Journal of Water Resource and Protection, 2012, 4, 648-656 Published Online August 2012 (
Hydrochemistry as Indicator to Select the Suitable
Locations for Water Storage in Tharthar Valley,
Al-Jazira Area, Iraq
Sabbar Abdullah Salih1, Lafta Salman Kadim2, Manzor Qadir3,4
1Natural Resources Research Center, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq
2Department of Applied Geology, University of Tikrit, Tikrit, Iraq
3International Center for Agricultural Research in the Dry Areas (ICARDA), Aleppo, Syria
4International Water Management Institute (IWMI), Colombo, Sri Lanka
Received May 12, 2012; revised June 16, 2012; accepted June 29, 2012
Four locations were chosen according to geomorphologic and engineering criterion to store the water on the midstream
of Tharthar valley, water samples were collected from the four locations to evaluate the hydrochemical properties as
indicator to select the more suitable location, these locations are Hatra, Abu-Hamam, Tlol Al-Baj and Al-Sukkariah
from the north to the south respectively. Also, the groundwater samples were collected from two shallow wells on the
banks. The samples were analyzed to determine the concentrations of most common anions and cations in the water
Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+, , , Cl,
. Also, pH, EC and TDS were measured. The results reflect high varia-
tions in concentrations of the soluble materials, the concentrations of these components are highly increased in locations
of Tlol Al-Baj and Al-Sukkariah in comparison with the locations of Hatra and Abu-Hamam. The variation in geology
of the area along the valley was represented a main role on the quality of water. These results can help to select the suit-
able locations of small dam (dams) to store the water in the valley and prevent the problem of salinity. According to the
results, the northern part of midstream (north of Abu-Hamam) is suitable for water storage and the dam construction.
While the locations of the downstream enriched by local sources of salts.
Keywords: Tharthar; Dam; Hydrochemistry; Salinity
1. Introduction
Tharthar Valley originated from Sinjar Mountain (north-
west boundary of Iraq) and flow with gentle slope to the
south in the area between Tigris and Euphrates rivers,
and directed slowly to the west to arrive the depression
of Tharthar Lake (125 km North Baghdad).
According to the GIS data, the area of Al-Tharthar ba-
sin is about 23,254 km2, perimeter of 709 km, the maxi-
mum length is more than 268 km, and the average width
of basin approximately 128 km. The maximum elevation
in watershed of the valley is more than 400 m.a.s.l and
the elevation of bottom of the valley in the upstream is
about 225 m.a.s.l., but it decreased to 120 m.a.s.l. in the
midstream (Hatra City) and to 55 m.a.s.l. in the north
margin of Tharthar Lake “Figure 1”.
The annual precipitation in the area is about 150 mm
in the south of the basin near Tikrit city and increased to
(500 mm) to the North near Sinjar. The main percentage
of rainfall occurred from December to the end of March.
About 40% of the catchment area with annual average
rainfall more than 250 mm, and 60% of the catchment
area with annual rainfall less than 250 mm. The area lo-
cated in the arid to semi-arid zone, it is characterized by
high evaporation, especially during the long hot summer
Geologically, the site of study located in the south part
of the unfolded zone of Iraq, while the upland of the val-
ley is located in the low folded zone, and mostly this
depression and the main channel of the valley located
along subsurface regional fault [2].
The area covered by Miocene sediments which is rep-
resented by the succession of carbonate, evaporate, and
claystone alterations, which represent a Miocene deposit
(Fatha’a) which is exposed in many areas along the
banks of the valley. Also, Pliocene (Injana Fm.) rocks are
represented by fluvial clastic sandstone and claystone.
Most of the area covered by Quaternary sediments is
represented by moving sand dunes, gypsiferous and
gypycreate soils originated from the older formations of
opyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
S. A. SALIH ET AL. 649
Figure 1. Location map and sampling stations on Tharthar
Miocene and Pliocene [2].
[3], studied the hydoengineering properties of the ba-
sin to the north of Hatra City using the satellite images
and aerial photos, the study determined five geomor-
phological zones in the area, and drew the map of land
use. And he suggested three locations to construct dams
on the valley.
[4], investigated the Climatological, hydrogeological
and geomorphological properties of six sub-basins in the
northern part of the Tharthar Valley, and predicted the
discharge of the valleys in the area.
