Open Journal of Social Sciences
Vol.06 No.11(2018), Article ID:88683,11 pages

Integration of Political Participation and Media of Youth

―A Study of Khairpur City, Sindh, Pakistan

Nadeem Ahmed Diou1, Shoukat Ali Mahar2, Mukhtiar Hussain Ibupoto3*, Sagheer Hussain Dahar4

1Department of Media Studies, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Pakistan

2Department of Public Administration, Shah Abdul Latif University, Khairpur, Pakistan

3Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua, China

4Sindh University, Jamshoro, Pakistan

Copyright © 2018 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0).

Received: October 30, 2018; Accepted: November 20, 2018; Published: November 23, 2018


This study is affiliated with the ideology of integration of political participation and media, so in this connection it is seen there is popularity gained by social networks sites in modern age, and users of these sites are increasing day by day, they are engaged in Youtube, Twitter, Whatsapp, Facebook and other SNS. They always believe this is appropriate platform to proceed or local political activities of daily life. This research shows that youth are frequently sharing, posting, and interesting discussion on various political uses frequently. They preview it is a great platform to support and active their political leaders as well as political parties. It is also said in this research SNS is cheapest and Low-Paid platform to proceed information and youth are taking responsibility to gain proper advantage of these networks. In this research quantitative approach has been adopted and results are measured through SPSS-23 version. 39 items are used in questionnaire to accumulate or assemble the meaningful information of integration of media and Political Participation of youth in Khairpur district, Sindh Pakistan. It is shown different parliamentarian, Government officials and youth are using such networks they consider that are sources of their power to be influential in their consistency. Furthermore, it is seen in Khairpur. Facebook, and Youtube has a strong effect in political participation whereas, youth are not much awared how to use other social sites in this noble cause.


Integration, Political Participation, Media, Youth

1. Introduction

The change is very constant in Human life. From the creation of human, Almighty Allah keeps the Curiosity in human nature. This nature enforces human to discover new ideas and keep continue the process of change. Same thing we observe since last many decades in media that moveable printing press was invented from China. It was beginning of print media in world but the process of evolution has never been stopped. With the development of mankind development of media also constantly continues. After print Media, electronic media changed the mindset of masse to get information about their surroundings. Newspapers publish today’s story on tomorrow’s paper while electronic media inform the public about news within the moments after the happening. But this monopoly of electronic media has not remain for long time because nowadays people spread message, news or any information by using social media instead of electronic media.

The theorist and practical persons elaborated four fundamental functions of mass media.

1) To inform;

2) To entertain;

3) To educate;

4) To persuade.

Media fulfills above mentioned four functions respectively and more rapidly instead of Electronic Media. The rapid growth of media shows that this form of media breaks the domination of electronic media from society. If we look at our surrounding that finding of a man is very difficult who are not using any social account and his/her age is less than 60 Years. There are many types of social sites including Face book, Twitter and Whatsapp etc. There are many others networks but youngsters are mostly using them to keep well informed to themselves as well as to convey their message to others. All men and women even they belong to any department they use media, to give, exchanging and sharing of ideas with others. It means media took forward to fulfill the concept of Mass communication. Because every communicator knows that mass communication means to give, exchange, or share ideas among the large numbers of people. We are breathing in 21st century. This century is known as the century of information and masses, especially our youth are striving for to gain information and send to others by using Media instead of other sources such as Newspaper, and Television.

2. Importance of Media

Media has great importance in our life, simply in society masses especially youth are using social media for fun and communication purpose. Broadly the media used across the world for mobilizing masses to pay attention towards particular issues. As Al-Tahreer squire and D-Chock were political sitting. Media has essence to mobilize the youth. The basic purpose of media is to rapidly inform and sharing of thoughts. The importance of media is realized by all the masses. Nowadays every person either he/she is a political or religious leader, using media for pass on their thoughts or messages. Even key institutes of state likewise ISPR instead of releasing press, share their message on Media. Many example observed on Media that brought change in people life. Many videos are rapidly viral on media. This is a reason that every political and religious organizations, leaders and workers using social media frequently. It is also observed that Governmental and nongovernmental organization are sharing public service messages and also convey slogans on media because they know that large number of people are using it frequently. Media is easy way to express their thoughts. Media is a very important source of getting information and a very significant tool of spreading any message towards masses instead of other forms of electronic or print media. Youngsters especially workers of different political parties use media constantly to achieve their particular goals, spread information regarding party event, manifesto and as well as propaganda against their political enemies.

