S.-S. LEE, D. HUNG
framework for 21st century learning. We are not suggesting that
our proposed framework is the only possible avenue to achieve
learning and instruction for the 21st century. Rather, we hope
that our proposed framework sparks further discussions to un-
derstand how IS models can be value-added by leveraging other
possibilities, like learning within communities and learning in
informal contexts, to enrich students’ learning experiences and
prepare them to be adaptive individuals for the 21st century.
We understand that the implementation of any instructional
framework involves a substantial time frame and complex is-
sues, like supporting policies, leadership, and accountability to
stakeholders. Future work is needed to implement and examine
the proposed framework for pr actical implic ations.
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