This project aims to evaluate the surface and ground-
water quality and the specific characteristics of water within
Tharthar valley, and the hydromorphometric aspects.
Also to interpret the groundwater relationship with
surface water, and discuss the variation of salinity, ionic
concentrations and determination of hypothetical salts
and saturation indices of these salts within the studied
area along the valley.
The results are the main factors in determination of
local dams and reservoirs on the studied sites.
2. Materials and Methods
The studied area locates between UTM coordinates
190,000, 340,000 eas, 3,800,000, 4,050,000 north “Fig-
ure 1”.
Four locations have been selected for sampling of sur-
face water and two shallow wells for groundwater, “Fig-
ure 2”. The laboratory procedures were carried out ac-
cording to the procedures of (ASTM, 1984) in [5].
The analyses of the most common cations Ca2+, Mg2+,
Na+, K+, anions 3
, 3, Cl, 4, and another
parameters pH, EC and TDS were carried out in the
laboratories of ICARDA.
pH and EC values are determined directly by pH-EC
meter for water samples. The concentrations of soluble
sodium and potassium in water were determined by using
the flame photometer, while the soluble calcium and
magnesium were determined by titration with EDTA.
The soluble chloride was determined by titration with
silver nitrate AgNO3, soluble carbonate and bicarbonate
were determined by titration with H2SO4 (for pH 8.3 -
4.5), soluble sulfate determined by precipitation method
with barium chloride (ASTM, 1984) in [5].
3. Results and Discussions
Water system contains salts, kinds and concentrations of
the salts depend on the interaction between the water
chemistry and the rocks or soil of the stream channels or
groundwater aquifers. The degree of dissolution and pre-
cipitation of soil or rocks materials is controlled by
ground or surface water movement and system condi-
tions [6]. The human activities may affect the concentra-
tions of materials in the water; such as irrigation, fertili-
zation, contribution of wastewater and urban uses [7].
3.1. The Results
The results of water chemistry are indicated on “Table
1”. The relative errors of analyses were calculated by the
formula of charge balance [8]. The samples analyses are
acceptable according to this formula which assumes the
relative error less than 5%.
3.2. The Discussion
3.2.1. Varia tio n of Hydrochemical Parameters
From the results of the concentrations of the soluble ions
Figure 2”, reveal the similarity in the concentrations of
all ions in the first and second stations, and 4
is the
most abundance ion in these stations, the source of this
ion mainly is the gypsum and gypcrete in the rocks and
soil in the area, also these concentrations of ions are
similar in the groundwater of shallow aquifer near the
banks of valley in Abo-Hamam and Al-Ib areas that re-
veal the similarity of host rocks and soil. In the direction
of flow to the south, the concentrations of ions are in-
creased suddenly in the area of Tlol-AlBaj, especially
Na+ and Cl concentrations, the sudden increasing is re-
lated to a local source of these ions, the concentrations of
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
Figure 2. The variation of the concentrations of different ions along the midstream of Tharthar Valley.
NOTable 1. The results of water chemistry including the major cations, anions, pH, EC, secondary elements (
, NH4),
calculated chemical parameters (TDS by total ions and TDS by EC, sodium adsorption ratio SAR and total hardness TH).
Sample No. Na+
Hatra 27.8 0.11 30.56 13.2 71.67 30.63 0 2.6 48.48 81.71
Abo-Hamam 32.4 0.16 30.79 14.5 77.85 36.04 0 2.1 53.15 91.29
Tlol-AlBag 1264.6 0.59 41.57 177.4 1484.16 1090.09 0 4.2 405.73 1500.02
Sukkaria 442.1 0.88 42.47 105.9 591.35 390.99 0 2.5 214.87 608.36
Abo-Tanak 12.7 0.26 33.48 15.6 62.04 15.77 0 1.65 47.28 64.70
Al-Ib 30.1 0.26 33.71 14.9 78.97 34.23 0 1.85 48.14 84.22
Sample No. pH EC mS/cm TDS = EC * 640 ppm Calculated TDS mg/L SAR TH
Hatra 6.9 5.25 3360 4998.69 6 2189.73
Abo-Hamam 7.2 5.66 3622.4 5515.08 7 2266.28
Tlol-AlBag 7.2 83.6 53,504 90,487.54 121 10,956.97
Sukkaria 7.1 39.8 25,472 36,679.36 51 7424.26
Abo-Tanak 7.6 4.39 2809.6 4149.08 3 2455.93
Al-Ib 7.8 5.56 3558.4 5255.01 6 2432.42
EC = Electrical Conductivity; TDS = Total Dissolved Solids; SAR = Sodium Adsorption ratio; TH = Total Hardness.
these ions in Sukkaria area less than Tlol-AlBag, which
means that Tlol-AlBag area represents the main source of
Na+ and Cl, and water of Sukkaria effected by the salts
during the pass of water in the peak of flooding, while in
Sukkaria the water still in contact with the salts source
for along period, NaCl rich water may be comes as leak-
age from the older evaporates rocks such as Fatha’a Fm.
