Journal of Environmental Protection, 2010, 1, 121-128
doi:10.4236/jep.2010.12016 Published Online June 2010 (
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JEP
Soil Pollution along Kalwa Bridge at Thane Creek of
Maharashtra, India
Pravin U. Singare1*, Ram S. Lokhande2, Pragati P. Pathak3
1Department of Chemistry, Bhavan’s College, Mumbai, India; 2Department of Chemistry, University of Mumbai, Mumbai, India;
3Department of Chemistry, Dnyansadhana College, Mumbai, India.
Received December 6th, 2009; revised February 1st, 2010; accepted February 3rd, 2010.
The present investigation deals with the assessment of pollution status along the wetland of Thane Creek, which has
been subjected to a lot of pollution from the Asia’s biggest Thane—Belapur Industrial Complex located at the south of
Mumbai harbor along the west coast of India. This paper advocates habitat conservation and ecological studies with
special reference to the physico-chemical characteristics and heavy metal pollution in the soil along the creek area. In
the present investigation, the pH, electrical conductivity, bulk density, alkalinity and chlorinity values recorded were
observed to be high during dry seasons and low during rainy season. The soil samples were also analyzed for their
heavy metal contents like nickel, zinc, cadmium, copper, iron, arsenic and mercury. It was observed that, the concentra-
tion of these heavy metals increases gradually in dry seasons, followed by sharp decrease during rainy season. These
heavy metals have a marked effect on the aquatic flora and fauna which through bio magnification enter the food chain
and ultimately affect the human beings as well. The present experimental data on heavy metal pollution in soil samples
collected along Kalwa bridge of Thane Creek points out to the need of regular monitoring of water resources and fur-
ther improvement in the industrial waste water treatment methods. If the present conditions continue for a long period,
the creek may soon become ecologically inactive.
Keywords: Soil Pollution, Heavy Metal Content, Physico-Chemical Characteristics, Metallic Contaminants, Flame
Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer, Bioaccumulation, Food Chain
1. Introduction
Waste management strategies adopted in India have
failed to keep pace with the industrial growth and ur-
banization. This has resulted in the accumulation of toxic
metallic contaminants with a consequent loss in quality
of soil, for the past few decades. The problem of envi-
ronmental pollution due to toxic metals has begun to
cause concern now in most major metropolitan cities.
The toxic heavy metals entering the ecosystem may lead
to geoaccumulation, bioaccumulation and biomagnifica-
tion. Heavy metals like Fe, Cu, Zn, Ni and other trace
elements are important for proper functioning of bio-
logical systems and their deficiency or excess could lead
to a number of disorders [1]. Food chain contamination
by heavy metals has become a burning issue in recent
years because of their potential accumulation in biosys-
tems through contaminated water, soil and air. Therefore,
a better understanding of heavy metal sources, their ac-
cumulation in the soil and the effect of their presence in
water and soil seem to be particularly important issues of
present-day research on risk assessments [2]. The main
sources of heavy metals to vegetable crops are their
growth media (soil, air, nutrient solutions) from which
these are taken up by the roots or foliage. Most of our
water resources are gradually becoming polluted due to
the addition of foreign materials from the surroundings.
These include organic matter of plant and animal origin,
land surface washing, and industrial and sewage effluents.
Rapid urbanization and industrialization with improper
environmental planning often lead to discharge of indus-
trial and sewage effluents into lakes. The lakes have a
complex and fragile ecosystem, as they do not have self-
cleaning ability and therefore readily accumulate pollut-
ants. It has been reported that sewage effluents of mu-
nicipal origin contain appreciable amount of major es-
sential plant nutrients and therefore the fertility levels of
the soil are improved considerably under sewage irriga-
tion of crop fields [2]. However, studies on the water of
Vasai Creek, Maharashtra, reveal that the presence of
toxic heavy metals likes Fe, Pb and Hg reduce soil fertil-
ity and agricultural output [3]. Treated sewage water also
contains variable amounts of heavy metals such as Pb, Ni,
Cd, Cu Hg, Zn and Cr [2], which have the potential to
Soil Pollution along Kalwa Bridge at Thane Creek of Maharashtra, India
contaminate crops growing under such irrigation. The
increasing trend in concentration of heavy metals in the
environment has created considerable attention amongst
ecologists globally during the last decades. Measure-
ments have been made of atmospheric metallic precipita-
tion in Europe and America. However, no such studies
have been carried out in India and there are no past metal
load data available. There is need for extensive monitor-
ing efforts over long periods of time in order to describe
average metal precipitation [4] and its trend, which is an
essential component of any pollution control manage-
ment. Several factors, like discharge of agricultural, do-
mestic and industrial wastes, land use practices, geologi-
cal formation, rainfall patterns and infiltration rate are
reported to affect the quality of soil along the creek area.
