Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 9, No.8, pp.741-747, 2010 Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
Development of Alloys on an Iron Basis
Zh. Zhuma di lova
Kazakh National Technical University named after K.I. Satpayev
(Republic of Kazakhstan, Almaty, Satpayev st. 22)
At the industrial enterprises (ferrous metallurgy, machine-building, transport, etc.) the
percentage share of noise shock provenance is very high.
In materials technology use various methods of research and the tests, necessary for
reception enough full and a solid data about properties of metals and polymers and about
their change depending on a chemical compound, structures and processing.
In work results of experiment, new developed damping alloys DAZ-3, DAZ-4, DAZ-5 (DAZ-
damping alloys by Zhumadilova) are offered. Microstructures and damping properties of
multiple alloyed damping alloys are offered.
Thermal processing makes essential impact on damping properties of alloys. Tempering
raises damping characteristics that, certainly, is connected with formation martensite
structures. Annealing, not leading to grain growth, and resign imperfections of structure –
reduces dampening.
Keywords: metallurgy, chemical and damping properties of alloys, annealing, tempering, a
The steel is especially valuable constructional material to which can give almost any form
rolling, punching and pressing, moulding or processing by cutting. Through alloying and
heat treatments, it is possible to receive steels with diversified physical and chemical
properties. So, for example, steels that are so soft can be processed the simple manual
metalwork tool, and others are so firm that allow to cut glass.
742 Zh. Zhumadilova Vol.9, No.8
Varying structure, it is possible to receive steels with rather differing properties – alloyed,
corrosion-proof, tool. More than all other grades, it is melted a carbonaceous steel. The
carbonaceous steel is an alloy of iron with carbon and manganese. As it was already
mentioned, manganese is added for suppression of harmful action of oxygen and the sulphur,
present at a steel. Carbon defines mechanical properties of a steel. The carbon maintenance in
a steel can make from 0.1 to 1, and 2%. The steel containing 0.1–0.3% of carbon, is strong
enough and plastic enough. Hire of such steel in a kind I-beam a profile is applied as building
beams. From thin sheet low carbonaceous steels do bodies of cars and cans.
One of the most important features of a steel consists that its properties can be changed in
very wide range simple change of the maintenance of carbon. The more in steels, the more its
strength at a stretching, but the plasticity, i.e. deformation before destruction is less than
carbon. Not alloyed steel with the average maintenance of carbon is suitable for such
products from which durability and resistance to deterioration, for example for rails are
For practical application of metals and manufacturing of metal products it was necessary to
learn to process metal. It has appeared that if to heat up firm metal at the raised temperature it
becomes soft, and at cooling metal again becomes firm. Thus very much the great influence
on properties of metals is rendered by heating and cooling conditions. At fast cooling
(training), for example, in water, properties of metal sharply improve.
2.1 Influence of the Chemical Compound on Damping Properties of Steels
By working out of alloys high damper one of the basic criteria is inadmissibility of essential
decrease bending strength properties. Therefore one of the reasons of a choice as alloying
elements iron carbide alloys of silicon, manganese and nickel was that among the basic
alloying elements (most often applied) these elements are stronger than others strengthen
ferrite [1].
Skilled alloys melted in the crucible induction furnace capacity 12 kg with the basic fettling.
As an initial material served armko-iron. Alloyed made 97.6 %th metal manganese, 77.5% th
FeSi and 99,98%th metal nickel. As the carbon maintenance additive synthetic pig-iron with
the maintenance of carbon of 3.9% served. Steels cast in metal mould in the sizes
210x115x115 mm.
In [2] essential influence of technology processing on the general level of sound pressure
sheet low carbonaceous steels has been revealed. For the purpose of an exception of influence
of technology of processing on damping characteristics investigated steels melt, to a rolling,
mechanical processing spent on uniform technology on the same equipment.
Vol.9, No.8 Development of Alloys on an Iron Basis 743
Samples before rolling heated up in the laboratory furnace to temperature 1200°С with
endurance 1 hour. Ingots rolled on one-felling rolling mill DUO on strips with the final sizes
700x90x10 (12) mm. After each pass of a strip placed in the furnace for temperature
achievement 1200°С. Samples for research of acoustic and physicomechanical properties cut
out from rolling strips under the scheme, representation on Fig. 1.