(Miocene) and exposed in the area. The water within this
formation saturated with these ions because of the disso-
lution of rock salt layers. The change in concentrations of
S. A. SALIH ET AL. 651
ions is also reflected in other parameters such EC and
CTDS (calculated TDS from the summation of concen-
trations of major ions) “Figure 3”.
3.2.2. Saturation Indices
The change in the ionic content in flow water along the
valley is considered as an important factor for determin-
ing the optimum location of small dams and reservoirs to
avoid the source of salinity, which needs additional stud-
ies for these purposes.
The concentrations of the soluble ions are required to
calculate the ionic strength (I) of the solution for a mix-
ture of electrolytes, the calculation of the ionic strength
depending on equation of [6].
12 mIZ (1)
where (I) is the ionic strength, (mi) is the molality of ith
ion, (Zi) is the charge of ith ion. The values of ionic
strength for all samples listed in “Table 2”. The activity
coefficient of an individual ion is determined by De-
bye-Hückel Equation [9].
 (2)
γi is the activity coefficient of ionic species i.
Zi is the charge of ionic species i.
I is the ionic strength of the solution.
A temperature coefficient equals to 0.5085 at 25˚C.
B depends on temperature and equals to 0.3281 at 25˚C.
ai is the effective diameter of the ion.
The program WATEQ4F-2.62 under WINDOWS is
used to calculate the activity coefficient and the chemical
activity of the major ions K+, Na+, Ca2+, Mg2+, 3
Cl, and 4
, the ionic activity product (Kiap), which
is the product of the measured activities, also calculated
to test the saturation (Fetter, 1980), Kiap calculated for
anhydrite CaSO4, aragonite CaCO3, brucite Mg(OH)2,
calcite CaCO3, dolomite (Ca, Mg)CO3, epsomite
MgSO4·7H2O, gypsum CaSO4·2H2O, magnesite MgCO3,
and Hallite NaCl by the computer program WATEQ4F
to determine the degree of saturation by the comparison
of the values of Kiap for a mineral in natural water with
the theoretical value of the solubility product of mineral
Ksp [5]. The Saturation Index (SI) of the mineral is de-
fined as the state of saturation, which is represented by
the equation of [10].
SIlogIon ActivityProductSolubilityProduct
 
The negative value of SI reflects unsaturated condi-
tions regarding to the mineral phase and the mineral may
be actively dissolved, while the positive values reflect
saturation or supersaturating conditions and the mineral
is precipitated, the zero value indicates equilibrium con-
dition [11]. The saturation indices were calculated for the
above minerals, the outputs were listed in “Tab l e 2 ”. The
table and “Figure 4 refer to unsaturated conditions in
the location of Hatra for all mineral phases, while the
calcite and gypsum access the saturation limit in Abo-
Hamam, these minerals have low solubility and reach the
saturation firstly. The halite is very far to saturation in
first two locations, but SI is suddenly increased to be
near the saturation in Tlol-AlBag because of the effect of
salts source in this area, the saturation in Sukkaria area
less than that of Tlol-AlBag for all mineral phases, that
indicates the local source of salty water in Tlol-AlBag.
Figure 3. Showing the anomalous parameters in the locations of Tlol-AlBaj and Sukkaria.
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
Table 2. Ionic Index and Saturation Index of mineral phases, reflect the saturation of surface and groundwater concerning to
different mineral phases.
Ionic Strength Saturation Index of Mineral Phases
Sample No.
