Journal of Minerals & Materials Characterization & Engineering, Vol. 4, No. 2, pp 95-106, 2005 Printed in the USA. All rights reserved
Figure 1: A cubic crystal structure unit cell
of a diamond; After source [1]
Analysis Of Gem-Quality And Experimental Estimat ion Of Toleration
Ranges In Geometrical Features Of Brilliant Type Cut Diamonds
Audy J.*, Audy K . and Haines T.
Edith Cowan University, South West Campus Bunbury, Western Australia, 6230
*corresponding author t.n . (08) 9780 7797, e-mail:
The measures that influence the quality of diamonds are cut, shape, colour, clarity and
weight. These features are therefore of some economic significance. It has long been recognized
that similar type diamonds with identical cuts are subject to some variability in geometrical
features that can give rise to differences in their quality. In the present study a brief review is
presented of previous investigations that looked at properties of diamonds. This is followed by an
overview of current practices in estimating the quality of diamonds with particular focus on
brilliant type cut diamonds. The results are presented with prominent dimensional features,
namely, girdle diameter, table, crown, girdle width, pavilion and their corresponding angles that
were measured on 12 stones, six in each of 2 sets, ‘as bought’ brilliant type cut diamonds from
one supplier. Variations in scatter and the mean value of each dimensional feature between the
two sets of diamonds were estimated using relevant statistical methods. The results are discussed
in the paper from both a qualitative and a quantitative point of view. It is suggested that this sort
of information may be used to assist in assessing the quality of brilliants and selecting
geometrically similar stones for jewels, when needed.
Keywords: Diamonds, Brilliant Type Cuts, Statistical Analyses, Similarities and
Differences, Gem Quality
Diamonds have long been
known for their hardness [1],
durability and, in polished
conditions, for transparency and
high surface reflectivity [2].
Chemically, they are an unusual
occurrence of carbon crystallized
in the cubic system [1], although
octahedrons and rhombic
dodecahedrons are other crystal
forms most commonly found [2].
According to B.C. Forbes they
are "only lumps of coal that stuck
to their jobs".
In diamonds, each carbon
binds to four other carbons by
96Audy J.*, Audy K. and Haines T.Vol. 4, No. 2
very strong covalent bonding, see Figure 1. This bonding is responsible for excellent
hardness of about 7000 measured with the Knoop scale under a load of 100g [1].
With respect to the first two features, on Mohs’ scale diamonds rate the highest
number - ten [2]. This means that they are able to scratch all other minerals, since
everything else rates lower on the scale. Because of this, diamonds became recognized as
abrasive tool materials [3] long before they were polished into precious gems. With
respect to the other two features, their refractive index measured in sodium light is 2.4175
[3] and the chromatic dispersion is 0.63 [3] which results in a high surface reflectivity of
about 17% [3] that makes them desirable as the most valuable gemstones for jewels. The
ancient Greek word for a diamond is αδαµασ [2 and 3] (adamas) meaning invincible.
Generally, diamonds are very pure minerals, with only nitrogen present in substantial
amounts, but less than 0.5% [4], and other ‘trace’ elements [4], namely boron, nickel,
silicon and hydrogen, if any. Nitrogen, trace elements and plastic deformation of lattice
planes were reported [4] to be responsible for creating a wide range of coloured
diamonds. The colourless diamonds are very valuable. Yellowish diamonds with a
variety of shadings are quite common. Blue and green diamonds are rarities. Pink and
red diamonds are the rarest of all. Because of their unusual properties, diamonds became
a challenge for scientists to study them, miners to mine them, jewelers to polish them,
collectors to collect them, women to admire them and dealers to trade them.