As the quality of soil along the creek area greatly affect
the vegetation, it is necessary to analyze the physico-
chemical parameters of soil. Therefore, we initiated such
a study to understand the physico-chemical properties of
the soil samples collected along Kalwa bridge of Thane
creek which is subjected to a lot of pollution from the
Asia’s biggest Thane—Belapur Industrial Complex lo-
cated at the south of Mumbai harbor along the west coast
of India. In an attempt to determine the pollution history
[5-9] and to assess the fate of heavy metals along the
creek area, detailed investigation of the soil samples for
heavy metal content was also performed.
2. Materials and Methods
2.1 Area of Study
The study was carried out in a creek near Mumbai City,
which is one of the most heavily populated and industri-
alized cities of India. The creek, known as “Thane Creek”
separates the Island City of Mumbai in the west from the
mainland in the east and houses industrial areas at a dis-
tance of about 25 Km north-east of Mumbai city. Thane
Creek lies in the southern part of the Deccan belt of India
between latitude 18o 53 to 19o 04’ N longitude 72o 48’ to
72o 53’E. It is a triangular mass of brackish water which
widens out and opens to the Arabian Sea in the South.
The creek is narrow at the Northern end, were it is fed
partially by river Ulhas. The geographical location of
Kalwa bridge along the Thane creek is shown in Figure
1. The creek could be considered as an estuary during
southwest monsoon period when the land drainage and
river run-offs are considerable. This area is also highly
bio productive and yields about 2 to 3 thousand metric
tones of fish annually. This area was developed by the
state government essentially for the chemical industries
towards the beginning of the sixties and at present about
25 large industries and about 300 medium and small
scale units using hazardous chemicals is located out of
the total of 2000 units located in this zone. The main
water source for the industrial consumption is Maharash-
tra Industrial Development Corporation. The industrial
area utilizes about 45000 m3/day of fresh water. The ef-
fluent discharge, treated and untreated amounts to 28750
m3/day i.e. 64% of the total industrial effluents generated
in Thane Creek area. Except for a few major industries,
the medium and the small scale industries discharge their
treated or untreated effluents through the unlined surface
drains into the Thane Creek. In addition to this, domestic
sewage discharges from suburbs of Mumbai City meet
the Thane Creek from the west side. Also atmospheric
fallout from the chimneys and stacks and vehicle ex-
hausts estimated to be 22000 t/day over the city, reach
the creek after washout. The problem is furthered by un-
restricted dumping of solid waste, construction debris
and other waste. Because of all this, the soil as well as
water of Thane Creek region has become severely pol-
luted. This has created health hazards not only for local
population but also resulted in disturbances of mangrove
2.2 Climatic Conditions
The weather of Thane is typical coastal sultry and humid.
Most parts of Thane lies in the plain at the sea level. The
average rainfall of Thane records from 1500 mm to 2000
mm. The place experiences the onset of the monsoon in
the month of June and experiences monsoon till the end
of September. The average temperature recorded in
Thane varies from 25 to 37 degrees.
2.3 Requirements
All the glassware, casserole and other pipettes were first
cleaned with tape water thoroughly and finally with
de-ionized distilled water. The pipettes and burette were
rinsed with solution before final use. The chemicals and
reagent were used for analysis were of A.R. grade. The
procedure for calculating the different parameters were
conducted in the laboratory.
