Paper Menu >>
Journal Menu >>
American Journal of Plant Sciences, 2012, 3, 1272-1282
http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/ajps.2012.39154 Published Online September 2012 (http://www.SciRP.org/journal/ajps)
In Vitro Organogenesis of Quisqualis indica Linn.
—An Ornamental Creeper
Jaydip Mandal1*, Undurthy Laxminarayana2
1Department of Education in Science and Mathematics, Regional Institute of Education, National Council of Educational Research
and Training, Bhopal, India; 2Department of Education, Regional Institute of Education, National Council of Educational Research
and Training, Mysore, India.
Received July 7th, 2012; revised August 3rd, 2012; accepted August 13th, 2012
Shoot organogenesis and plant regen eration were achiev ed on callu s derived from leaf section and stem base explants of
Quisqualis indica (Combretaceae). In vitro cultures were established using nodal segments obtained from mature
field-grown shrubby plants. For the development of optimized protocol, different types and concentrations of plant
growth regulators were used to induce adventitious shoot regeneration via callus from leaf section and one-node stem
base explants obtained from in vitro regenerated micro shoots and direct field-grown newly flush-off shoots. The TDZ
was considered to be the best among the cytokinins (6-benzyladenine (BA), 6-(
, dimethylallyamino purine) (2-iP)
and thidiazuron (TDZ) added to the Murashige and Skoog’s medium (MS) for adventitious shoot productions. A com-
bination of 1.0 mg/L TDZ and 0.5 mg/L GA3 was most effective in stimulating callus induction and ad ventitious shoot
regeneration from the leaf section derived calli with an average of 6 shoots per callus exp lant and an av erag e of 8 shoots
per callus explant originated from one-node stem base explants. In vitro raised shoots were sub- cu ltu red on MS medium
supplemented with 1.0 mg/L BA and 0.5 mg/L GA3 for further shoot growth. Maximum rooting of in vitro regenerated
shoots was obtained on MS medium supplemented with either 0.5 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) or indole-3-butyric
acid (IBA) individually or a combination of 0.5 mg/L IAA and 0.5 mg/L IBA. Plantlets raised in vitro were acclima-
tized and subsequently transferred to experimental field.
Keywords: Organogenesis; Quisqualis indica; Shoot Regeneration; Tissue Culture
Rangoon Creeper scientifically known as Quisqualis in-
dica originated from South East Asia and occurs all over
Africa, Philippines, Vietnam, Malaysia, India, Bangla-
desh and Thailand. It has bright colored fragrant flowers
and is one of the most stunning ornamental of the family
Combretaceae. Quisqualis indica is grown as an orna-
mental garden plant for it’s horizontally orientation to
pendulous white, pink and red flowers that give out dis-
tinct perfume. The flowers con tain high quantity of poly-
phenol that are believed to be strong antioxidants benefi-
cial for human health [1-3]. This species is known to
have free radical scavenging activity and alleviating
flatulent distension of abdomen like that of the medicinal
properties of Terminalia chebula, T. belerica and Em-
blica officinalis [4-6]. The plant parts such as roots,
flowers and seeds of the plant are used for curing diar-
rhea, fever, rickets, rheumatism and nephritis [2,7]. The
leaves, fruits and seeds of the plant have been used as
anthelmintic for expelling round worms and thread worms
This ornamental shrub is conventionally propagated
through seeds and cuttings. However, according to Lam-
bardi and Rugini  propagation through seeds renders
undesirable variation whereas shoot cuttings of many
genotypes do not respond to root inducing medium.
These difficulties may be overcome using in vitro
tissue culture techniques. Plant tissue culture techniques
are considered as easy and reliable for rapid up-scaling of
shoot regeneration of elite g enotypes independent of sea-
sonal and environmental influences. In addition, produc-
tion of transgenic plants relies on successful establish-
ment of in vitro regeneration methods based on organo-
genesis and thus can complement conventional breeding
Regeneration protocols have been reported for micro-
propagation of many species such as Cinnamomum cam-
phora (, Terminalia chebula , Saussurea obva-
llata , Terminalia bellirica , Terminalia arjuna
, Aloe polyphyla , Vaccinium species , Pha-
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. AJPS
In Vitro Organogenesis of Quisqualis indica Linn.—An Ornamental Creeper 1273
seolus vulgaris , Punica granatum , Trifolium
alexandrinum  from axillary meristems and shoot
tips as well as shoot organogenesis fr om excised leaf ex-
plants, cotyledon and embryo axis with different plant
growth regul at ors.