Total EffectiveAnhydrite AragoniteBruciteCalciteDolomiteEpsomiteGypsum Halite Magnesite
Hatra 0.12351 0.09167–0.234 –0.199 –5.805–0.055–0.908 –2.838 –0.015 –4.877 –0.884
Abo-Hamam 0.13465 0.10044–0.217 –0.010 –5.1810.134–0.493 –2.784 0.001 –4.748 –0.658
Tlol-AlBag 1.98417 1.648170.091 0.121 –4.1900.2640.783 –1.605 0.268 –1.742 0.488
Sukkaria 0.81136 0.64943–0.023 –0.178 –4.672–0.035–0.078 –1.885 0.182 –2.688 –0.074
Abo-Tanak 0.11248 0.07728–0.187 0.351 –4.3160.4950.224 –2.758 0.032 –5.494 –0.302
Al-Ib 0.13113 0.09752–0.213 0.574 –3.9470.7180.650 –2.805 0.005 –4.798 –0.099
Figure 4. Saturation Index of mineral phase s, reflect the saturation conditions of surfac e and groundwater regar ding to min-
eral phases.
The SI for the groundwater samples in Abo-Tanak and
Al-Ib near the banks of the valley similar to the behavior
of the first two locations of surface water in the valley,
which indicates the similar conditions of host rocks and
3.2.3. Hypoth eti c al Sal ts
The average of common hypothetical salts combination
was calculated, NaCl and CaSO4 are the main two com-
mon soluble salts “Table 3”. “Figure 5” shows the be-
havior of hypothetical salts combination along the stream
of valley and the groundwater, the salt combinations
seem similar in the locations of Hatra, Abo-Hamam and
in the ground water well of Al-Ib, and show different
percentages in Tlol-AlBag and Sukkaria. The percentage
of NaCl is increased suddenly in Tlol-AlBag to reach
more than 70%, while CaSO4 is decreased because it
became out of the solution, and the gypsum reach to satu-
ration limits. The decrease of NaCl in Sukkaria in com-
parison with Hatra indicates that the local source of NaCl,
the CaSO4 is increased suddenly in the groundwater of
Abo-Tanak because it is from the Karistified aquifer.
4. Usability of Tharthar Water for Irrigatio n
The pH of the samples is ranged between 6.9 and 7.8 “Ta-
ble 1”, that means all samples in the tolerable range of
6.5 - 8.4 which is suggested by [12], “Table 4”, for irri-
The electrical conductivity (EC) (mS/cm) of the water
is a useful tool to evaluate the usability of water for irriga-
tion [13]. The limits of EC shown in “Table 4”, the val-
ues of EC in the present work more than 3 mS/cm in all
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S. A. SALIH ET AL. 653
Table 3. Average of hypothetical salt combination epm%, of surface water in Tharthar Valley and groundwater of shallow
aquifer on the banks.
Sample No. Ca(HCO3)2 CaSO4 MgSO4 Na2SO4 MgCl2 NaCl KCl
Hatra 3.18 39.46 18.42 1.45 0 37.34 0.15
Abo-Hamam 2.30 37.25 18.63 2.34 0 39.28 0.21
Tlol-AlBag 0.28 2.52 11.95 12.58 0 72.63 0.04
Sukkaria 0.41 6.77 17.91 10.64 0 64.12 0.15
Abo-Tanak 2.55 51.42 21.66 0 3.49 20.47 0.42
Al-Ib 2.20 40.49 16.67 0 2.2 38.12 0.33
Figure 5. Average of hypothetical salt combination epm%, of surface water in Tharthar Valley and groundwater of shallow
aquifer on the banks.
the studied locations “Table 1”, and the water of the lo-
cations of Hatra and Abo-Hamam and groundwater are
permissible for irrigation with modern irrigation systems
such as drip and sprinkler, while the water in the loca-
tions of Tlol-AlBag and Sukkaria not permissible for
The total dissolved solids (TDS) in water are repre-
sented by the weight of residue left when a water sample
has been evaporated to dryness. It is measured by deter-
mining the actual salt content in parts per million (ppm)
or (mg/L). A physiological drought condition can result
from excess salts accumulating in the soil by increasing
the osmotic pressure of the soil solution. Plants can wilt
due to insufficient water absorption by the roots com-
pared to the amount lost from transpiration, even though
the soil may have plenty of moisture. (TDS = EC × 640).
The ISI standard for dissolved solid is up to 500 mg/L
and the maximum permissible quantity is 2000 mg/L
Table 4”, [12,14,15]. The values of TDS which calcu-
lated by the summation of major soluble ions, or calcu-
lated by EC in the present work more than 2000, “Table
1”, and that may due to the collection of sample during
the draught seasons.