2.4 Soil Sampling, Preparation and Analyses
The study period of nine months was divided into two:
pre monsoon (dry seasons) i.e., from December 2007 to
May 2008 and monsoon (wet season) i.e., from June
2008 to August 2008. Eighty soil samples were randomly
collected along Kalwa bridge of Thane Creek for both
dry and wet seasons and at different depths. Soil samples
from the top layer (0-15 cm) and sub layer (15-30 cm)
were sampled separately. The soil samples were col-
lected by hand-pushing plastic core tubes (7 cm diameter)
as far as possible into the soil. The soil cores retrieved in
the field were sliced on arrival at the lab at 1-cm depth
intervals for the first 15 cm, 2-cm depth intervals from
15-25 cm, and then every 5 cm for the deeper sections of
the cores. The soil samples were air dried for 8 days,
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JEP
Soil Pollution along Kalwa Bridge at Thane Creek of Maharashtra, India 123
Figure 1. Map showing geographical location of Thane Creek
ground using agate mortar and sieved with a 0.5 mm
mesh size sieve to remove stones, plant roots and have
soil of uniform particle size. Soil samples from two dif-
ferent layers were mixed thoroughly, packed in poly-
thene bags and kept in a dry place until analyses.
Well-mixed samples of 2 g each were taken in 250 mL
glass beakers and digested with 8 mL of aqua regia on a
sand bath for 2 h. After evaporation to near dryness, the
samples were dissolved with 10 mL of 2% nitric acid,
filtered through Whatman’s No.1 filter paper and then
diluted with deionized water to give final volumes de-
pending on the suspected level of the metals [10]. The
soil samples were subjected to nitric acid digestion using
the microwave-assisted technique, setting pressure at 30
bar and power at 700 Watts [11,12].
2.5 Physico-Chemical Study
The present study provides a detailed description of the
physico-chemical criteria of soil samples collected from
along Kalwa bridge of Thane Creek area. The samples
collected were analyzed for bulk density, moisture con-
tent, pH, electrical conductivity, alkalinity, and chlorinity.
The standard techniques and methods were followed for
physical and chemical analysis of soil samples [13].
2.6 Heavy Metal Analysis
The analysis for the majority of the trace metals was
done by Perkin Elmer Analyst 200 Flame Atomic Ab-
sorption Spectrophotometer (2003 model), but arsenic
was determined by hydride generation coupled with an
atomic fluorescence detector. A separate aliquot of the
soil sample (0.2 g) was digested according to a modifica-
tion of the EPA method of Hatch and Ott [14] for total
mercury analysis. Mercury was analyzed with a cold-
vapour atomic adsorption spectrophotometer. The cali-
bration curves were prepared separately for all the metals
by running different concentrations of standard solutions.
A reagent blank sample was taken through the method,
analyzed and subtracted from the samples to correct for
reagent impurities and other sources of errors from the
environment. Average values of three replicates were
taken for each determination.
2.7 Quality Control/Assurance
Soil samples were collected with plastic-made imple-
ments to avoid contamination. Samples were kept in
polythene bags that were free from heavy metals and
organics and well covered while transporting from field
to the laboratory to avoid contamination from the envi-
ronment. Reagent blanks were used in all analyses to
check reagent impurities and other environmental con-
taminations during analyses. Analytical grade reagents
were used for all analyses. All reagents were standard-
ized against primary standards to determine their actual
concentrations. All glassware used were soaked in ap-
propriate dilute acids overnight and washed with teepol
and rinsed with deionised water before use. All instru-
ments used were calibrated before use. Tools and work
surfaces were carefully cleaned for each sample during
grinding to avoid cross contamination. Duplicate samples
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JEP
Soil Pollution along Kalwa Bridge at Thane Creek of Maharashtra, India
were analyzed to check precision of the analytical me-
thod and instrument. To validate the analytical proce-
dures used, the spike recovery test was conducted on
some soil samples for nickel, zinc, cadmium, copper,
iron, arsenic and mercury.
3. Results and Discussion
The soil samples collected along Kalwa Bridge of Thane
creek were analyzed for their physico-chemical proper-
ties and the experimental data are presented in Table 1.
One of the most important factors that serve as an index
for pollution is pH. In our study, the pH of the soil sam-
ples collected for different sessions ranged from 8.10 to
8.94 this may be due to the high buffering capacity of the
system. This is in accordance with earlier study by Wet-
zel [15], who reported that the pH values of Indian wa-
ters ranges from 8 to 9 units. Ghose and Sharma [16] in
their study of the Ganga River recorded relatively high
pH of water in winter months attributing to increased
primary-productivity in which carbonates, sulfate, ni-
trates and phosphates are converted to hydroxyl ions. In
the present investigation the pH of soil samples were
observed to be high in dry seasons (average 8.81) and
lower during monsoon (average 8.13). The low pH was
mainly due to high turbidity and dilution. The variation
in pH of the soil samples is graphically represented in
Figure 2.
