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Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 10, No.3, pp.299-3 08, 2011
jmmce.org Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties and Microstructure of
NST 37-2 Steel
D. A. Fadare, T. G. Fadara and O. Y. Akanbi
Department of Mechanic a l Engineering, University of Ibadan, P.M.B 1, Ibadan, Nigeria
Corresponding Author: email@example.com
Engineering materials, mostly steel, are heat treated under controlled sequence of heating and
cooling to alter their physical and mechanical properties to meet desired engineering
applications. In this study, the effect of heat treatment (annealing, normalising, hardening, and
tempering) on the microstructure and some selected mechanical properties of NST 37-2 steel
were studied. Sample of steel was purchased from local market and the spectrometry analysis
was carried out. The steel samples were heat treated in an electric furnace at different
temperature levels and holding times; and then cooled in different media. The mechanical
properties (tensile yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, Young’s modulus, percentage
reduction, percentage elongation, toughness and hardness) of the treated and untreated samples
were determined using standard methods and the microstructure of the samples was examined
using metallographic microscope equipped with camera. Results showed that the mechanical
properties of NST 37-2 steel can be changed and improved by various heat treatments for a
particular application. It was also found that the annealed samples with mainly ferrite structure
gave the lowest tensile strength and hardness value and highest ductility and toughness value
while hardened sample which comprise martensite gave the highest tensile strength and hardness
value and lowest ductility and toughness value.
Keywords: Heat treatment; Mechanical properties; Microstructure; NST 37-2 steel
Heat treatment is a combination of timed heating and cooling applied to a particular metal or
alloy in the solid state in such ways as to produce certain microstructure and desired mechanical
300 D. A. Fadare, T. G. Fadara and O. Y. Akanbi Vol.10, No.3
properties (hardness, toughness, yield strength, ultimate tensile strength, Young’s modulus,
percentage elongation and percentage reduction). Annealing, normalising, hardening and
tempering are the most important heat treatments often used to modify the microstructure and
mechanical properties of engineering materials particularly steels. Annealing is the type of heat
treatment most frequently applied in order to soften iron or steel materials and refines its grains
due to ferrite-pearlite microstructure; it is used where elongations and appreciable level of tensile
strength are required in engineering materials [1, 2]. In normalising, the material is heated to the
austenitic temperature range and this is followed by air cooling. This treatment is usually carried
out to obtain a mainly pearlite matrix, which results into strength and hardness higher than in as-
received condition. It is also used to remove undesirable free carbide present in the as-received
sample . Steels are normally hardened and tempered to improve their mechanical properties,
particularly their strength and wear resistance. In hardening, the steel or its alloy is heated to a
temperature high enough to promote the formation of austenite, held at that temperature until the
desired amount of carbon has been dissolved and then quench in oil or water at a suitable rate.
Also, in the harden condition, the steel should have 100% martensite to attain maximum yield
strength, but it is very brittle too and thus, as quenched steels are used for very few engineering
applications. By tempering, the properties of quenched steel could be modified to decrease
hardness and increase ductility and impact strength gradually. The resulting microstructures are
bainite or carbide precipitate in a matrix of ferrite depending on the tempering temperature.
Steel is an alloy of iron with definite percentage of carbon ranges from 0.15-1.5% , plain
carbon steels are those containing 0.1-0.25% . There are two main reasons for the popular use
of steel: (1) It is abundant in the earth’s crust in form of Fe2O3 and little energy is required to
convert it to Fe. (2) It can be made to exhibit great variety of microstructures and thus a wide
range of mechanical properties. Although the number of steel specifications runs into thousands,
plain carbon steel accounts for more than 90% of the total steel output. The reason for its
importance is that it is a tough, ductile and cheap material with reasonable casting, working and
machining properties, which is also amenable to simple heat treatments to produce a wide range
of properties . They are found in applications such as train railroads, beams for building
support structures, reinforcing rods in concrete, ship construction, tubes for boilers in power
generating plants, oil and gas pipelines, car radiators, cutting tools etc .