The calcium (Ca2+) is generally found in all natural
waters. When adequately supplied with exchangeable
calcium, soils are friable and usually allow water to drain
easily. This is why calcium in the form of gypsum is
commonly applied to improve the physical properties of
tight soils. Sodium will be leached from the root zone
when the Ca2+ replaces the Na+ on the soil colloid. Irriga-
tion water that contains ample calcium is most desirable,
the concentrations of Ca2+Table 1” are more than the
desired range 40 - 120 mg/l in all the studied samples.
The magnesium (Mg2+) is also found in most natural
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
Table 4. Guidelines for irrigation water quality established by (FAO).
Intensity of Problem1
Water Constituent No Problem Moderate Severe
Salinity EC (decisiemens meter1) <0.7 0.7 - 3.0 >3.0
Salinity TDS mg/L or ppm <450 450-2000 >2000
Permeability (rate of infiltration affected)
Salinity (decisiemens meter1) >0.5 0.5 - 0.2 <0.2
Adjusted SAR; soils are:
Dominantly montmorillonite, smectites
  <6 6 - 9 >9
 minantly illite-vermiculite <8 8 - 16 >16
Dominantly ka
 olinite-sesquioxides <16 16 - 24 >24
Specific Ion Toxicity
Sodium (as adjusted SAR) (sprinkler)
  <3 3 - 9 >9
Chloride (mmol/L) (sprinkler)
  <3 >3 >10
 Boron (mmol/L) as B <0.70 0.70 - 30 >3.0
 HCO (mmol/L) as damage by overhead sprinkler
<1.5 >8.5
  6.5 - 8.4 1.5 - 8.5 0 - 5, 9.5+
Source: modified from R. S. Ayers and D. W. Westcott, “water quality for agriculture”, irrigation and drainage paper, 29, FAO, Rome, 1976; rev. 1986. 1Based
on the assumptions that the soils are sandy loam to clay loams, have good drainage, are in arid to semiarid climates, that irrigation is sprinkler or surface, that
root depths are normal for soil, and that the guidelines are only approximate; 2Assumes molecular weight = mole weight (one charge) because it is slightly
ionized or nonionzed.
waters. Together with calcium, Mg may be used to estab-
lish the relationship to total salinity and to estimate the
sodium hazard. The concentrations of Mg2+Table 1
are more than the desired range 6 - 24 mg/l in all the
studied samples.
Ca2+ and Mg2+ are caused by far the greatest portion of
the hardness occurring in natural waters. All the metallic
cations beside the alkali metals caused hardness. Hard-
ness of the water is objectionable from viewpoint of wa-
ter use.
The sum of calcium and magnesium compounds re-
sults in the total hardness are measured in milligram cal-
cium carbonate per liter. In order to determine the total
hardness, the weight percentage of the magnesium com-
pound is converted into the equivalent CaCO3.
Total Hardness = 2.497 * Ca2+ mg/l + 4.115 * Mg2+ mg/l
The TH of all the studied samples “Table 1” are high-
est than the permissible limit which is 6.0 meq/L (300
mg/L) that prescribe by (ICMR 1975) in [15].
The sodium (Na+) is often found in natural waters due
to its high solubility. When it linked to chloride (Cl) and
sulfide 4, sodium is often associated with salinity
problems. High concentrations in the soil can adversely
affect turf grasses. Poor soil physical properties for plant
growth will result as a consequence of continued use of
water with high sodium levels. The concentrations of Na+
more than the permissible limit of 50 ppm (9 meq/L) in
irrigation water prescribed by BIS (1983) in [13]. And
that may due to collection of samples during the dry con-
SAR sodium adsorption ratio is an important parame-
ter for determination of suitability of irrigation water.
This index quantifies the proportion of sodium (Na+) to
calcium (Ca2+) and magnesium (Mg2+) ions [15].
The SAR is also an index of sodium permeability haz-
ard as water moves through the soil. The main problem
with a high sodium concentration is its effects on the
physical properties of soil. This breakdown disperses the
soil clay and causes the soil to become hard and compact
when dry and reduces the rate of water penetration when
wet. A breakdown in the physical structure of the soil can
occur with continued use of water with a high SAR value.