I know a few people who left their countries in haste. They could not sell their
house and cars, and did not want to carry (or had no time to withdraw) cash, so they
simply picked up their gems and walked away. One should agree that with those small
shiny stones it is quite easy to move the value around the world. Diamonds are believed
to enhance love, reproduction and immortality. They represent power and wealth, but
sometimes they did not bring the expected luck to their owners, as it was, for example, in
the case of the famous Koh-i-Noor (Mountain of Light) believed to be originally a piece
of a 240 carat [2] heavy diamond called Great Mogul. Legend has it that Koh-i-Noor was
cursed and brought misfortune and death to any man who possessed it. For more than
500 years the gem went from one owner to another and was passed on or seized by
various rulers in Persia and India, until the 1850’s when it was presented to Queen
Victoria. This diamond was later re-cut to a ~106 carat [2] oval brilliant in order to
improve its brilliance and now belongs to the Royal family crown jewels. From this story
it is evident that weight is not necessarily the most important feature of diamonds and
could be sacrificed in order to improve light reflection and hence the brilliance of a
With diamonds life is always full of surprises, as happened in the case of Shirley
Strawn from Murfreesboro, Arkansas, USA. Literature source [5] reported that Shirley
was a frequent visitor to the 887-acre Crater of Diamonds State Park, where for a daily
rent of $5, the public can search the site and look for diamonds. The work was
exhausting and the diamonds she found were so small that they hardly covered her
expenses. Then after one and half years without missing a day she found a three-carat
stone. When polished into a 1.09-carat round brilliant, it was certified to be an extremely
rare gem - D-flawless in clarity, color and cut. There were rumors that this brilliant (one
Vol. 4, No. 2. Analysis Of Gem-Quality And Experimental Estimation Of Toleration 97
Ranges In Geometrical Features Of Brilliant Type Cut Diamonds
in a billion) may be worth more than $300,000 but Shirley sold her treasure for $34,700
to the Arkansas Park Headquarters. This story indicated that flawless diamonds are very
rare and even a small ‘perfect’ diamond can become extremely valuable when cut and
polished in the correct way.
This paper focuses on analysis of current practices in determining the quality of
brilliant type cut diamonds in the light of standards and procedures associated with
prominent diamond features. This is followed by a study of ‘measured’ variations of
dimensional features on twelve ‘as bought’ brilliant type cut diamonds (6 stones in each
of 2 sets) from one supplier. Appropriate statistical tests were chosen to determine
whether or not the mean values and variances could be considered statistically equal at
the selected confidence levels to establish differences, if any, between these same type
The weight, shape and cut of a diamond can be measured directly and, as such,
are of a quantitative nature. In contrast, the colour and clarity are mostly qualitative.
However, they can be assessed indirectly, by comparing ‘an observed’ image against
those in standard(s) as shown later in the text, and, as such, are somewhat of a semi-
quantitative nature.
The weight of diamonds is measured in carats. A carat is one fifth of a gram,
which is a standard basic unit for the measurement of diamond weight. Every carat is
divided into 100 points, eg 0.25ct = ¼ carat, 0.5ct = ½ carat etc. Diamonds occur in
nature as minerals in different shapes. A relatively large rough diamond stone could
under a dealer’s loupe easily turn out to be a ‘double decker’ which means that it consists
of two-different quality-stones fused together. Generally, natural diamonds are quite dull
and have a rather unattractive dark color [2 to 4]. They have to be shaped in a way that
‘fits’ best to the features of the rough stone. The geometric form of a diamond is dictated
by the shape of the gem. Some of the most popular diamond shapes/cuts are shown in a
sketch in Figure 2.
Into those shapes the diamond’s facets are then cut and polished in order of
revealing ‘the true’ brilliance and fire of the stone(s). Therefore, the cut is the only
Figure 2: Simple sketch showing eight popular diamond cuts, namely, emerald (a); oval (b); marquise
(c); brilliant (d); baguette (e); heart shape (f); pear (g) and single cut (h). After source [2].
98Audy J.*, Audy K. and Haines T.Vol. 4, No. 2
Figure 3: Relationship between Diameter, Height and Carat Weight of
Brilliant Type cut diamonds.
feature under human control that gives the diamonds their precise facets / angles and
proportions for gaining the needed reflection and refraction of light. Diamond colours
range from rare colourless to common yellowish and the clarity depends on the amount of
inclusions visible under magnification of 10 times.
Table 1 shows the ‘as reported’ standard relationship between carat weight, cr, diameter,
D, and height, H, of brilliant type cut diamonds. Figure 3 shows a plot of carat weight
against the diameter and height as a function of data from Table 1. It is evident from
Figure 3 that the plotted trend curves a r e t h o s e o f power regression type(s).
The associated r eg r es s io n c u rve equations are given below.