NST 37-2 steel is one of the commercial plain carbon steel grades produced by the Delta Steel
Company (DSC) in Aladja, Delta State, Nigeria . It is widely used in Nigeria for
manufacturing of machine parts and as structural member in building, road and bridge
construction. Its heat treatability therefore will determine the extent of its application. To best of
the authors’ knowledge the heat treatability of this steel grade produced in Nigeria have not been
evaluated. The objective of the present study is to investigate the effect of heat treatment
(annealing, normalising, hardening, and tempering) on the mechanical properties and
microstructure of NST 37-2 steel.
Vol.10, No.3 Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties 301
2. MATERIALS AND METHOD
Sample of NST 37-2 steel bar with 25 mm diameter and 10 m long was purchased from a local
market located in Ibadan, south-western, Nigeria. The chemical composition of the steel sample
was determined as given in Tables 1. Standard tensile and impact specimens were made from
NST 37-2 steel sample using lathe machine. Samples were subjected to different heat treatment:
annealing, normalising, hardening, and tempering in accordance to ASM International Standards
. The heat treatment conditions are listed in Table 2. Four specimens were prepared for each
heat treatment type.
Table1: Chemical composition of NST 37-2 steel
C (%) Si(%) S(%) P(%) Mn(%) Ni(%) Cr(%) Mo(%) V(%)
0.3422 0.2020 0.0108 0.0049 0.7374 0.0067 0.0104 0.0011 0.0006
W(%) As(%) Sn(%) Co(%) Al(%) Pb(%) Zn(%) Cu(%) Fe(%)
0.0065 0.0005 0.0022 0.0002 0.0013 0.0005 0.0013 0.0033 98.6824
2.1 Determination of Mechanical Properties
Mechanical properties of the treated and untreated samples were determined using standard
methods. For hardness testing, oxide layers formed during heat treatment were removed by
stage-grinding and then polished. Average Brinell Hardness Number (BHN) readings were
determined by taking two hardness readings at different positions on the samples, using a Brinell
hardness tester. Impact energy was recorded using the Izod impact tester. For tensile properties,
tensile specimens were loaded into a 2000-kg Mosanto Tensiometer hooked up to a data logger.
Load-elongation data were recorded and converted into stress-strain graphs. Yield strength,
ultimate (tensile) strength, Young’s modulus and ductility (% elongation and reduction) were
determined based on these graphs, in accordance with ASTM standard test procedures (ASTM
E18, ASTM E23, ASTM E8) [8-10].
Table 2: Heat treatment conditions
Condition Annealed Normalized Hardened Tempered
Temperature, °C 910 910 910 450
Holding time, min 90 90 40 90
Cooling medium Furnace Air Water Air
2.2 Microstructure Examination
Microstructure examination of the treated and untreated samples was carried out. Each sample
was carefully grounded progressively on emery paper in decreasing coarseness. The grinding
surface of the samples were polished using Al203 carried on a micro clothe. The crystalline
302 D. A. Fadare, T. G. Fadara and O. Y. Akanbi Vol.10, No.3
structure of the specimens were made visible by etching using solution containing 2% Nitric
acids and 98% methylated spirit on the polished surfaces. Microscopic examination of the etched
surface of various specimens was undertaken using a metallurgical microscope with an inbuilt
camera through which the resulting microstructure of the samples were all photographically
recorded with magnification of 400.
3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
3.1. Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties
The effect of heat treatment (annealing, normalising, hardening, and tempering) on the
mechanical properties (ultimate tensile strength, hardness, toughness, percentage elongation, and
percentage reduction) of the treated and untreated samples is shown in Table 3. The tensile
strength of the untreated specimen was 343.80 N/mm2 and hardness value of 100.10 BHN,
elongation 21.16%, reduction 63.23%, young modulus 465.78 N/mm2, yield strength 217.31
N/mm2 and toughness of 58.88 J were obtained.