In vitro systems may offer the tools for rapid multipli-
cation and conserv ation of genetic stocks and availability
of wild Quisqualis germplasm for its medicinal and or-
namental use besides its potential use in genetic engi-
neering and plant breeding. However, there has been no
report on the shoot organogenesis of Quisqualis indica.
The aim of the present study was to establish an efficient
regeneration protocol through callus mediated organo-
genesis of leaf and stem base explants of Quisqualis in-
2. Materials and Methods
2.1. Culture Initiation
Nodal segments from newly flush off shoots of adult
of Terminalia arjuna Roxb,” In Vitro Cellular & Devel-
opmental Biology—Plant, Vol. 42, No. 5, 2006, pp. 389-
 M. W. Bairu, W. A. Stirk, K. Dolezal and J. Van Staden,
“Optimizing the Micropropagation Protocol for the En-
dangered Aloe polyphylla: Can Meta-Topolin and Its De-
rivatives Serve as Replacement for Benzyladenine and
Zeatin?” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 90,
No. 1, 2007, pp. 15-23. doi:10.1007/s11240-007-9233-4
 J. Meiners, M. Schwab and I. Szankowski, “Efficient in
Vitro Regeneration Systems for Vaccinium species,”
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 89, No. 4,
2007, pp. 169-176. doi:10.1007/s11240-007-9230-7
 K. Kwapata, R. Sabzikar, M. B. Sticklen and J. D. Kelly,
“In Vitro Regeneration and Morphogenesis Studies in
Common Bean,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture,
Vol. 100, No. 1, 2010, pp. 97-105.
 K. Kanwar, J. Joseph and R. Deepika, “Comparison of in
Vitro Regeneration Pathways in Punica granatum L.,”
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 100, No. 2,
2010, pp. 199-207. doi:10.1007/s11240-009-9637-4
 G. M. Abogadallah and W. P. Quick, “Fast Versatile Re-
generation of Trifolium alexandrinum L.,” Plant Cell,
Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 100, No. 1, 2010, pp. 39-
 T. Murashige and F. Skoog, “A Revised Medium for
Rapid Growth and Bioassays with Tobacco Tissue Cul-
tures,” Physiologia Plantarum, Vol. 15, No. 3, 1962, pp.
 G. J. De Klerk, “Rooting of Micropropagules,” In: Y.
Waisel, A. Eshel and U. Kafkafi, Eds., Plant Roots the
Hidden Half, 3rd Edition, Marcel Dekker Inc., New York,
2002, pp. 349-357. doi:10.1201/9780203909423.ch21
 E. N. Tzitzikas, M. Bergervoet, K. Raemakers, J. P.
Vincken, A. van Lammeren and R. G. F. Visser, “Regen-
eration of Pea (Pisum sativum L.) by a Cyclic Organo-
genic System,” Plant Cell Reports, Vol. 23, No. 7, 2004,
pp. 453-460. doi:10.1007/s00299-004-0865-0
 G. Lloyd and B. McCown, “Commercially Feasible Mi-
cropropagation of Mountain Laurel (Kalmia latifolia) by
Use of Shoot Tip Culture,” Combined Proceedings of the
International Plant Propagators’ Society, Vol. 30, 1980,
 M. P. A. Jones, Z. Yi, S. J. Murch and P. K. Saxena,
“Thidiazuron-Induced Regeneration of Echinacea pur-
purea L.: Micropropagation in Solid and Liquid Culture
Systems,” Plant Cell Reports, Vol. 26, No. 1, 2007, pp.
 C. N. Kanchiswamy and M. Maffei, “Callus Induction
and Shoot Regeneration of Phaseolus lunatus L. cv.
Wonder Bush and cv. Pole Seiva,” Plant Cell, Tissue and
Organ Culture, Vol. 92, No. 2, 2008, pp. 239-242.
 N. Irvani, M. Solouki, M. Omidi, A. R. Zare and S.
Shabnazi, “Callus Induction and Plant Regeneration in
Dorem ammoniacum D., an Endangered Medicinal Plant,”
Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 100, No. 3,
2010, pp. 293-299. doi:10.1007/s11240-009-9650-7
 R. Siva, C. Rajasekaran and G. Mudgal, “Induction of
Somatic Embryogenesis and Organogenesis in Oldenlan-
dia umbellata L., a Dye-Yielding Medicinal Plant,” Plant
Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 98, No. 2, 2009, pp.
