**Circuits and Systems**

Vol.08 No.01(2017), Article ID:73816,9 pages

10.4236/cs.2017.81002

CMOS VDIBAs-Based Single-Resistance-Controlled Voltage-Mode Sinusoidal Oscillator

Kanhaiya Lal Pushkar^{1}, Ghanshyam Singh^{2}, Rajendra Kumar Goel^{1 }

^{1}Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Maharaja Agrasen Institute of Technology, New Delhi, India

^{2}Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, HMR Institute of Technology and Management (HMRIT), Delhi, India

Copyright © 2017 by authors and Scientific Research Publishing Inc.

This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution International License (CC BY 4.0).

http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

Received: December 19, 2016; Accepted: January 22, 2017; Published: January 25, 2017

ABSTRACT

In this communication, a new single-resistance controlled sinusoidal oscillator (SRCO) has been presented. The presented SRCO uses two voltage differencing inverting buffered amplifiers (VDIBAs), one resistor and two capacitors in which one is grounded (GC) and the other one is floating (FC). The proposed structure offers the following advantageous features: 1) independent control of oscillation condition (OC) and oscillation frequency (OF); 2) low passive and active sensitivities and 3) very good frequency stability. The non-ideal effects of the VDIBA on the proposed oscillator have also been investigated. The proposed SRCO has been tested for its robustness using Monte-Carlo simulations. The check of the validity of the presented SRCO has been established by SPICE simulations using 0.18 µm TSMC technology.

**Keywords:**

Sinusoidal Oscillator, Voltage Differencing Inverting Buffered Amplifier, Voltage-Mode Circuits, Analog Circuit Design

1. Introduction

In analog signal processing and circuit design, realization of active filters and oscillators has become the important research areas. In reference [1] Biolek, Senani, Biolkova, and Kolka have introduced a number of modern analog active building blocks and VDIBA is one of them which is emerging very flexible and versatile active building block for analog signal processing and signal generation. The role played by SRCOs in control systems, signal processing, instrumentation and measurement and communication systems is well established in the open literature (see [2] [3] [4] and the references cited therein). Considerable attention has been given by the various researchers in the realization of SRCOs using various active building blocks because of their several merits over conventional op-amp-based SRCOs (see [5] - [16] and the references cited therein). The applications, advantages and usefulness of VDIBA have now been recognized in the realization of the first-order all-pass filter and oscillator [17] [18] , and universal biquadratic filters [19] [20] . However, to the best knowledge and belief of the authors, none of the SRCOs using VDIBAs has yet been presented in the literature with independent control of oscillation condition (OC) and oscillation frequency (OF) so far. Therefore, the purpose of this communication is to present a new SRCO using two VDIBAs along with a bare minimum number of three passive components. The proposed structure offers: 1) independent electronic control of oscillation condition; 2) independent control of oscillation frequency through a resistor; 3) low passive and active sensitivities and 4) very good frequency stability. The workability of the proposed SRCO has been confirmed by SPICE simulations using 0.18 µm TSMC technology.

2. New Oscillator Circuit

The symbolic notation and equivalent model of the VDIBA are given in Figure 1(a) and Figure 1(b) respectively [17] . The structure of VDIBA has two voltage inputs of high impedance, a voltage input terminal of low impedance and a current output terminal of high impedance. The ideal terminal equations between port voltages and currents can be expressed as: I_{+} = 0 = I_{−}, I_{z} = g_{m} (V_{+} − V_{−}) and V_{w}_{−} = −V_{z}, where g_{m}, represents the transconductance of VDIBA.

The presented single-resistance-controlled sinusoidal oscillator circuit is shown in Figure 2.

(a) (b)

Figure 1. (a) Symbolic notation; (b) equivalent model of VDIBA.

Figure 2. The new SRCO structure.

The characteristic equation (CE) of the proposed SRCO of Figure 2, using a routine circuit analysis can easily be obtained as:

CE:

${s}^{2}{C}_{1}{C}_{2}+s\left\{{C}_{1}{g}_{m2}-{C}_{2}{g}_{m1}\right\}+\frac{{g}_{m2}}{{R}_{0}}=0$ (1)

From Equation (1), the oscillation condition (OC) and oscillation frequency (OF) can be determined as:

OC:

$\left\{{C}_{1}{g}_{m2}-{C}_{2}{g}_{m1}\right\}\le 0$ (2)

and

OF:

${\omega}_{0}=\sqrt{\frac{{g}_{m2}}{{C}_{1}{C}_{2}{R}_{0}}}$ (3)

From Equations (2) and (3), it is obvious that OF is independently controllable by resistor R_{0} and OC is independently controllable electronically by transconductance g_{m}_{1}.