Table 1: Reported relationship between carat weight, cr, diameter, D, and height, H, of brilliant type cut
cr0.050.1 0.2 0.3 0.4 0.5etc 1 1.5 23
D [mm]2.533. 9.4
52.6 r
cxD =(1)
9264.3 r
cxH =(2)
It is evident
from Equations 1 and
2 that power
regression type
curves from Figure 3
have different
intercepts (6.52 for D
and 3.9264 for H)
and different slopes
(0.3269 for D and
0.3257 for H).
quantitatively the
slope and intercepts
for the diameter(s)
were greater than
those for the
Consequently it indicates that there is some focus on the diameter rather than the height
of diamonds. However these two dimensional features are interrelated and as such can
Vol. 4, No. 2. Analysis Of Gem-Quality And Experimental Estimation Of Toleration 99
Ranges In Geometrical Features Of Brilliant Type Cut Diamonds
Figure 4Percentage deviation for the predicted carat weight of
brilliant t
e cut diamonds.
not be treated separately when calculating the carat weight of diamonds. Since the
dimensional trends in Figure 3 have shown monotonic patterns, a multi-variable
regression analysis was employed to curve fit the geometrical trends with respect to carat
weight for brilliant type cut diamonds. The equation is given below.
1599.2 )(00509.0 HxDxcr=(3)
Furthermore an attempt has been made to determine how closely the empirical-
type Equation 3 fits the ‘as reported’ data shown earlier in Table 1. The ‘predicted’ carat
weight values were compared with the ‘reported’ ones and the percentage difference, E,
between the predicted and expected values was calculated using an Equation 4, shown
ht valuecarat weig expected
ht value)carat weig predicted ht valuecarat weig (expected x 100
Edeviation %=(4)
The histograms for the
percentage deviation and its
associated σE value are shown
in Figure 4. From this
histogram it is evident that the
mean percentage difference
(of about -0.08%) and the
standard deviation (of about
4.2%) are very low.
This numerical
exercise indicated that the
curve-fitted empirical
Equation 3 can be used as an easier alternative for prediction of carat weight from the
diameter and height of brilliant type cut diamonds without much loss of accuracy.
A ‘reported’ geometry for the ‘ideal’ cut of brilliant type diamonds is shown in
Figure 5. Numerical recommendations in Figure 5, left, were adopted from source [6].
Figure 5, centre, shows a computer modified image with laser engraving on girdle. Such
image “logo’ is typical on diamonds from recognized dealers. It is invisible to the eye,
and can be read only under 10 power magnification. It is a proof of authenticity.
Unfortunately (or fortunately for some), it can easily be polished off (within about 2 to 3
hours) in order to avoid identification of, for example, stolen diamonds. Figure 5 right,
shows technical terms for various dimensional features. A comparison of these technical
terms in different sources [2, 3, 5, 6 and 7] indicates that there is some general agreement
on the nomenclature and prominent dimensional features. The most prominent
dimensional features specified for brilliant type cut diamonds are: girdle diameter, table
Mean value = -0.08 [%]
Standard Deviation = 4.2 [%]
-7 -5024
Devia ti on [%]
100Audy J.*, Audy K. and Haines T.Vol. 4, No. 2
Figure 6: Sketches of a br illiant type cut diamond
showing, from left to right, ‘ideal’ cut, ‘deep’ cu t,
and ‘shallow’ cut, with arrows indicating the
light reflection. After source [6].
size, crown height, girdle width, pavilion depth, crown angle, pavilion angle, and culet
angle. Some of these features are defined in literature [2, 3 and 6].
From Figure 5 left, it appears that the tightest tolerance limits are for the crown
height (±0.5%) and girdle width (±0.5%). Thus, the crown and girdle are dimensional
features of some geometrical significance when grinding the brilliant type cut diamonds.
In contrast, source [6] provided only nominal values of angles. Calculations with input
data of girdle diameter being 100%, table ranging from 53% to 57% i.e. 55±2% and
crown ranging from 14.9% to 15.9% i.e. 15.4±0.5% showed that the crown angle may
vary from about 32° to about 37°. This variation is equal to a tolerance of ±2.5% for the
nominal value of 34.5°. Similarly, the culet angle and pavilion angle values will vary
depending on the ‘real’ value of pavilion length which is provided by source [6] as a
balance of about 43%.
Figure 6 was adopted from
source [6] and shows sketches of
brilliant type cut diamonds for
‘ideal’ cut, left, deep cut, centre,
and shallow cut, right. For the
ideal cut brilliant, light is reflected
from facet to facet and leaves
straight through the top. For a
deep cut brilliant, the reflected
light comes back through the side
instead of coming back to the top.