 B. Cuenca, A. Ballester and A. M. Vieitez, “In Vitro Ad-
ventitious Bud Regeneration from Internode Segments of
Beech,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 60,
No. 3, 2000, pp. 213-220. doi:10.1023/A:1006428717309
 A. W. Woodward and B. Bartel, “Auxin. Regulation,
Action and Interaction,” Annals of Botany, Vol. 95, No. 5,
2005, pp. 707-735. doi:10.1093/aob/mci083
 H. Sakakibara, “Cytokinins: Activity, Biosynthesis and
Translocation,” Annual Review of Plant Biology, Vol. 57,
2006, pp. 431-449.
 M. J. Jeong, H. J. Song, D. J. Park, J. Y. Min, J. S. Jo, B.
M. Kim, H. G. Kim, Y. D. Ki m, R. M. Kim, C. S. Karigar
and M. S. Choi, “High Frequency Plant Regeneration
Following Abnormal Shoot Organogenesis in the Me-
dicinal Tree Hovenia dulcis,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Or-
gan Culture, Vol. 98, No. 1, 2009, pp. 59-65.
 J. Mandal, “Shoot Regeneration through Organogenesis
of Leaf and Shoot Base Explants of Hyptis suaveolens
(Linn.) Poit.,” Phytomorphology, Vol. 61, No. 3-4, 2011,
 S. Erisen, M. Yorgancilar, E. Atalay and M. Babaoglu,
“Prolific Shoot Regeneration of Astragalus cariensis
Boiss,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 100,
No. 2, 2010, pp. 229-233.
 A. Piovan, R. Caniato, E. M. Cappelletti and R. Filippini,
“Organogenesis from Shoot Segments and Via Callus of
Endangered Kosteletzkya pentacarpos (L.) Ledeb,” Plant
Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 100, No. 3, 2010,
pp. 309-315. doi:10.1007/s11240-009-9652-5
 B. C. Tan, C. F. Chin and P. Alderson, “Optimization of
Plantlet Regeneration from Leaf and Nodal Derived Cal-
lus of Vanilla Planifolia Andrews,” Plant Cell, Tissue
and Organ Culture, Vol. 105, No. 3, 2011, pp. 457-463.
 R. Liberman, L. Shahar, A. Nissim-Levi, D. Evenor, M.
Reuveni and M. Oren-Shamir, “Shoot Regeneration from
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. AJPS
In Vitro Organogenesis of Quisqualis indica Linn.—An Ornamental Creeper
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. AJPS
Leaf Explants of Brunfelsia calycina,” Plant Cell, Tissue
and Organ Culture, Vol. 100, No. 3, 2010, pp. 345-348.
 X. Liu and P. M. Pijut, “Plant Regeneration from in Vitro
Leaves of Mature Black Cherry (Prunus serotina),” Plant
Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol. 94, No. 2, 2008, pp.
 P. L. Huang, L. J. Liao, C. C. Tsai and Z. H. Liu, “Mi-
cropropagation of Bromeliad Aechmea fasciata via Floral
Organ Segments and Effects of Acclimatization on Plant-
let Growth,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ Culture, Vol.
105, No. 1, 2011, pp. 73-78.
 B. K. Ghimire, E. S. Seong, E. Goh, N. Y. Kim, W. H.
Kang, E. H. Kim, C. Y. Yu and I. M. Chung, “High-
Frequency Direct Shoot Regeneration from Drymaria
cordata Willd. Leaves,” Plant Cell, Tissue and Organ
Culture, Vol. 100, No. 2, 2010, pp. 209-217.
 J. E. Preece, C. A. Hutterman, W. C. Ashby and P. L.
Roth, “Micropropagation and Cutting Propagation of Sil-
ver Mapple. 1. Results with Adult and Juvenile Propa-
gules,” Journal of the American Society for Horticultural
Science, Vol.116, No. 1, 1991, pp. 142-148.
 T. R. Marks and S. E. Simpson, “Factors Affecting Shoot
Development in Apicaly Dominant Acer Cultivars in Vi-
tro,” Journal of Horticultural Science, Vol. 69, No. 3,
1994, pp. 543-551.
 S. R. Natesha and N. K. Vijayakumar, “In Vitro Propaga-
tion of Ailanthus triphysa,” Journal of Tropical Forest
Science, Vol. 16, 2004, pp. 402-412.