On other side, Sharing of information is very easier and well suited nowadays. The concept of global village is more developed because in initially global village means to keep informed yourself regarding people of other part of world but now due to rapid growth of media our world become more globalized because now there is no physical, cultural, literally, and linguistic limits or restriction. Now even one can share their ideas and information regarding his/hernearness across the world with just very simple fundamental awareness of internet and computer through SNS. Anyone can use blogs etc. and share his views on any domestic and international issue. SNS powerfully influence on international relations. International influence became very simple and trouble free as some clicks on keyboard. A common person can reach to global audiences without any hurdle. A new discussion which focused on power of media and its contact with humanity has started. According to Clay Shirky an American writer “Media have become coordinating tools of nearly all the worlds’ political movements”.

3. Purpose of Study

Fundamentals theme of this study is to determine whether there is an integration of political participation and media of youth. Furthermore, whatever result will occur in this research will provide way to our youth how media looks powerful instrument to bring change in society. May be it expose its ups and downs and implications. Use of media seems common and practical activity without realizing its real worth. Namely general sense about media and its logical practical will be the part of this research.

4. Research Objectives

・ To investigate general political activities through media in youth.

・ To determine specific political activities on media of youth.

・ To find out the rate of acquit knowledge about media among youth

5. Hypotheses

H1: political participation is significantly affiliated with media of youth.

H2: political participation is insignificantly affiliated with media of youth.

5.1. Literature Review

The aim of this research is to prove that political participation is directly related with media of youth or have collective action with others theoretical practices. Research shows two broad theoretical principles or describes two mind sets. First those, who do not understand the collective functions of politics and media. Second those people who are going to use SNS as to raise their voice but do not follow the traditional nature of protest. Gadi Wolfsfeld, 2013 [1] . The SNS involves Facebook, Twitter, Whatsapp etc. but Facebook seems as most visited site. Now it will be new debate it what extent such sites contribute in society. But it is sure that these SNS are trying to keep people well informed, providing knowledge and keeping them in touch with society. Even media have essence to grow political knowledge among users. In 2008 U.S presidential election Obama created his own social sites to attract attention of large number of people or Volunteers. Homero Gil de Zuniga University of Texas-Austin, 2012 [2] . Media remained important for youth from very beginning, in early 2008 a survey was conducted so in this mean study was confined on 3500 adults whose age was in between 18 - 24 years. It is clearly said that social media is used in all over the world by youth is source of information, knowledge and news. This research indicated that known doubt media are providing information but it highest level youth are not going to participate in political participation. However old are in same row. Further it is said that though youth are not practically involved in such activities, protest, rallies but they ever try to viral those photos or portraits of political activities through these networks, as to show the participation The internet helps the young one to take their own decision in this way little attention is paid on that the youth are using the social sites like face book, YouTube and Google to participate in politics. In this way these sites allows the youth to post information. Morris, 2010 [3] . Researcher elaborated that although media are identified by youth as a possible source of news so many users receive news from these sites. Such news probably do the little to inform then or add democratic discourse. The study shows the prominent sites are named media. That holds to increase the political interest and participation. History is witness these site are no more used to bend people in past and to participate in the politics. Just they were users of others Media. But now face book, YouTube and twitter are recent tools to encourage youth to participate in political activities Morris, 2010 [4] . During the protest of Egypt Al-Tahreer square social sites help to provide a source of information. Secondly government also cannot control the crucial shaping. It’s also shows that these sites always help the people to make a decision about the participating in protest. It has been observed that mostly the protest was not broadcasted on national media like electronic and print but through social media people easily record their protest and entire protest was covered in eye of social media at maximum level. So significant effects of users of social media increased and they took chance to expose the power of media such power encouraged people to attended protest on first days. On other side TV could not telecast the real picture of masses power may be due to some restrictions but only tried to add odds means to handle the protest. In connection of AL-Tahreer square protest it was seen that social sites of the world play sufficient roles in encouraging the youth of the world to participate in political activities. It was a huge problem for the administration that how to discourage people to avoid from to be part of protest. But the countrymen took part or play their roles in protest. It was only due to the social networks. Unquestionably there are many media to show the power of people to acquire knowledge of protests i.e. Facebook, twitter and other social sites, now in all this effects the social media use presents the possibility of political protest. Wilson 2, 2012 [5] . There are three types of users of media firstly, those who are members of political parties secondly, those who are member of interest organization and lastly, those who are not affiliated with any profit or nonprofit organization. Members of political parties are using media especially face book. Because users’ attitude and behavior as well as thinking approach are going to be vary day to day. While members of interest organization used face book for advertisement purpose and third type of person those are not member of any organization just using media for information but political workers using it to change their ideas as well as to attract and share their political views. Gustafsson, 2012 [6] . The developments that are very recent but very important to highlight relationship among the social media use and the political engagement. It was hard for the scholars to bring equality in politics and youth, even in America & UK many scholar had conducted study on these variables. It is seen those young people who were not engaged in political activities, became very active due to social media and shown participation in political engagement across the countries like UK & America. It is said by Michael Xenos, 2013 [7] . In the USA or many other countries that are developed, social media is used for positive touch among the young people. In the year of 2008 US allowed social networks use for the youth to share their political benefits and the political issues. But there is a fact which is that the political activities on face book are more affective for the young voters or the politics participation.