3. Frequency Stability Analysis of the Presented SRCO

Frequency stability may be considered to be an important figure of merit of an oscillator. The frequency stability factor is defined as
${S}^{F}=d\phi \left(u\right)/du$
[4] , where
$u=\omega /{\omega}_{0}$
is the normalized frequency, and
$\phi \left(u\right)$
represents the phase function of the open loop transfer function of the oscillator circuit, with C_{1} = C/2, C_{2 }= C, R_{0 }= R/n and g_{m}_{1} = g_{m}_{2} = 1/R, S^{F} for the proposed SRCO is found to be

${S}^{F}=2\sqrt{2n}$ (4)

Thus for larger values of n, the presented oscillator circuit enjoys a very good frequency stability.

4. Non-Ideal Analysis and Sensitivity Performance

Let ${R}_{Z}$ and ${C}_{Z}$ denote the parasitic resistance and parasitic capacitance of the Z-terminal of VDIBA. Taking the non-idealities into account, namely, the voltage of W-terminal ${V}_{W-}=\left(-{\beta}^{+}{V}_{Z}\right)$ where ${\beta}^{+}=\text{1}-{\epsilon}_{\text{p}}\left({\epsilon}_{\text{p}}<<\text{1}\right)$ denotes the voltage tracking error of Z-terminal of VDIBA, the expressions for characteristic equation, CO and FO respectively become:

$\begin{array}{l}{s}^{2}\left\{{C}_{1}{C}_{2}+\left({C}_{1}+{C}_{2}+C{}_{z}\right){C}_{z}\right\}\\ +s\left\{\begin{array}{l}\left({C}_{1}+C{}_{z}\right)\left(\frac{1}{{R}_{z}}+{\beta}^{+}{g}_{m2}\right)+\left({C}_{2}+C{}_{z}\right)\left(\frac{1}{{R}_{0}}+\frac{1}{{R}_{z}}\right)\\ -{\beta}^{+2}{C}_{2}\left({g}_{m1}+\frac{1}{{R}_{0}}\right)\end{array}\right\}\\ +\left(\frac{1}{{R}_{{0}_{}}}+\frac{1}{{R}_{z}}\right)\left(\frac{1}{{R}_{z}}+{\beta}^{+}{g}_{m2}\right)=0\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\text{\hspace{0.17em}}\end{array}$ (5)

Therefore the expressions for OC and OF are given as:

OC:

$\left\{\left({C}_{1}+{C}_{z}\right)\left(1+{\beta}^{+}{g}_{m2}{R}_{z}\right){R}_{0}+\left({C}_{2}+{C}_{z}\right)\left({R}_{0}+{R}_{z}\right)-{\beta}^{+2}{R}_{z}{C}_{2}\left(1+{g}_{m1}{R}_{0}\right)\right\}\le 0$ (6)

OF:

${\omega}_{0}=\sqrt{\frac{{R}_{0}+{R}_{z}+{\beta}^{+}{g}_{m2}{R}_{z}\left({R}_{0}+{R}_{z}\right)}{{R}_{0}{R}_{z}^{2}\left\{{C}_{z}\left({C}_{1}^{}+{C}_{2}+{C}_{z}\right)+{C}_{1}{C}_{2}\right\}}}$ (7)

Therefore the active and passive sensitivities can be obtained as:

${S}_{{C}_{1}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-\frac{1}{2}\frac{1}{1+\frac{{C}_{z}^{2}+{C}_{2}{C}_{Z}}{{C}_{1}\left({C}_{2}+{C}_{Z}\right)}},{S}_{{C}_{2}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-\frac{1}{2}\frac{1}{1+\frac{{C}_{z}^{2}+{C}_{1}{C}_{Z}}{{C}_{2}\left({C}_{1}+{C}_{Z}\right)}},{S}_{{R}_{0}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-\frac{1}{2}\left\{\frac{{R}_{z}}{{R}_{0}+{R}_{z}}\right\}$ (8)

