employed a range of cognitive strategies and commu-
nicative patterns to ascribe meaning to sustainability. Our find-
ings indicate that there is a consecutive scalability in the stu-
dents’ employment of various cognitive and communicative
processes that goes along with their interpretation of sustain-
ability. These discursive meaning-making processes seem also
to be in line with the students’ sequential intervention on
changing the various fields of the microworld (background map,
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
city-site objects, properties, values, etc.). The selected episodes
presented below are indicative of this multiple “evolution” that
occurred within the context of the students’ constructivist en-
In the first episode the group goes through the first step in
constructing their game, which is to set the city background.
They review a set of city-images to decide which one is closer
to their idea of a more sustainable city. They observe and dis-
cern the particular features of each of them. Their argumenta-
tion is rather poor and suggestions are put forward without
much justification. However, the students propose three basic
features of a sustainable city, which are recurrently identified in
later phases of their constructionist engagement: open green
spaces, physical water recourses and less reliance in automo-
biles as a means of urban transport.
Christina: How do you like this one? (She shows at image No.
9). Do you think its better?
Georgia: Lets see the next one.
Christina: Wait, therere a lot of green places in this too.
(They are still talking about image No. 9)
Georgia: Move on…
Christina: Ok… not this one (They look at image No. 15).
Georgia: Neither this one (They look at image No. 2).
Christina: No… not this one (They look at image No. 3).
Georgia: This one (No. 6)… It has lakes too. Can you see?
Christina: Yes, but it has a lot of cars, too. Look at this…
Georgia: This city has too many cars too. (They look again at
image No. 9).
The second episode is taken from a subsequent phase of the
students’ constructionist activity. It is indicative of how their
shared representation of the sustainable city has already started
to “expand”. After they have selected the city-image and
changed their game’s background map accordingly, the two
girls focus on which new city-sites to add and where to put
them on the map. This time the students get involved in more
elaborated argumentation and negotiation processes over their
proposed ideas. They also begin to view urban sustainability
not only in terms of a “greener” or “cleaner” environment but
as involving several social parameters too, such as the creation
of health care services, new job opportunities and commu-
nity-based organizations. They view all three of them as being
in mutual dependence with a “healthier” natural environment.
The economic dimension of sustainability also emerges in the
students’ thought about sustainability, as for example when
Georgia casts the idea for an “environmental office” or when
Christina suggests adding a “store selling photovoltaic systems”
as a business opportunity allowing for profit and being in the
benefit of the environment.
Georgia: We can place the health clinic over here (she
points to the city-map). Close to the park.
Christina: Yes! Cause the air is healthier over there… (They
move the health clinic closer to the park). What if we put an
annex of the Scouts organisation over here? (She points to
the city-map)
Georgia: Do you think the others (the other group with whom
they collaborate) will agree with this? What do you think if we
add Scouts as a new point on the city-map? It is an associa-
tion that helps protect the environment?” (She types a chat
message to the other group).
Georgia: Lets have an environmental office too. Its an
employment opportunity for the environment.
Christina: Yup, why not? Lets put it here… (She points to a
particular place in the city-map).
Christina: Yes… ooh, I got an idea! Lets create a store sell-
ing photovoltaic systems. Lets put it here (She points to the
map)… Its near the sea.
Creativity as Emerging from a Facilitating Learning
New ideas and understandings of the sustainability concept
and game design emerged as a response to the learning en-
vironment created by the microworld and the teachers’ role in
inciting thinking on it. The following excerpt is indicative of
how the teacher’s (researcher’s) intervention to initiate further
reflection on the meaning of sustainability, by introducing a
schematic representation of the sustainability concept, enhanced
students’ thinking (Christina’s in particular) of alternative sus-
tainability opportunities related to the citizens’ sense of well-
being. The teacher’s intention was to provide some scaffolding
to the students’ thought that would help broaden their percep-
tion of sustainability from including just the natural environ-
ment. As a result Christina started identifying the “social”
dimension of sustainability in their city too:
R1: Ok girls… Can we have a closer look at this scheme?