The measurement of soil water content and soil water
fluxes is critical to a wide range of environmental studies
including acidification, pollution and nutrient uptake [17].
There is a major current concern in the effective conser-
vation and protection of water, and this interest is likely
to increase with attention being focused on the effects of
climate change. As a consequence, soil water content is
an important component in many modeling studies, e. g.
in calculation of evapotranspiration, and in estimation of
losses to groundwater [17]. The % moisture content is
soil samples collected for different seasons were found to
be low in dry seasons (average 3.84%) and increases
sharply during wet season (average 4.02%) starting from
June to August. The variation in % moisture content of
the soil samples is graphically represented in Figure 2.
Bulk density is a measure of the weight of the soil per
unit volume (g/cm3), usually given on an oven-dry (110)
basis. Variation in bulk density is attributable to the rela-
tive proportion and specific gravity of solid organic and
inorganic particles and to the porosity of the soil. Al-
though bulk densities are seldom measured, they are im-
portant in quantitative soil studies. In the present inves-
tigation the bulk density of soil was found to increase
gradually in dry seasons (average 0.725 g/cm3) and then
decreases sharply in rainy season (average 0.531 g/cm3).
The increase in bulk density of soil samples in dry sea-
sons might be due to concentration of heavy metals,
which are washed out in rainy season in to the creek wa-
ter resulting in decrease in bulk density. The variation in
bulk density of the soil samples is graphically repre-
sented in Figure 2.
The conductivity of soil depends upon the concentra-
tion of ions and its nutrient status. In the present investi-
gation the electrical conductivity values of soil samples
varies between averages of 4.83 m.mhos/cm in dry sea-
sons, to 4.08 m.mhos/cm in rainy season. Washing of soil
due to rain water results in removal of conducting ions
present in the soil as a result conductivity values de-
creases. The variation in conductivity of the soil samples
is graphically represented in Figure 2.
Alkalinity and pH are the factors responsible for de-
termining the amenability of water to biological treat-
ment [18]. Total alkalinity values in our observations
fluctuated from average of 19.0 to 20.1 mg/L. In the pre-
sent investigation alkalinity of soil samples increases
gradually in dry seasons, followed by steep fall in the
monsoon season. The low alkalinity during the monsoon
may be due to dilution. Bishop [19] and Jain et al. [20],
also reported similar findings in their study on Malayan
Table 1. Seasonal variation in physico-chemical parameters in soil samples collected from Kalwa bridge of Thane Creek
Months Average
Dry Seasons Rainy Season
Bulk density
g/cm3 0.598 0.658 0.665 0.700 0.855 0.872 0.519 0.545 0.530 0.725 0.531
3.80 3.83 3.87 3.86 3.85 3.84 3.92 4.03 4.10 3.84 4.02
pH 8.92 8.94 8.91 8.53 8.73 8.82 8.10 8.11 8.18 8.81 8.13
conductivity o s/cm
6.53 5.02 4.84 4.15 4.20 4.27 4.08 4.10 4.07 4.83 4.08
mg/ L 12.2 17.1 20.6 22.1 23.3 25.2 21.9 19.1 16.0 20.1 19.0
mg/ L 25 27 30 32 36 35 27 22 20 31 23
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JEP
Soil Pollution along Kalwa Bridge at Thane Creek of Maharashtra, India125
Physical Properties of Soil
Bulk Density Moisture ContentElectrical ConductivitypH
Figure 2. Seasonal variation in physical properties of soil samples collected at Kalwa bridge of Thane creek
rivers and the Halali Reservoir. The variation in alkalin-
ity of the soil samples is graphically represented in Fig-
ure 3.
The higher chlorinity is considered to be an indicator
of higher pollution due to higher organic waste of animal
origin. Munawar [21] observed a direct correlation be-
tween Clconcentration and pollution level in fresh wa-
ter ponds of Hyderabad. In the present investigation, the
chlorinity level of soil samples collected for different
seasons varies between averages of 23-31 mg/L. The
chlorinity level was found to be low during rainy season
(average 23 mg/L) and observed to increase sharply dur-
ing dry seasons (average 31 mg/L). Govindan and
Sundaresan [22]; Jana [23] observed that higher Cl con-
centration in the summer period could be due to sewage
mixing and increased temperature and evaporation. The
seasonal variation in chlorinity of the soil samples is
graphically represented in Figure 3.