Moreover, it is predicated the political activity on face book and popularity of face book might provide space to YouTube and twitter among the youth. In 2008 presidential election of USA social media provide a platform to adult for adult franchise to share their ideas on particular candidate. Research and survey result of particular research elaborate the a large number of youth engaged on political participation on face book Jessica Vitak, 2010 [8] .

5.2. Mobilization vs Reinforcement Theories

Even though the great assurance of internet input tool political participation still some challenges appeared. Scholar Sparks, 2001 [9] . Admitted that internet became the heart of current modern democracy in importance of power and equality. Further he makes clear that communication establish power and participation in society in both aspect positive as well as negative but still not clear that either it’s promoting involvement or make motivation behind the decision. The debate regarding the role and impact of internet in political communication rotate around the two basic theories “Mobilization and reinforcement”. Norris, 1998 [10] .

As per Norris views that mobilization theory imagines practical democracy. Overloaded with civilian empowerment in digital world whereas reinforcement theory suggests that use of internet will make stronger, not fundamentally changed, the available ways of social differences a political participation.

5.3. Political Parties and Media

Media plays vital role for political parties. media keeps political parties and political leaders at the top. Through media political parties can convey their messages to the public. Clarke, 2010 [11] . Defined that political figures and institutions communicate with public in immediate time on social media. no doubt, All over the world political parties are involved and engaged with supporters and potential voters on media.

Westling, 2007 [12] . In 2007 explained that social media plays integral role to encourage pubic to vote. It was also effectively implemented by Obama in presidential election campaign. Obama’s election campaign was like an online political activity. With offline campaign participation. Wilcox, 2010 [13] . Utz, 2009 [14] Explained that campaigns on media present less hard news and more soft news, they personalize candidate more, and one can even become a friend of the candidate.

5.4. The Internet and Communication about Politics

Wimmer R. &., 2006 [15] made a research and focused on new areas, it is focusing on internet and political communication which include; online public sphere, internet and public access, importance of online political information, online campaign and activism.

Internets have power tore-invigorating democracy and growing political participation to remove doubts on various issues and increasing hope in political participation. In this study researcher examines both school of thoughts. optimist people think that internet is useful and helpful to increase political communication while others thoughts believe that internet is just support the already developed political communication styles. Kaid, 2004 [16] .

In last some decades importance of interest has rapidly growing. The Growth of internet is also growing which means the debate on importance of interest cannot resolve right now. Kaid, 2004 [17] .

6. Research Methodology

The system of research methodology describes the work, in which researcher comprises methods in a way to forecast research problems and also explain the phenomena. It is plan to how knowledge is attained.

It is very important before the description of research methodology that research must describe his research topic through objective, problem statement, and hypothesis and already published literature. Research methods also elaborated that how data is combined in graceful indications.

6.1. Research Design

It summarizes the all components and covers all the aspects on those the research work is conducted and discoursed all the research design and methods. To know that either this research is qualitative or quantitative it’s necessary to know about the type of research. In qualitative research, researcher always observe the human behavior individually or collectively in society deeply while in quantitative research, researcher put all data in statically tools to know about the problem. This research is to give better understanding regarding topic Further quantitative research method emphases on statically data, sample size, designed questionnaire, and large number of respondent. To establish this research as quantitative in which researcher tried to find out How youngsters are using in integration of political participation and media of youth.

6.2. Methods of Data Collection

Improper data causes research inacceptable so it is said that data collection method is very important step of research. For a good research it is obligatory that describe knowledge or information in expressive method or way and it can be developed through primary as well as secondary data sources.

6.3. Primary Data

It is consider as first hand data whereas secondary data is already published data in past and collected from there. In this study primary source of data collection is questionnaire, by the help of it will be detected that first hand data obtaining is mandatory to distinguish or to associate variables.

6.4. Secondary Data

It is already available published data, which published in various previous researches and studies. Secondary data can be collected from many sources like research journals, text book documentaries news interviews, diaries, conference proceedings and so on, because it is not compulsory that only previous data will be considered as the secondary data.