Figure - 1. The scheme of a cutting of samples for research:
1 –internal friction; 2 – specific electro resistance;
3 – metallographic analysis; 4 – level of sound pressure
Cleanliness of a surface after machining corresponded to 7 class. The deviation of the set
sizes did not exceed 0,1 mm. Acoustic properties defined after hot rolling, then the same
samples subjected annealing or training. A mode annealing - having heated up to As3 +50 °С,
endurance 1 hour and cooling with the furnace. Training spent on mode of operation: having
heated up to Ac3 +50°С, endurance 0,5 hour, cooling in water or in oil. Heating of samples in
muffle the laboratory furnace made in quartz ampoules in vacuum with relieve tension an
order 10°atm. (for prevention scale production).
Figure - 2. Level of a sound of skilled steels in dependence
from the carbon and silicon maintenance
744 Zh. Zhumadilova Vol.9, No.8
a b c d
Figure - 3. Microstructure of steels after hot deformation (a), annealing (b and c)
and double annealing (d) х 200
Table I Chemical compound of steels, %:
Steel С Mn Si Ni
a 1,01 0,22 3,09 1,43
b 0,04 2,51 3,20 0,24
c 0,45 1,52 1,53 0,40
d 1,10 2,28 0,24 0,33
Figure - 4. Level of a sound of skilled steels in dependence
from the carbon and manganese maintenance
Vol.9, No.8 Development of Alloys on an Iron Basis 745
Influence of the maintenance of manganese within 0,2–2,6 % on acoustic properties in alloys
considerably is not shown that proves to be true the diagramme presented on Fig. 5. Though
under the data [3,4] manganese and alloys on its basis possess high damping ability at small
and at considerable amplitudes of deformation (
= 7+40 %), in alloys Fe – Мn – C damping
ability is defined basically maintenance carbon and influence of manganese on phase
transformations. Manganese, being dissolved in ferrite and incorporating to carbon with
formation of carbides, raises hardness and durability of a steel. Because in the presence of
transformation manganese move to lower temperature, and eutectoid it is formed at smaller
concentration of carbon, the structure manganese steels is less differentiated. As manganese
forms the carbides easily dissolved in austenite, investigated steels even at an insignificant
overheat (900–950°С, 1 hour the furnace) had large and rough grain both in to eutectoid, and
in after eutectoid steels. However formation large coarsely grains has led to improvement
damping to ability of a steel. Nickel, as well as manganese, forms with iron a firm solution of
replacement, strengthen thus ferrite (Fig. 5). Nickel causes in a steel susceptibility to
liquidation the heterogeneity caused by stratification of a homogeneous firm solution.
The maintenance of an alloying element, %
Figure - 5. Influence of alloying elements on properties of ferrite
746 Zh. Zhumadilova Vol.9, No.8
Figure - 6. Level of a sound of skilled steels in dependence
from the carbon and nickel maintenance
Influence alloyed steels from 0.2 to 1.6% on acoustic characteristics is considerably shown
by nickel at increase in its maintenance and at low carbon (an alloy 1). The diagramme (Fig.
6) shows that this alloy has the minimum value of level of a sound. Similar influence of the
maintenance of nickel is found out and in an alloy 4 though the maintenance carbon in this
alloy reaches 1,0%, but apparently, from Fig. 4. Here goes, except that, process
The conducted research of influence of a chemical compound of alloys on them damping
properties has allowed to develop low alloyed the steels alloyed Mn, Si and Ni with the
lowered sound generation at shock excitation.
Application of a method of planning of experiment has allowed estimating the contribution of
each alloying element in damping characteristics was development steels.
[1] Suleyev D.K., Zhumadilova Zh.O., Utepov T.E. Application of a method of
mathematical planning of experiment by development of alloys with advanced damping
properties. Vestnik KazNTU named after К.I. Satpayev, 2008. 2 - p.24.
[2] Suleyev D.K. Research of microplastic deformation on a surface of the sample at impact
with the drummer-sphere. Struggle against noise and sound vibration. The Collection of
Vol.9, No.8 Development of Alloys on an Iron Basis 747
scientific publications of the International academy of sciences of ecology and safety of
ability to live (IASES), 2001. p.31(Almaty).
[3] Alloy «KazNTU – IV» on an iron basis. Patent. 21005. 03.16.2009. KZ
[4] Zh.O. Zhumadilova. Influence of the chemical compound and heat treatment on damping
properties of steels. Vestnik of Kazakh National Academic Science of the Republic of
Kazakhstan. Almaty 2009, 4, July p.18.