Heavy metals, known to be potentially hazardous sub-
stances are present in both natural and contaminated en-
vironments. In natural environments, they occur at low
concentrations. However at high concentrations as is the
case in contaminated environments, they result in public
health impacts. The elements that are of concern include
iron, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, zinc, nickel and copper.
Heavy metals may be released into the environment from
metal smelting and refining industries, scrap metal, plas-
tic and rubber industries, various consumer products and
from burning of waste containing these elements. On
release to the air, the elements travel for large distances
and are deposited onto the soil, vegetation and water de-
pending on their density. Once deposited, these metals
are not degraded and persist in the environment for many
years poisoning humans through inhalation, ingestion
and skin absorption. Acute exposure leads to nausea,
norexia, vomiting, gastrointestinal abnormalities and
dermatitis. Discharge of treated/partially treated or un-
treated domestic and agricultural wastes also leads to the
pollution of water bodies due to the heavy metals [24-26].
They can be absorbed by green plants, which are primary
producers in the ecosystem. As they move up the food
chain from producers to consumers, they endanger the
public health by bioaccumulating in the plant and animal
tissues and can cause physiological and neurological dis-
In the present investigation the concentration of heavy
metals like iron, mercury, cadmium, arsenic, zinc, nickel
and copper were observed to increase gradually in dry
season and was found to be maximum in summer, while
there concentration decreases sharply in rainy season
(Figure 4). The experimental data on heavy metal con-
tent in the soil samples collected for different seasons is
shown in Table 2. The concentration of nickel was found
to be minimum in rainy season (average 62 µg/g) and
maximum in dry seasons (average 78 µg/g). Short term
overexposure to Ni is not known to cause any health
problems, but long term exposure can cause decreased
body weight, heart and liver damage, and skin irritation
[27]. The LDLO (lethal dose low) of Ni for rat is 12
mg/Kg, but its affect on other mammals needs to be
studied. Ni can accumulate in aquatic life, but its magni-
fication along in food chain is not confirmed [27].
The concentration of Zn in the soil samples was found
to be minimum of 182 µg/g (average) in rainy season to
maximum of 196 µg/g (average) in dry seasons. In
mammals, exposure to Zn causes metal-fume fever with
symptoms like fever, pain, fatigue, shivering, sweating,
etc. In plants excessive Zn causes necrosis, chlorosis and
inhibited growth [27].
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JEP
Soil Pollution along Kalwa Bridge at Thane Creek of Maharashtra, India
Table 2. Seasonal variation in heavy metal content in the soil samples collected from Kalwa bridge of Thane Creek
Months Average
Dry Seasons Rainy Season
µg/g 70 70 75 80 85 90 65 60 60 78 62
µg/g 190 185 190 200 200 210 185 180 180 196 182
µg/g 10 10 15 20 30 38 10 8 5 21 8
µg/g 115 115 117 120 126 130 105 105 110 121 107
% 7.55 7.55 7.60 7.75 7.76 7.82 7.40 7.40 7.42 7.67 7.41
µg/g 235 232 230 260 280 280 220 228 235 253 228
µg/g 20 24 25 30 30 40 10 10 8 28 9
Februar y
Augus t
Chemical Properties of Soil (mg/L)
Alkalinity Chlorinity
Figure 3. Seasonal variation in chemical properties of soil samples collected at Kalwa bridge of Thane creek
Apri l
Heavy Metal content
Fe content (%)
Ni Zn Cd Cu As Hg Fe
Figure 4. Seasonal variation in heavy metal content in the soil samples collected at Kalwa bridge of Thane creek
Copyright © 2010 SciRes. JEP
Soil Pollution along Kalwa Bridge at Thane Creek of Maharashtra, India 127
Cadmium is contributed to the surface waters through
paints, pigments, glass enamel, deterioration of the gal-
vanized pipes etc. The wear of studded tires has been
identified as a source of cadmium deposited on road sur-
faces. The concentration of Cd was minimum in rainy
season (average 8 µg/g) to maximum in dry seasons (av-
erage 21 µg/g).There are a few recorded instances of Cd
poisoning in human beings following consumption of
contaminated fishes. It is less toxic to plants than Cu,
similar in toxicity to Pb and Cr. It is equally toxic to in-
vertebrates and fishes [28].
anemia, liver damage, portal cirrhosis, hematopoietic
depression, anhydremia, sensory disturbance and weight
loss. In addition to acute toxicity, long-term exposure to
inorganic arsenic is associated with certain forms of can-
cer of the skin, lung, colon, bladder, liver and breast [32].