6.5. Sampling Design

It is recognized that sampling has been acknowledged to play a very important role in whole research process. Sample is representing whole population that's why it is very important that selection of sampling must be nominated to keep in view strongly characterized by total population Wimmer R. D., 2003 [17] . While Gliner, 2000 argued and discovered that sampling is not an easy task because it is very costly as well as time effective instrument in process of research. Further it is suggested that researcher must escape from expensive research and try to be in boundaries.

6.6. Targeted Population

Targeted population of this study is youth of Khairpur city Sindh Pakistan. Administratively Khairpur city is divided into five union councils. Though Khairpur city is selected as a targeted population.

Table 1 shows us that questionnaire input by order and mean, standard deviation.

Table 2 Cronbach’s Alpha technique was applied to check the reliability of data which is mentioned in questionnaire. Cronbach’s Alpha is common technique to measure the reliability of questionnaire. The rule is that if reading found below the 0.6 then it will consider poor while the 7 or above is weak and 0.8 and above is consider strong. For assembling date from respondent 39 items used in questionnaire. Reliability 0.861% which is strong as above mentioned.

Model summary show the accuracy of model fitness how much said media predict entitled topic.

Table 3 shows that reliability measured 0.741.

Table 4 is statically approach to measure the essence of dependent variable and independent variables, so it has been shown in table of ANOVA independent variable predicts dependent variable, when significant result is 0.000.

Table 1. Descriptive statistics.

Table 2. Reliability statistics.

Table 3. Model summary.

aPredictors: (Constant), Media.

Table 4. ANOVA.

aDependent variable: political participation; bPredictors: (Constant), Media.

Table 5 is from this analysis it is said whatever media are going to contribute in political participation but still other is need of to process other independent variables, that might be lead us to contribute more effectively in political participation.

In coefficient table B shows the contribution of media and it has result of 0.741 means 74.10% when as significance result supported here to test the hypothesis so hypothesis H1 is accepted because its significance result is less than 0.05 namely 0.000.

7. Conclusion

This study is based on result findings and observation which developed after the literature review. The main purpose of this study was to investigate “Integration of political participation and media of youth” during the period of 2010 to 2015 at Khairpur city Sindh Pakistan. The general finding is that youth is using media for not only for their personal used but also for spreading political information and developing political sense among masses. This fact cannot be denied that media connected people but certainly some people using it for just entertainment. Researchers are doing research from various aspects of media and its usage, this particular study aim to add step forward on this topic. The study hypothesis showed strong integration of political participation and media of youth.

8. Recommendations

This research is recommended to media users that they should learn about media because it is very wide but users are using it for participation in this mean of research mentioned that privacy control as barriers in spreading information remaining that consider it positive.

In fact, from acquired data, it is learnt that still there is dire need to understand the use of Media and our youth are not awared about it.

In our region only social media looks like an album to portrait some pictures & Videos. For what purpose it has been assembled do not known so there is need to use them as value added elements in society.

Table 5. Coefficients.

aDependent variable: Political participation.

Media is not a confined field day by day new software & applications are going to be the part of it. In this connection, we have to trained & educated our masses how use them and when there will be productive in our life.

Though frequent application are Facebook, Youtube, Whatsapp, Twitter and LinkedIn, but people who live in Khairpur are hardly in a position to use them, Only Facebook, Youtube and Whatsapp are used by youth here.

Even political representative are not much trained here to expose political philosophy and manifesto of party. Once they will be known to social media, No doubt political activities will be effectively executed, and youth will be more engaged in them.

Even it is learned from this research whatever social networks are interconnected to one another and they have significant relationship.

Somehow they vary in nature from one another, otherwise they have almost same significances to be in touch. Some social networks have wide variety of functions and some have less.

If it is said until & unless masses are not informed about appropriate use of media their consequence will be strange & negative one.

So it is concluded here, whatever use of media exist here, It is good but it is time to inform youth how social networks are going to vary in function of life not only in political Participation even political representatives have need to use social networking sites as channel to be in constant touch with their voters. It really they are look likes for strong mandate in society. It will help them to understand the nature of youth and allow them to critics their political function they can be the best solution and use them as platform of knowledge & demand of people these social networks can provided constructs for public policies and help the political representative to perform them responsibility in better way.

Conflicts of Interest

The authors declare no conflicts of interest regarding the publication of this paper.

Cite this paper

Diou, N.A., Mahar, S.A., Ibupoto, M.H. and Dahar, S.H. (2018) Integration of Political Participation and Media of Youth. Open Journal of Social Sciences, 6, 266-276.


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