(She shows them a representation of sustainability as being at
the intersection of three circles: environment”, society and
economy”). What does it say about sustainability?... The city
you designed in your game, does it pay enough attention to
supporting a healthy community or a vital economy, apart from
focusing only on the natural environment?
Christina: Mmm, the people… they should be happy with
their life in this city… There are many facilities adding to their
well-being... Such as this pool over there (she points to the
map)… There is also a small port over there. People can have
many nice walks in this city. They could have some nice boat
trips on the river too!
The second excpert shows how the glimpse of a new
perspective in viewing the city’s sustainability strikes C hristina
as she is prompted by another researcher to review the initial
values she had assigned to each of the city-sites. The researcher
wanted to help the students develop a better awareness of how
their game design choices can shape the players’ strategies. By
reviewing the “money” values in various city-sites, Christina
realises there is a lot of monetary expenditure involved while
“using” the city. For people to cherish the various goods and
services provided by a city, which add to their quality of life,
they have “to pay some fare” in exchange. The exception is
with some public goods, such as parks. Quality of life is never-
theless very much connected to needs, and thus a highly
socially-constructed concept. Such a perspective offers to the
students a novel frame of approaching sustainability as a com-
plex and value-laden issue with many interrelated dimensions.
R3: So, in your game, the player has to go to work (select the
office city-site) twice to earn more money?
Christina: Yes, in order not to run out of their money re-
sources… Because when visiting most of the city places you
spend money. If you go to the bakery”, you spend money… If
you go to the supermarket”, it is for buying your dairy foods…
You go to the mall to buy clothes, etc… To the clinic”, you
have to pay the doctors… To the Concert Hall”, you have to
pay a ticket to watch an opera… To the restaurant”, you have
to pay for the food you are served… To the club”, you pay for
your drinks… To the park”, you… Oh no, this is one of the few
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 821
places you dont have to pay anything!
Creativity as the Generation of a New Artifact and a
New Conception
Tinkering with the Sus-City microworld to construct a new
“sustainable city” game allowed students to get engaged in
meaning-generation processes that led them to a better under-
standing of the sustainability concept along with the creation of
a new artifact. The students made several modifications to Per-
fect Ville in order to construct a new game that would better
represent their idea about sustainability.
Actually the new game (Figure 2) offers a more balanced
conception of sustainability compared to Perfect Ville, which is
leaning equally into its environmental, social and economic
dimensions. More particularly:
The students altered the city background by selecting and
uploading another one. Their representation of a “sustain-
able city” has more green areas and other natural elements
(such as a lake) intertwined in the city’s fabric, le ss ca rs a nd
a balanced interplay between more and less densely popu-
lated areas. The natural environment seems to be the domi-
nant perspective projected in their conception of sustain-
ability. However, the other two dimensions, economy and
society, are also present in the students’ discussion about
the criteria for choosing this image. For example, the stu-
dents justified the presence of “some skyscrapers” as in-
dicative of the city’s economic prosperity, although they
would prefer they were less visible in the image. They also
argued that their city offers plenty of opportunities for
leading a good life. They thus identified quality of life as
one of the sustainability’s parameters.
The students deleted four city-sites (“football pitch”, “rail-
way station”, “luna-park”, and “fast-food”) as not particu-
larly contributin g to the susta inability of their c ity. Th ey also
added eight new city-sites: “The Scouts”, “environmental
office”, “theatre”, the “photo voltaics store”, “Hospital”,
“swimming pool”, “beach”, and the “cycling path”, as fur-
ther enhancing the potential for d evelop ing more sustainab le
lifestyles. Actua l ly, their prim e cr iteri a for constru cting t heir
sustainable city seem to be how close to their personal zone
of experience the city sites are and with some of them, how
much there is an obvious “environmental-enhancing” func-
tion in them. Concerns having to do with the social and
economic dimensions of sustainability were less explicit
although present. The inclusion of various city-sites declares
the idea of a city offering a range of opportunities for diverse
groups of people to pursue a quality life according to their
Among other modifications the t wo girls moved city-sites on
the map several times so that a better matching between their
function and the city image was achieved. They also re-set
the default values and individual values in all city-sites with
the aim to offer a more realistic evaluation of each site. Fi-
nally, they changed the threshold conditions and game play
rules to render the game more challenging and thus more
enjoyable for users to play.