A few years back, high concentrations of this element
was found in drinking water in six districts in West Ben-
gal. A majority of people in the area was found suffering
from arsenic skin lesions. Arsenic poisoning through wa-
ter can cause liver and nervous system damage, vascular
diseases and also skin cancer. Arsenic poisoning has be-
come a worldwide public health concern. The skin is
quite sensitive to arsenic and skin lesions are the most
common and earliest nonmalignant effects associated to
chronic arsenic exposure [33]. In the present case study,
the concentration of arsenic was observed to vary from
minimum of 228 µg/g in rainy season to maximum of
253 µg/g in dry seasons.
Copper salts are used in water supply systems to con-
trol biological growth in reservoirs and distribution pipes.
The municipal waste and sewage, corrosion of Cu con-
taining pipelines or fittings are the principal anthropo-
genic source of Cu. Highly toxic to most fishes, inverte-
brates and aquatic plants than any other heavy metal ex-
cept mercury. It reduces growth and rate of reproduction
in plants and animals [28]. Copper becomes toxic for
organisms when the rate of absorption is greater than the
rate of excretion. Further since the copper is readily ac-
cumulated by plants and animals, and the aquatic plants
absorb three times more Cu than plants on dry land [29],
it is very important to minimize the levels of copper in
the waterway. The concentration of Cu was observed to
be minimum in rainy season (average 107 µg/g) to
maximum in dry seasons (average 121 µg/g).
In the present investigation it was observed that the
concentration of Fe was very high in dry seasons (aver-
age 7.67%) and decreases sharply in rainy season (aver-
age 7.41%). It is important here to note that the high
concentration of Fe may increase the hazard of pathogenic
organisms, since most of these organisms need iron for
their growth [27]. The seasonal variations in % Fe content
of the soil samples collected along the Kalwa bridge of
Thane Creek is graphically represented in Figure 4.
The acute lethal dose for most inorganic mercury
compounds for an adult is 1-4 g (or 14 to 57 mg/Kg) for a
70 Kg person [34]. Exposure to mercury and its com-
pounds therefore can have acute adverse health problems.
It may permanently damage the brain, kidneys and de-
veloping foetus. Effects on brain functioning may results
in irritability, tremors, changes in vision or hearing, and
memory problems. In aquatic plants mercury compounds
inhibit cell growth and impair permeability. In the present
investigation the concentration of Hg was observed to be
very high. It increases gradually in dry seasons (average
28 µg/g), and falls sharply during rainy season (average 9
4. Conclusions
The experimental data on the soil pollution status along
the Kalwa bridge of Thane creek suggest a need to im-
plement common objectives, compatitable policies and
programmes for improvement in the industrial waste wa-
ter treatment methods. The high level of pollution along
the creek area also suggest a need of consistent, interna-
tionally recognized data driven strategy to assess the
quality of aquatic body and generation of international
standards for evaluation of contamination levels. If the
present conditions continue for a long period, the Thane
creek area may soon become ecologically inactive.
Arsenic occurs naturally or is possibly aggravated by
over powering aquifers and by phosphorus from fertiliz-
ers. Human activities have also intensified arsenic accu-
mulation in the environment. Arsenic usually accumu-
lates in soil, water and airborne particles, from which it is
taken up by various organisms. The concentrations of the
dangerous inorganic arsenics that are currently present in
surface waters enhance the chances of alteration of ge-
netic materials of fish. This is mainly caused by accumu-
lation of arsenic in the bodies of plant-eating freshwater
organisms. Plants absorb arsenic fairly easily, so that
high-ranking concentrations may be present in food. High
concentrations of arsenic in water can have an adverse
effect on health [30,31]. Organs most susceptible to arse-
nic toxicity are those involved with absorption, accumu-
lation or excretion, including the skin, circulatory system,
gastrointestinal tract, liver and kidney. Arsenic is associ-
ated with multiple health effects, including Blackfoot
diseases, diabetes, hypertension, peripheral neuropathy
and multiple vascular diseases. Other effects include
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