For the shallow cut brilliant, the
reflected light is lost through the
bottom leaving a dull reflection in
the table.
Figure 7 shows possible
ways to improve brilliance of deep
Figure 5: Sketches and a computer modified image of a brilliant type cut diamond showing,
from left to right, mean values and tolerances, laser engraving on a girdle,
and the key dimensional features. After sources [6 and 7].
Vol. 4, No. 2. Analysis Of Gem-Quality And Experimental Estimation Of Toleration 101
Ranges In Geometrical Features Of Brilliant Type Cut Diamonds
Figure 7: Sketches showing possible improvements in
light reflection of brillia nt type cut diamonds b y
sacrificing the volume (carat weight) of diamonds.
cut and shallow cut diamonds by
doing the right cut. From this it is
evident that the original rough
diamonds have to be sacrificed in
order to achieve their brilliance, and
not all dealers or jewelers may
accept such drastic changes.
Table 2 shows a standard for
ranking diamonds according to their
colour, for ‘best’ from left to most
common, right.
Finally it should be mentioned that the diamond’s clarity grade is affected by the
number of inclusions, their size and location. Ranking is shown in Table 3.
Table 2Colour grading scale for brilliant type cut diamonds. After source [7].
ss near colorlessfaint
yellow very light
yellow light yellow
Table 3: Ranking brillian t type cut diamonds in terms of inclusion s. After sources [6 and 7]
SymbolFlawless VVS1VVS2VS1VS2SI1SI2I1I2I3
Meaning Without
inclusions Very Very Slight
Inclusions Very Slight
Inclusions Slight
Inclusions Imperfect
under 10x
Minute and hard
to locate
inclusions under
difficult to
locate under
easily to locate
under 10x
Inclusions are visible
to the eye
There have been numerous trials to find a way of reducing the amount of
inclusions in diamonds. Probably the most successful is the use of a laser beam capable
of burning deep and small diameter holes through the diamond table into the inclusion
inside the diamond body. The inclusion is then etched off and the hole is covered with a
glass like patch. However, such glass patches influence the light reflection of the
diamond and as such can easily be identified.
From the information selected in Section 3 it is evident that the brilliance of
diamonds depends on the type of cut. The rest is in the hands of nature. One may
‘ignore’ carat weight, slightly compromise on clarity and colour, but should never
compromise on cut [6] in order to get the most brilliance from the diamond.
102Audy J.*, Audy K. and Haines T.Vol. 4, No. 2
Figure 8 : Experimental brilliant type cut
Measured Geometrical Parameters
Twelve brilliant type cut diamonds
in two sets (6 stones in each set) from one
supplier were selected for investigation,
see Figure 8. These diamonds were all the
same ‘nominal’ shape, size and cut,
weighing individually about 0.05 carats.
They were from Africa, colour, I, type
clarity, SI. Their geometrical features
were measured as shown in Figure 9.
The five main geometrica features,
namely girdle diameter, 1; table, 2;total
height, 3; crown, 4; and pavilion, 5; were
measured using an electronic digital
caliper and a Type Micro-lite measuring
Instrument. Angle features, namely,
crown angle, 6, pavilion angle, 7, and
culet angle, 8; were calculated from ‘as
measured’ dimensional features, 1 to 5. It
should be noted that small diamond size
and limit of measuring technique did not
allow for the measurement of the girdle
width. Consequently, it was expected that
the girdle width would represent some
source of error, e*, which may affect the
measurements associated with the crown,
4, and pavilion, 5, features. Finally it
should be mentioned that the carat weight
was estimated individually for each
diamond from its girdle diameter, 1, and
the total height, 3, using Equation 3.
Statistical Analysis of Experimental Results
A number of statistical tests have been selected and employed to analyse the data
associated with the measured geometrical features and carat weight of commercial
brilliant type cut diamonds. Key features of this statistical approach are documented in
Figure 10. The Fisher test (recommended for comparing variances of two sample data)
was chosen to test the homogeneity of variances. When the test passed at the selected
confidence level the homogeneity of variances was confirmed, and the Student or t-test
was used to determine whether or not the mean values of the twelve sample data could be
considered statistically equal at the selected confidence level. If the variances were not
Figure 9Key to measurement of features of
brilliant type cut diamonds
Vol. 4, No. 2. Analysis Of Gem-Quality And Experimental Estimation Of Toleration 103
Ranges In Geometrical Features Of Brilliant Type Cut Diamonds
homogeneous according to the Fisher test, the Welch test was used instead of the Student
of t-test to compare the mean values of two sample data.