The effects of high SAR on the infiltration of irrigation
water are dependent on the EC of the water. The permis-
sible limit of SAR < 6 no problem, 6 - 9 moderate and >9
severe [12], while [17] classified irrigation water with
SAR values less than 10 as (excellent). The sodium ad-
sorption ratio (SAR) values of water samples were cal-
culated by using Richard equation [12]:
Copyright © 2012 SciRes. JWARP
S. A. SALIH ET AL. 655
SAR=(Na+ meq/l)/ [(Ca2+ meq/l)+(Mg2+ meq/l)/2] (3)
The calculated values of SAR in the study area “Table
1” are in the desired limit for irrigation purposes, except
the locations of Tlol-AlBag and Sukkaria, and that may
due to local source of NaCl in these areas.
Water alkalinity, simply stated, is a measure of the
water’s capability to neutralize added acids. Related to
pH, alkalinity establishes the buffering capacity of water.
The major chemicals that contribute to the alkalinity of
water include dissolved carbonates, bicarbonates and
hydroxides. High alkalinity can cause an increase in the
pH of the soil (reducing micronutrient availability), the
precipitation of nutrients in concentrated fertilizer solu-
tions, and reduce the efficacy of pesticides and growth
regulators. The desired range is 1 - 100 ppm.
An alkalizing effect of carbonates 3 results
when combined with calcium and/or magnesium. This
effect is much stronger when it occurs in the presence of
the sodium cation, the permissible range <50 ppm. The
concentrations of 3 are nil in the samples “Table
1” and within the accepted range for Irrigation.
Bicarbonates 3 are also salts of carbonic acid
and are common in natural waters. As soil moisture is
reduced, calcium and magnesium bicarbonates can sepa-
rate calcium from the clay colloid, leaving sodium to
take its place. An increase of SAR in the soil solution
will result. The overuse of high bicarbonate irrigation
water can contribute to a soil dominant in sodium, with a
resulting reduction in water infiltration rates and soil gas
exchange. The permissible range is <120 mg/L, [13].
The concentrations of 3Table 1” are within
the desirable limit in the surface water and groundwater.
Chloride is an anion that is commonly found in irriga-
tion water. Chlorides contribute to the total salt (salinity)
content of soils, Chloride salts in excess of 100 mg/1
give salty taste to water, Unusual Concentration may in-
dicate pollution by organic waste [15]. It is necessary for
plant growth in small amounts, while high concentrations
will inhibit plant growth or be toxic to some plants. Irri-
gation water high in chloride reduces phosphorus avail-
ability to plants, high chloride content in ground-water
can be attribute to lack of under ground drainage system
and bad maintenance of environment around the sources,
the permissible limit is 10.0 meq/L (355 mg/L) [13].
The concentrations of ClTable 1” are more than the
desirable limit in the surface water, and within the per-
missible limit in the groundwater in the area.
Sulfate 4 is relatively common in water and
has no major impact on the soil other than contributing to
the total salt content. Irrigation water high in sulfate ions
reduces phosphorus availability to plants. The desired
range is <400 ppm, and >400 ppm will acidify the soil
depending on the standard limits of BIS, 1999 in [15].
The concentrations of are more the desired limit
in all the studied water samples.
5. Conclusions
According the hydrochemical properties the studied
samples can conclude that:
1) regarding to the concentration of major ions the
surface and groundwater rich in Na+, Mg2+, Cl, and
, and the percent of Na+ and Cl increased in the
locations of Tlol-AlBag and Sukkaria.
2) The SI increased suddenly in these two locations
especially in Tlol-AlBag.
3) NaCl, CaSO4, and MgSO4 are the major hypo-
theticcal salts combination in the water of the valley and
groundwater of shallow aquifer, and the percentage of
NaCl increased suddenly in Tlol-AlBag to reach more
than 70%, while in Sukkaria less than Tlol-AlBag.
4) The indicators above reveal to local source of salts
because the upward leakage of saline water from the
deep salt rich formations, especially Fatha’a Fm. The
leakage may be a result of structural reasons.
5) These two locations are not reliable for water stor-
age, while the others are reliable.
6) According to EC and SAR, the surface water in the
locations of Hatra and Abo-Hamam and the groundwater
of shallow aquifer are usable for irrigation with modern
irrigation system for the salt resistance plants, while the
water of Tlol-AlBag and Sukkaria are not reliable.
The evaluation of hydrochemistry is very important in
the selection of water storage projects.
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