${S}_{{C}_{Z}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-\frac{1}{2}\frac{1}{1+\frac{{C}_{1}{C}_{2}-{C}_{z}^{2}}{{C}_{z}\left({C}_{1}+{C}_{2}+2{C}_{Z}\right)}},\text{}{S}_{{R}_{z}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-\frac{1}{2}\left\{\frac{2{R}_{0}+{R}_{z}\left(1+{\beta}^{+}{g}_{m2}{R}_{0}\right)}{{R}_{0}+{R}_{z}+{\beta}^{+}{g}_{m2}{R}_{z}\left({R}_{0}+{R}_{z}\right)}\right\}$ (9)

${S}_{{\beta}^{+}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=\frac{1}{2}\frac{1}{1+\frac{1}{{\beta}^{+}{g}_{m2}{R}_{z}}}={S}_{{g}_{m2}}^{{\omega}_{0}}$ (10)

Ideally, the various sensitivities of OF with respect to passive elements C_{z}, R_{z}, C_{1}, and C_{2} are found to be

${S}_{{C}_{z}}^{{\omega}_{0}}={S}_{{R}_{z}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=0,{S}_{{C}_{1}}^{{\omega}_{0}}={S}_{{C}_{2}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-\frac{1}{2}$ (11)

For the typical values of C_{z} = 0.81 pF, R_{z}_{ }= 53 kΩ, β^{+} = 1 along with C_{1} = 0.5 nF, C_{2} = 1.0 nF, R_{0} = 950 Ω, the various sensitivities are found to be
${S}_{{C}_{1}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-0.391$
,
${S}_{{C}_{2}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-0.276$
,
${S}_{{C}_{Z}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-0.533$
,
${S}_{{R}_{0}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-0.491$
,
${S}_{{\beta}^{+}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=0.477={S}_{{g}_{m}}^{{\omega}_{0}}$
,

${S}_{{R}_{Z}}^{{\omega}_{0}}=-0.0241$ which are all low.

Figure 3 shows the CMOS implementation of the VDIBA used, which was biased with V_{DD} = 0.9 V D.C. = −V_{SS} and I_{b} was taken 100 µA.

5. Simulation Results

To confirm theoretical analysis, the proposed SRCO was simulated using CMOS VDIBA (as shown in Figure 3). The passive components were used as C_{1} = 0.5 nF, C_{2} =1.0 nF, R_{0} = 950 Ω. The transconductance of VDIBA was controlled by bias current I_{b}. SPICE generated output waveforms indicating transient and steady state responses are shown in Figure 4(a) and Figure 4(b) respectively.

Figure 3. Implementation of CMOS VDIBA [17] .

(a)(b)

Figure 4. (a) Transient output waveform; (b) Steady state response of the output.

These results, thus, confirm the validity of the proposed configuration. Figure 5 shows the output spectrum, where the total harmonic distortion (THD) is found to be 1.996%. Figure 6 shows the variation of frequency with resistance R_{0}. A comparison with other previously known SRCOs using different active building blocks has been given in Table 1.

The implementation of CMOS VDIBA employing 0.18 μm TSMC technology was used from [17] and the device parameters were taken from [21] . The aspect ratios of various MOSFETs used in CMOS VDIBA of Figure 7 were taken from reference [18] .

From Equations (8) - (10), this is obvious that the values of various sensitivities of passive and active components are less than half.

6. Conclusion

This work presents VDIBAs-based SRCO which employs minimum number of passive elements (namely, one resistor, two capacitors) and offers independent control of OF through the resistor R_{0} and OC through the transconductance g_{m}_{1} (thus the circuit enjoys the electronic control of OC), low passive and active sen-

Figure 5. Simulation result of the output spectrum.

Figure 6. Variation of frequency with R0 of the proposed SRCO.

Table 1. A comparison with other previously known SRCOs using different active build- ing blocks.

Figure 7. Monte-Carlo analysis of the SRCO.

sitivities and a very good frequency stability. This communication, therefore, added a new application circuit to the existing repertoire of VDIBAs-based application circuits.

Acknowledgements

The authors gratefully acknowledge Prof. Dr. D. R. Bhaskar, Professor, Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering, Delhi Technological University, Shahbad Daulatpur, Main Bawana Road, Delhi-110042, India, useful suggestions/discussions.

Cite this paper

Pushkar, K.L., Singh, G. and Goel,^{ }R.K. (2017) CMOS VDIBAs-Based Single-Resistance-Controll- ed Voltage-Mode Sinusoidal Oscillator. Circuits and Systems, 8, 14-22. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/cs.2017.81002

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