The measured and calculated result data associated with the geometry of the
investigated brilliant type cut diamonds are given in Table 4. Statistical analysis of the
results from Table 4 is shown in Table 5. From Table 5 it is evident that both the Fisher
Test and T-test passed in all cases because the FRatio (calculated) values were lower than
the FStat (tabulated) values, and TTest (calculated) values were lower than TStat (tabulated)
values, respectively. This means that variances were homogeneous and means equal,
thus showing no difference between the diamonds.
Table 4: Tabulated data showing measu r ed and calculated result values for brilliant type cut diamonds
VariableSet(s)MeanMinMaxRange St. Dev., σE
Girdle Diameter [mm]Set 1
Set 22.502
2.503 2.49
2.49 2.51
2.51 0.02
0.02 0.0075
Total Height [mm]Set 1
Set 21.390
1.383 1.37
1.36 1.41
1.41 0.04
0.05 0.014
Table [mm]Set 1
Set 21.398
1.400 1.38
1.37 1.41
1.42 0.03
0.05 0.012
Crown [mm]Set 1
Set 20.34
0.345 0.30
0.32 0.36
0.37 0.06
0.05 0.023
Pavilion [mm]Set 1
Set 21.050
1.038 1.03
1.02 1.08
1.06 0.05
0.04 0.021
Crown Angle [deg]Set 1
Set 231.6
32.0 29.1
30.2 33.2
33.5 4.15
3.26 1.576
Pavilion Angle [deg]Set 1
Set 240.0
39.7 39.4
39.1 41
40.2 1.56
1.08 0.60
Culet Angle [deg]Set 1
Set 2100.0
100.7 98.2
99.7 101.3
101.8 3.1
Carat Weight [c r ]Set 1
Set 20.0496
0.0495 0.049
0.048 0.05
0.05 0.001
0.002 0.00065
For comparison purposes the diamonds were treated as one group. This followed
because it was statistically shown that all the geometrical features and carat weight were
statistically equal at 95% and higher confidence levels. Comparing the numerical
igure 10: Statistical approach used to analyse the measured geometry of brilliant type cut diamonds
104Audy J.*, Audy K. and Haines T.Vol. 4, No. 2
recommendations for the ideal cut of brilliant cut diamonds taken from standard [6] to
the experimental data of nominal values and the tolerance ranges for dimensional and
angular features determined in this study are shown in Table 6.
Table 5: Results of Statistical Tests conducted on 2 sets of diamonds at degree of freedom of 5 for each set
and 95% and higher confidence level.
Set 1 versus Se t 2VariancesPooled
Value Means Grand
Girdle Diameter [mm]FRatio (1.17) < FStat (5.05)marginalTTest (0.37) < TStat (2.228)2.50
Table [mm]FRatio (3.23) < FStat (5 .05)marginalTTest (0.17) < TStat (2.228)1.40
Total Height [mm]FRatio (1.54) < FStat (5.05)marginalTTest (0.725) < TStat (2.228)1.39
Crown [mm]FRatio (1.49) < FStat (5.05)marginalTTest (0.415) < TStat (2.228)0.34
Pavilion Depth [mm]FRatio (1.71) < FStat (5.05)marginalTTest (1.082) < TStat (2.228)1.04
Crown Angle [deg]F Ratio (1.40) < FStat (5.05)2.12TTest (0.46) < TStat (2.228)31.83
Pavilion Angle [deg]FRatio (1.83) < FStat (5.05)0.28TTest (1.097) < TStat (2.228)39.86
Culet angle [deg]FRatio (1.85) < FStat (5 .0 5)1.1TTest (1.092) < TStat (2.228)100.4
Carat Weight [ d eg]FRatio (1.08) < FStat (5.0 5)marginalTTest (1.092) < TStat (0.403)0.05
Table 6: Comparison of measured an d reported da ta associated with dimensional features of brilliant type
cut diamonds.Dimensional Features [%]Angular Features [deg]
TableCrownPavilionCrown PavilionCulet
ntal values55.9%±1.2% 13.7%±1.4% 41.7%±1.4% 31.8°±2.2°39.8°±0.55°100.4°±1.8°
Source [6]55%±2% 15.4%±0.5% ~43% 34.5°±2.5°~43 ~98.5°
From Table 6 it is evident that the measured data matched favourably with
reported data that were adopted from specifications set by source [6]. For example, the
measured values of 55.9%±1.2% for the table dimension allowed the largest size to be
57.1% and the lowest size to be 54.7% while source [6] recommended 57% and 53%.