Table 3: Mechanical Properties of heat treated and untreated NST 37-2 steel
Untreated 343.80 100.10 58.88 21.16 63.23 217.31 465.78
Annealed 325.42 95.95 64.10 23.24 71.94 209.47 562.00
Normalised 422.30 188.00 57.26 20.38 71.81 232.75 534.85
Hardened 678.70 460.50 24.67 8.42 41.14 288.05 1235.31
Tempered 385.42 131.00 60.70 21.00 76.92 228.52 535.17
Comparing the mechanical properties of annealed sample with the untreated sample, annealed
sample showed lower tensile strength (325.42 N/mm2), yield strength 209.47 N/mm2 and
hardness (95.95 BHN) and increase in reduction in area (23.24%), elongation (71.94%) and
toughness (64.10 J). The decrease in tensile strength and hardness can be associated with the
formation of soft ferrite matrix in the microstructure of the annealed sample by cooling.
The mechanical properties of the normalized specimen were found to be 422.30 N/mm2, 232.75
N/mm2, 188 BHN, 57.26 J, 71.81 % and 20.38 % for tensile strength, yield strength hardness,
toughness, percentage reduction and percentage elongation, respectively. The increase in tensile
strength and hardness as compared to annealed and untreated sample was due to proper
Vol.10, No.3 Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties 303
austenising temperature at 910oC and higher cooling rate, which resulted in decrease in
elongation and toughness, which was lower than those obtained for untreated and annealed
samples due to pearli ti c matrix structure o b tained during normalization of NST 37-2 steel.
The mechanical properties of the hardened sample revealed that it had the highest value of
tensile strength 678.70 N/mm2, yield strength 288.05 N/mm2 and highest hardness (460.5 BHN)
were obtained. The specimen was austenised at 910oC for 40 minutes and then water quenched.
This treatment increased the tensile strength and hardness but there was massive reduction in
elongation, toughness and reduction in area 8.42%, 24.67 J and 41.14%, respectively.
The mechanical properties of tempered sample showed that the tensile strength, yield strength,
toughness, hardness, percentage reduction and percentage elongation were 385.42 N/mm2,
228.52 N/mm2, 60.70 J, 131 BHN, 76.92% and 21.00%, respectively. Comparing the mechanical
properties of tempered sample with hardened sample, it was found that there was decrease in
tensile strength and hardness at tempering temperature 450oC while the percentage elongation,
toughness and percentage reduction increased which can be associated to the graphitisation of
the precipitated carbides that resulted in the formation of ferrite at tempering temperature of
450oC. This showed that tempering temperature improved the degree of tempering of the
martensite, softening the matrix and decreased its resistance of plastic deformation. However, the
test results showed that annealing treatment gave an elongation superior to any other heat
treatment studied. The variability in ultimate tensile strength, percentage elongation, percentage
reduction hardness and toughness of treated and untreated NST 37-2 steel are shown in Figures 1
to 5, respectively.
