** Applied Mathematics** Vol.4 No.12A(2013), Article ID:40967,6 pages DOI:10.4236/am.2013.412A002

On the Solutions of Difference Equation Systems with Padovan Numbers^{*}

^{1}Department of Mathematics, Faculty of Science and Art, Nevsehir University, Nevsehir, Turkey

^{2}Department of Mathematics-Computer Sciences, Science Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya, Turkey

^{3}Department of Mathematics, Science Faculty, Selcuk University, Konya, Turkey

Email: yyazlik@nevsehir.edu.tr, dttollu@konya.edu.tr, ntaskara@selcuk.edu.tr

Copyright © 2013 Yasin Yazlik et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. In accordance of the Creative Commons Attribution License all Copyrights © 2013 are reserved for SCIRP and the owner of the intellectual property Yasin Yazlik et al. All Copyright © 2013 are guarded by law and by SCIRP as a guardian.

Received November 1, 2013; revised December 1, 2013; accepted December 8, 2013

**Keywords:** Rational Difference Equation System; Padovan Numbers; Plastic Number

ABSTRACT

In this study, we investigate the form of the solutions of the following rational difference equation systems such that their solutions are associated with Padovan numbers.

1. Introduction

Nonlinear difference equations have long interested researchers in the field of mathematics as well as in other sciences. They play a key role in many applications such as the natural model of a discrete process. There are many recent investigations and interest in the field of nonlinear difference equations from several authors [1-15]. For example, Tollu et al. [14] investigated the solutions of two special types of Riccati difference equations

such that their solutions are associated with Fibonacci numbers. In [2], Aloqeili investigated the stability properties and semi-cycle behavior of the solutions and the form of solutions of the difference equation

In [4], author obtained the formulae of solutions of the difference equations

Also, he studied the global asymptotic stability of the equilibrium points of these equations via the formulae. In [5], Elabbasy et al obtained Fibonacci sequence in solutions of some special cases of the following difference equation

In [6], author deals with the behavior of the solution of the following nonlinear difference equation

Also, he gives specific forms of the solutions of four special cases of this equation. These specific forms also contain Fibonacci numbers. In [7], Cinar studied the positive solutions of the following difference equation system

In [10], Elsayed obtained the form of the solutions of the following rational difference system

In [12], Stevic examined the solutions of the following system of difference equations

Now, we give information about Padovan numbers that establish a large part of our study. The Padovan sequence, named after Richard Padovan, is defined by

(1.1)

It can be easily obtained that the characteristic equation of (1.1) has the form

(1.2)

having the roots

where Furthermore, the unique real root is named as plastic number. Also there exists the following limit

where kth Padovan number. One can find more information associated with this sequence in [16,17].

We will need the following definition in the sequel.

**Definition 1.1** [18] Let be an equilibrium point of a map, where and are continuously differentiable functions at. The Jacobian matrix of at is the matrix

Also, suppose that is continuously differentiable on an open set in. Equilibrium point is called a saddle point if one of the eigenvalues of is larger and another is less than 1 in absolute value.

In this study, we consider the solutions of the following two difference equation systems

(1.3)

and

(1.4)

such that their solutions are associated with Padovan numbers. We also establish a relationship between Padovan numbers and the solutions of systems (1.3) and (1.4).

2. Main Results

In this section, we prove our main results. The following theorem studies the formulae of the solutions of systems (1.3) and (1.4) with initial conditions not making the denominator zero.

**Teorem 2.1** Let denote the solutions of systems (1.3) and (1.4). Then, the forms of solutions

are given by

(2.1)

and

(2.2)

where be the nth Padovan number.

The following lemma is necessary for determining the initial conditions of the well-defined solutions of systems (1.3) and (1.4).

**Lemma 2.2** **(Forbidden Set)** Forbidden sets of systems (1.3) and (1.4) are given by

and

where

respectively.

**Proof of Theorem 2.1** We will just prove for system (1.3) since the other part can be proved in the same manner. We use the method of induction on k. For k = 0, we have

For k = 1, we obtain

Now, suppose that our assumption holds for 2k - 1. That is;

From Equation (1.3), we can write for 2k,

and

Similarly, from Equation (1.3), we obtain for 2k + 1,

and

which completes the proof ■.

**Theorem 2.3** The following statements hold:

1) System (1.3) has unique real equilibrium point and is a saddle point2) System (1.4) has unique real equilibrium point and is a saddle pointwhere p is the plastic number.

** Proof**

1) Equilibrium point of system (1.3) satisfy the system of equations

(2.3)

In (2.3), by subtracting the second equation from the first equation and after some operations, we have

For, the equations of (2.3) cannot be satisfied and so. Consequently, we obtain the following cubic equation

The above cubic equation is the characteristic equation of the recurrence relation of the Padovan numbers in (1.2) having the unique real root Hence the unique equilibrium point of system (1.3) is point. Now, we show that the equilibrium point is a saddle point. Firstly, system (1.3) is a special case of the general system of the form

where and. Then, we calculate the Jacobian of the corresponding map

We get

By taking into consideration (1.2), we obtain the characteristic equation of the Jacobian Matrix as

Hence, it is clearly seen that and as desired ■.

2) It can be proved in a similar manner.

**Theorem 2.4** Let the initial conditions of the systems (1.3) and (1.4) be and, respectively. Then the following statements hold:

1) The every solution of the system (1.3) converges to point.

2) The every solution of the system (1.4) converges to point.

**Proof **We will only prove for even-subscripted terms of. Since the other parts of the proof are quite similar, they will be omited.

1) Let us take n = 2k in (2.1). Then, we can write

Also, by taking into account we obtain the following equality

as desired ■.

3. Numerical Examples

In order to illustrate and support theoretical results of the previous section, we consider several examples in this section. These examples represent the qualitative behavior of solutions of the mentioned nonlinear difference equation systems.

**Example 3.1 **Consider system (1.3) with the inital conditions (See Figure 1).

**Example 3.2** Consider system (1.4) with the inital conditions (See Figure 2).

4. Conclusion

In this study, we formulated the solutions of equation systems (1.3) and (1.4) and determined their forbidden sets. Obtained formulae are given by means of Padovan numbers. Also, for and, all the solutions of (1.3) and (1.4) interestingly tend to

Figure 1. Plot of,.

Figure 2. Plot of,.

their equilibrium points and, respectively, where is the plastic number.

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