Concluding Remarks
The study presented in this paper aimed to identify the crea-
tive potential offered by a constructionist approach to teaching
and learning about sustainability. A pedagogical intervention
Figure 2.
“My Sus-City” game microworld as created by Christina and Georgia.
was designed to engage Greek High school students in collabo-
ratively tinkering with a microworld on the idea of sustainable
city. Our focus was on studying whether and how creativity is a
situated dimension of constructionist learning arising from the
interaction of the students with a microworld and the learning
environment. Our findings suggest that the Sus-City micro-
world empowered the students to collaboratively articulate,
display, and elaborate new ideas and to develop and negotiate
alternative perspectives with the view to actively interpret a
complex and fuzzy concept such as that of sustainability. Actu-
ally the microworld offered not only an appropriate learning
environment where students could allow their imagination to
deploy and construct their game, but also a structured agenda
that prompted them to collaboratively think and share their
ideas about sustainability. More particularly, the students were
challenged by the task set to them, to create their own “sustain-
able city” game, and they were aided by the microworld to enter
into intentional, shared meaning-making processes that led to
the emergence of new understandings and a tangible outcome,
their game. Both their discursive interaction over the meaning
and features of the sustainable city, their generated ideas and
the new game provide evidence of the creative potential of
appropriately designed constructionist activities.
Within the context of our study we addressed creativity
through a more integrated conception, that is 1) as a function of
an individual’s and/or group’s ability; 2) as being situated at the
nexus of several interconnected processes; 3) as occurring
within a specific learning environment; and 4) as entailing the
generation of new concepts and artifacts. Our proposed ana-
lytical framework is supported by the findings of the study.
Working within the design research paradigm enabled us to
identify creativity in many more hidden dimensions of learn-
ing situation than the obvious, and thus to expand the tradi-
tional view from within the constructionist community that
connects creativity to the generation of digital artifacts only.
We argue that this expanded view of the creative potential of
learning situations can be of particular value for the theory of
constructionism while at the same time it can serve as a useful
framework of designing and studying constructionist activities
and tools with creativity in mind.
This study gives some insight of how tinkering with a mi-
croworld can allow students to enter into intentional and par-
ticipative meaning-making processes that lead to the emergence
Copyright © 2012 SciRes.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. 823
of new ideas and understandings about difficult concepts, such
as that of sustainability. This is of particular importance for
Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable De-
velopment that are in a constant search for new theoretical ap-
proaches and tools to support learning about the complex and
multifaceted nature of environmental and sustainability issues
in more meaningful ways. Although preliminary empirical evi-
dence is promising, more future research is needed as to
whether and how constructionist pedagogical designs can offer
appropriate modes and tools for learning about these issues.
Moreover, extending constructionist frames of epistemology
and learning beyond its traditional subject domains of applica-
tion, such as mathematics, science and computers education, to
social sciences, humanities and the arts is a major challenge yet
to be undertaken. This is particularly true for educational do-
mains that promote interdisciplinary, systemic and critical
knowledge about complex concepts and issues related to con-
temporary realities such as those dealt within the context of
Environmental Education and Education for Sustainable De-
The study presented in this paper is funded by EU-R&D
project “Metafora-Learning to Learn Together: A visual lan-
guage for social orchestration of educational activities” (EC/
FP7, Grant agreement: 257872).
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