Tensile strength (N/mm^2)
Fig. 1: Tensile Strength of treated and untreated samples of NST 37-2 steel
304 D. A. Fadare, T. G. Fadara and O. Y. Akanbi Vol.10, No.3
Percentage Elongation (%)
Heat Treatmen t
Fig. 2: Percentage elongation of treated and untreated samples of NST 37-2 steel
Percentage Reduction (%)
UntreatedAnnealed Normalised HardenedTempered
Heat Treatmen t
Fig. 3: Percentage reduction of treated and untreated samples of NST 37-2 steel
UntreatedAnnealed Normalised HardenedTempered
Heat Treat ment
Fig. 4: Hardness of treated and untreated samples of NST 37-2 steel
Vol.10, No.3 Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties 305
Hea t Treat ment
Fig. 5: Toughnes of treated and untreated samples of NST 37-2 steel
3.1. Effect of Heat Treatment on Microstructure
The microstructure of untreated specimen (Figure 6) showed a combination of ferrite (white) and
pearlite (black), while the microstructure of the annealed sample is shown in Figure 7. As it can
be seen in Figure 7, the ferrite grains had undergone complete recrystallization and these
constituted the major portion of the microstructure the annealed medium carbon steel with stress
free matrix. At 910oC the deformed structure was fully homogenised and during the slow cooling
from austenizing range to room temperature the final microstructure consisted of fine ferrite
grains in which the pearlite was more uniformly distributed. Figure 8 shows the microstructure
of the normalized NST 37-2 steel. The normalized sample showed that the shape and size of the
original austenite grains were influenced to a remarkable extent. The sample revealed a pearlitic
matrix in which shorter graphite flakes than in annealed sample existed. It was observed that
there was many short graphite flakes surrounded with patches of uniformly distributed pearlite
grains as seen in Figure 8.
Fig. 6: Microstructure of untreated NST 37-2 steel (x400)
306 D. A. Fadare, T. G. Fadara and O. Y. Akanbi Vol.10, No.3
Fig 7: Microstructure of annealed NST 37-2 steel (x400)
Fig. 8: Microstructure of normalised NST 37-2 steel (x400)
Figure 9 shows the massive martensite structure of hardened sample, when medium carbon steels
are rapidly quenched from its austenite temperature to room temperature, the austenite will
decompose into a mixture of some medium carbon martensite and fewer pearlite as a result of
this microstructure which is hard, hence, there was increase in tensile strength, hardeness and
reduction in ductility of the material .
Fig. 9: Microstructure of hardened NST 37-2 steel (x400)
Vol.10, No.3 Effect of Heat Treatment on Mechanical Properties 307
The microstructure of hardened and tempered at 450oC is show in Figure 10. A highly
recrystalised ferrite grains (white dotted areas) with some secondary graphite site was observed.
This micrograph revealed that the microstructure of tempered specimen consisted of a number of
appreciable carbide particles precipitated out from the matrix, which indicated that the
precipitate carbide particles decomposed by a process of solution in ferrite matrix [12, 13].
The summary of the observed microstructure of treated and untreated NST 37-2 steel is given in
Fig. 10: Microstructure of tempered NST 37-2 steel (x400)
Table 4: Summary of microstructure of treated and untreated NST 37-2 steel
Heat treatments Microstructure Developed
Untreated Graphite flakes in ferrite and pearlite matrix
Annealed Graphite flakes in ferrite matrix
Normalising Graphite flakes in pearlite matrix
Hardened Graphite flakes in martensite matrix
Tempered Graphite flakes in martensite matrix with recrystalised ferrite grains
From the results of investigation on the effect of heat treatment on mechanical properties and
microstructure of NST 37-2 steel, the foll o w in g co n cl u s io n s w e re made:
Tensile strength, yield strength and hardness of medium carbon NST 37-2 steel increased with
plastic deformation while ductility and impact strength decreased due to strain hardening effect.
Normalization treatment had also resulted in higher tensile strength and hardness than annealed
samples. This treatment is recommended as f inal tre atment after manufacturing.
308 D. A. Fadare, T. G. Fadara and O. Y. Akanbi Vol.10, No.3
The tempered samples gave an increase in tensile strength and hardness than untreated sample as
a result of formation of tempered martensite and resultant ferrite structure that were obtained.
Hardened sample had the highest tensile strength and hardness with lowest ductility and impact
strength when compared to other heat treated samples. Hardening is strongly recommended
when the strength and hardness are the prime desired properties in design.
The mechanical properties of NST 37-2 steel can be altered through various heat treatments. The
results obtained confirmed that improvement in mechanical properties that can be obtained by
subjecting NST 37-2 steel to different heat treatments investigated in this study.
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