For the crown, the measured nominal value of 13.7% was lower and its tolerance range of
±1.4% was higher than those of 15.5%±0.5% from source [6]. It is believed that this
could have been caused by error source, e*, as it was not possible to measure girdle
width. The measured dimensional values for the pavilion were 41.7%±1.4% suggesting
the largest size to be 43.1% and the smallest size 40.3%. This is in agreement with
source [6] which recommends the nominal value for that dimensional feature to be ~43%.
The measured value of crown angle was 31.8°±2.2°. This means that the largest angular
limit is 34° and the lowest angular limit is 29.6°. It is partially in agreement with source
[6] which recommends 37° for the highest allowed angular limit and 32° for the lowest.
Again the experimental lowest angular limit of 29.6° was slightly lower, which could
have probably been caused by e* mentioned earlier. The as measured value of
39.8°±0.55° for the pavilion angle suggested the lower and higher angular limits to be
39.25° and 40.35°, respectively, which was very close to the value of ~43°±balance from
source [6]. Finally the as measured culet angle values were 100.4°±1.8° , for a highest
angular limit of 102.2° and the lowest angular limit of 98.6° which was close to that of
98.5° recommended by source [6].
Vol. 4, No. 2. Analysis Of Gem-Quality And Experimental Estimation Of Toleration 105
Ranges In Geometrical Features Of Brilliant Type Cut Diamonds
From the above analysis it is evident that the 12 commercial - brilliant type cut -
diamonds fit into the ideal cut represented by dimensional features recommended by a
world-wide leader [6] in the diamond trade. Consequently, any combination of six stones
in two pairs can be used, for example, when making a pair of earrings.
Finally it should be mentioned that nowadays there are modern devices which are
used for precise measurements of diamonds eg scanners for polished diamonds.
However such technique is not always available to jewellers and dealers with diamonds.
Therefore, the measuring and statistical approach proposed in this paper is expected to
provide a sort of information that may be used for evaluation of geometrical features of
brilliant type cut diamonds and / or to assist in the selection of geometrically similar
The most important conclusions that can be drawn from this study are
summarized as follows:
The variances (scatter) in dimensional features and carat weight for two sets of
brilliant type cut diamonds were examined by F-test and were found to be homogeneous
at 95% and higher confidence levels.
The mean values of each dimensional feature between two sets of diamonds were
examined by t-test and were found to be equal at 95% and higher confidence levels,
which allowed using the common grand mean value for each dimensional and angular
No qualitative or quantitative differences in ‘as measured’ geometry and carat
weight of brilliant type cut diamonds have been found between two sets consisting each
of six commercial diamonds. This indicated very high quality within the sets and
between the sets.
Comparison of results data with nominal and tolerance ranges recommended for
ideal brilliant type cut diamonds showed substantial agreement. This indicated the very
high quality of the investigated diamonds and highlighted the need for selection of well
characterized brilliant type cut diamonds if one is going to use them for top range jewelry
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Number 72-170933, USA, Volume 7, p. 462.
106Audy J.*, Audy K. and Haines T.Vol. 4, No. 2
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11, John Willey and Sons Inc., Catalogue Card Number 65-27477, USA, pp.462 to
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High Temperature Annealing”, Materials Today, Elsevier, ISSN: 1396-7021, Vol.3
Issue 3, 2000, pp. 3 to 6.
5.National Geographic, “Diamonds, The Real Story”, Vol. 201. No. 3, March 2002
6.Lazare Diamonds The Ideal Cut, Larry Jewelry, Singapore, Paragon Ngee Ann City
Tower Raffles City Shopping Centre, tel: (65) 732 3222, or 235 5848, or 336 9648
7Diamond Criteria, Australian Standard Brochure
The authors would like to acknowledge the provision of photographic camera,
advice and help from Mr. Peter Griffin from Central Photographic associated with taking
the photograph of brilliant type cut diamonds shown in Figure 8.